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Article Summaries Legal Reform after the Arab Spring I. http://blogs.cornell.edu/mideastlibrarian/2011/08/19/constituent-assembly-elections-intunisia-23-october-2011/ A.

early demands of revolution was to form constituent assembly B. interim government announced that election would be held 24 July, 2011 C. Basis for Constituent Assembly 1. 218 members 2. 19 seats reserved for Tunisians living abroad 3. main task is to write a new constitution that would regulate future presidential elections 4. decide whether or not country will be run by presidential or parliamentary system 5. decide on separation of religion or state 6. decide whether or not to appoint the new government or extend the current one until general elections of 23 October, 2011 D. formation of political parties 1. Nahada Party 2. Progressive Democratic Party II. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/22/tunisia-election-winners-ennahda-ettakatol A. Islamist Ennahda Party, Congress for the Republic, and Ettakatol Party form a ruling coalition 1. division of top seats among themselves in interim government 2. Ennahda will take Prime Minister spot 3. Ettakatol will head the Constituent Assembly a. in charge of writing constitution 4. 3 leaders said that remaining posts will go to leaders in civil society B. coalition holds 139 seats in the Constituent Assembly, which has 218 seats total III. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16323695 A. Ennahda Party wins majority of seats in Constituent Assembly B. 154 members of constituent assembly have approved of new government C. 41-member cabinet established 1. key ministerial posts have gone to Ennahda IV. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20551575 A. Islamist-dominated constituent assembly B. constituent assembly has approved draft constitution but judiciary threatens to dissolve it

C. Supreme Constitutional Court due to rule whether assembly should be dissolved D. Morsi grants himself more powers E. emergency decree states that Morsi decisions cant be revoked until constitution has been ratified and a fresh parliamentary election has