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- Pulsation Supression Device
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Bernoulli Equation is one of the most important equations in Fluid Mechanics and finds many applications.

One such is the measurement of flow by introducing a restriction within the flow. The restriction may take the

form of an orifice plate or a converging-diverging nozzle. The required formula will be first derived for an

orifice plate and will be extended to other devices.

Consider an orifice plate placed in a pipe flow as shown in Fig 1. We assume that the thickness of the plate

is small in comparison to the pipe diameter. Let the orifice be sharp edged. The effect of a rounded plate is a

matter of detail and will not be considered here.

A fully developed flow prevails at the upstream of the orifice. The presence of the orifice makes the flow

accelerate through it thus increasing the velocity. It may appear that the flow fills the orifice completely and

expands downstream of it. But this is not true. As the flow expands downstream it cannot fill the entire

diameter of the pipe at once. It requires a distance before it does. A recirculating flow develops immediate

downstream of the nozzle. As a consequence the smallest diameter of flow is not equal to the orifice

diameter, but smaller than it. The position of the smallest diameter occurs downstream of the orifice.

We can deduce the flow rate through the pipe by measuring the pressure difference upstream of the nozzle

and at the orifice.

1. The flow is steady

2. The flow is incompressible

3. There is no friction or losses

4. The velocities at sections (1) and (2) are uniform, i.e, they do not vary in a radial direction.

5. The pipe is horizontal, i.e., z is the same at (1) and (2), i.e., z1 = z2. This assumption can be relaxed

easily. It is possible to have a fluid flowing through an inclined pipe. Then the gz term does not

cancel out from LHS and RHS of the Bernoulli Equation.

The equations we consider are (a) Continuity and (b) Bernoulli equations.

a) Continuity Equation.

1 A 1 V 1=2 A 2 V 2 (1)

b) Bernoulli Equation

P1 V 21 P2 V 22

z 1= z2 (2)

2 2

The Bernoulli Equation gives,

2

P1−P2=

2

V 2−V 21 (3)

2

we have

2

V =V

1

2

2

A2

A1

2 2

V2 A

P1−P2= 1− 2 (4)

2 A1

2 P1−P2

V 2= 2

A (5)

1− 2

A1

2 P 1−P2

ṁ= A2 2

A

1− 2

A1

A2

ṁ= 2 P 1−P2

2

A

1− 2

A1 (6)

The above equation gives the mass flow rate through the pipe in terms of the pressure drop and the areas.

The equation gives only a theoretical value. In order to obtain a more realistic value one need to substitute

the actual area at the minimum cross section or the Vena Contracta. This is not easy to measure. In addition

losses may not be negligible as we have assumed. Extent of losses is a function of the Reynolds number. In

practice, a Coefficient of Discharge is defined such that,

C A2

ṁ= 2 P 1−P2

2

A

1− 2

A1 (7)

D2

=

D1

C A2

ṁ= 2 P1−P2 (8)

1−4

Sometimes the ratio 1/ 1− 4 is referred to as Velocity of Approach Factor. Again it is usual to combine

this and the Discharge Coefficient to define a Flow Coefficient given by

C

K= (9)

1=4

Consequently the mass flow rate is given by,

Thus the mass flow rate for a pipe can be calculated with the knowledge of pressure drop, the orifice

diameter and the coefficient K. Extensive data exists in handbooks on the coefficient K.

Pressure drop is usually measured by using a manometer as shown in Fig. 1. Now the pressure drop is

obtained as h, the height of a liquid column (which may be mercury). Accordingly the alternate form of

Eqn.10 is

ṁ=K A2 2 g h (11)

Though geometrically different from an orifice plate, a flow nozzle is conceptually similar to it. Fig 2. shows a

flow nozzle which is just a converging nozzle placed in a pipe. The flow mechanism is similar to that for the

orifice. Now the area A2 is the throat area of the nozzle.

A Venturi Tube is a converging-diverging nozzle (Fig.3.) placed in a pipe. The principle of this was

demonstrated by Giovanni Battista Venturi(1746-1822) in 1797. It was only later in 1887 that it was employed

for flow measurement by Herschel. The mass flow rate is again given by Eqn.11.

Important Applications of Control Volume Analysis

In this section we consider some of the important applications of the control volume analysis. Every analysis

may or may not involve each of the equations we have derived- Continuity, Momentum, Bernoulli and

Energy. These applications are important from a physical point of view.

Consider abody such as an aerofoil placed in a flow, which could be a in a wind tunnel. Far from the body the

flow is uniform and inviscid. As the flow approaches the body many dramatic changes take place. The flow

will start to depart from uniformity. But as the flow negotiates the body viscosity comes into play.

Consequently, the velocity on the body surface is zero. The velocity catches up with the freestream speed as

we move away from the body. In other words, a boundary layer develops. A boundary layer is not static. It

grows as the flow moves downstream. When the flow leaves the body the centreline velocity is not zero

anymore. It starts to build up slowly. This is the Wake region. If a velocity profile is measured across the

wake by carrying out what is called a Wake Traverse, we see that it resembles that shown in Fig.4. The wake

profile thus carries signatures of the viscous effect.

If a force balance is conducted in a region surrounding the body/ aerofoil then a force imbalance is evident.

This should be related to Drag.

Consider the body/aerofoil placed in a wind tunnel. Let us prescribe a control volume ABCD surrounding it.

The left and right hand boundaries AB and CD are far from the body. As a result the flow is uniform ( at a

speed U ∞ ) on AB. At the right hand boundary CD is the wake with the velocity profile as sketched. We

assume that the top and bottom boundaries of the control volume,AD and BC are far away from the body

and the vertical component of velocity namely v is zero across them.

1. Steady Flow

2. Incompressible Flow

3. Static Pressure is same everywhere, which is actually a simplifying assumption. This could be

relaxed.

Continuity Equation.

∫CS V . dA=0

i.e.,

∫AB V . dA∫BC V .dA∫CD V . dA∫DA V . dA=0

since v component of velocity along BC and AD is zero, the equation reduces to

B D

∫A u dy−∫C u dy=0

leading to,

B D

∫A u dy=∫C u dy (12)

Momentum equation

B C D A

i.e., F sx F bx =∫A u U ∞ dy∫B u v dx∫C u u dy∫D u v dx (14)

B D

F sx F bx =∫A u U ∞ dy∫C u2 dy (15)

The body force Fbx on the control volume is zero. The surface forces are drag and that due to pressure.

Since we have assumed that pressure is uniform, the latter is zero. Further length AB = length CD but

opposite direction,, allowing us to combine the integrals on the RHS. Thus we have,

D

D=∫C u u−U ∞ dy (16)

In effect the velocities below C and that above D will be uniform and equal to U∞ .

Consequently the above equation could also be written as

∞

D=∫−∞ uu−U ∞ dy (17)

A flaw in the above analysis should be apparent to you. Look at Eqn. 12. This cannot be true. The mass flow

going through AB at a uniform velocity U ∞ cannot be equal to that across CD where the velocities are

smaller than U ∞ . Some mass has to escape through AD and BC. In other words our assumption of v = 0

on AD and BC is faulty. The equation for drag that we have obtained is inaccurate as a consequence. A more

acceptable estimate for drag can be obtained by considering the v component of velocity on AD and BC. The

other method is to make these boundaries streamlines of flow. Then AB≠CD . This is left as an exercise.

Consider a jet with a cross section Aj at a speed vj impinging on a solid surface at an angle as shown in

Fig 5. It is required to calculate the normal force exerted on the surface.

Figure 5 : Jet impinging on a surface

Let us consider the physics of the process first. As the jet impinges upon the surface, it splits into two parts.

These move tangential to the surface. The normal component of the force however does act upon the

surface and is to be countered for stability.

Prescribe x and y axes parallel and perpendicular to the surface and chose a control volume as shown. At

the entry to the control volume we have the momentum in the y-direction equal to

At the solid surface velocity normal is zero and as such there is no normal momentum acting. The normal

force acting upon the surface is given by Eqn 18.

Consider a flow through a pipe bend as shown. The flow enters the bend with a speed V1 and leaves it a

speed V2, the corresponding areas of cross section being A1 and A2 respectively. The velocities have

components u and v in x and y directions. As the flow negotiates the bend it exerts a force upon it. This force

is readily calculated by the momentum theorem.

V 1 A 1= A 2 V 2 =ṁ (19)

Carrying out a force balance in x-direction, we have

giving

P2 A 2 sin F y =ṁV 2 sin (21)

Propellers are a mechanism for the propulsion of an aeroplane. In its generic form a propeller is pair of

rotating blades mounted on a shaft that houses the engine as well. As the engine operates the propeller

turns sucking a large amount of air. As this air passes through the rotating blades, it gets energised, its

speed increases. In the process the required Thrust to propel the aircraft is produced.

The analysis we carry out follows William Froude (1810-1879). We consider the propeller as a thin disc

rotating in air as shown in Fig 7. Let the pressure and velocity far away from the disc i.e., at section (1) be P1

and V1 respectively. The conditions just at (2) which is the front of the disc are P2 and V2. The disc imparts

momentum and energy to the incoming air such that the pressure and velocity just behind the disc (3) are V3

and P3 respectively. At (4), far downstream the conditions are V4 and P4.

We assume that the air which is influenced by the disc is confined to a slipstream as shown.

Since the disc is thin and the area of cross section at (2) and (3) ar equal, we have

V 2=V 3 (23)

The pressures at (1) and (4) are equal to the freestream value.

We consider the control volume formed by slipstream and the ends (1) and (4) and write the momentum

equation.

Continuity Equation

Momentum Equation

Considering first the forces the only force that acts upon the control volume is the net force on the disc or the

Thrust, F. Pressures being equal at (1) and (4) does not contribute to the surface force. Since the flow takes

place in a horizontal direction there is no body force to be considered. Accordingly,

Noting that V2 = V3, this force F is equal to A(P3 - P2), where A is the area of cross section of the disc. As a

consequence we have,

dividing by A, we have

ṁ

P3−P2 = V −V 1

A 4

noting that

ṁ

= A 2

A

we have

P3−P2 = A 2 V 4 −V 1 (26)

Bernoulli Equation

It is easy to see that there is no addition of work or heat between sections (1) and (2) and also between (3)

and (4). It is possible to apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2) and also between (3) and (4) but not

between (2) and (3).

1 1

P1 V 21=P2 V 22

2 2

1 1

P3 V 23=P 4 V 24 (27)

2 2

Since V2 = V3and P1 = P4 we have from the above equations

1 2 2

P3−P2 = V 4 −V 1 (28)

2

Eliminating P3 - P2 from Eqns 26.and 28 we have,

V 1V 4

V 2= (29)

2

If the velocities are referred to the freestream air speed, i.e., V1, we see that the propeller moves at a velocity

V1. The work done by the propeller on the air stream or the power output is then,

In addition some kinetic energy is added to the air stream, which goes as a waste. The power input therefore

is given by

1

Powerinput =ṁV 4−V 1 V 1 ṁV 4−V 1 2 (31)

2

From Eqns. 30 and 31 the efficiency of the propeller will be

V1

fr =

1 (32)

V 1 V 4 −V 1

2

A wind turbine (Fig 8) extracts energy from an air stream while a propeller adds energy to the air stream. The

analysis follows the same lines. The wind turbines are smaller in size compared to the propellers. For the

wind turbine too we have the result that

V 1V 4

V 2=

2

Now the efficiency is given by the Kinetic energy extracted divided by the kinetic energy in the free stream.

Thus,

1

A V 2 V 21 −V 24

2 V 1V 4 V 21−V 24

th = = (34)

1 2 2V1

3

A V 1 V 1

2

The above expression has a maximum when V4/V1 = 1/ The maximum theoretical efficiency is 59.3%.

Consider a sudden expansion placed in a duct (Fig 9 ). The flow does not follow the area changes as

suddenly as the geometry does. Any flow will find the sudden area increase difficult to negotiate. In fact a

recirculating flow develops as was seen in case of the orifice flow. This gives to losses which are reflected in

the total pressure at downstream being reduced. It is possible to calculate this loss from a control volume

analysis.

Continuity Equation

A 1 V 1= A 2 V 2 (35)

Momentum Equation

i.e.

P1−P2=V 2 −V 1

2 2

A1

A2

(38)

Bernoulli Equation

We remind ourselves that we cannot connect stations (1) and (2) with the Bernoulli Equation. But we just use

the total pressure relation at (1) and (2). Accordingly,

1

P1 V 21=PO1

2

1

P2 V 22=PO2 (39)

2

Total pressure loss is hence equal to

PO1−PO2=P1 −P 2 V 21−V 22 (40)

2

Measurement of Airspeed

Bernoulli equation readily allows one to determine the flow speed once the static and stagnation pressures

are known. Rewriting the equation for Stagnation Pressure we have

V=

2 PO −P

(41)

It is therefore a matter of measuring the static and stagnation pressures at a given location.

Static Pressure is conveniently measured by drilling a hole in the wall or the pipe, called the Pressure Tap

(Fig. 10). A manometer or a pressure gauge is connected to the tap. During flow static pressure is

communicated to the measuring device. Alternately one could use a Static Pressure probe shown in Fig. 11.

This has holes which communicate the pressure to a measuring device.

To Manometer or a gauge

To Manometer or a gauge

Figure 11: Static Pressure Probe

Static Pressure

Measurement of stagnation pressure requires that the flow be brought to rest. A glass tube or a hypodermic

needle aligned with the flow and facing upstream as shown in Fig. 12 will do the job. Alternately, what is

called a Pitot Tube shown in Fig.13, with a hole facing upstream of the flow may be employed. The method

shown in Fig. 14 suggests itself.

But for an accurate determination of flow speed, static and stagnation pressures are to be measured

simultaneously . This is made possible by a Pitot-Static tube shown in Fig. 15. This combines the static

pressure probe and the pitot tube. The "static holes" and the "stagnation hole" are as near to each other as

possible.

Figure 14:

Figure 15: Pitot-static tube

Pitot tube used with a static pressure tap

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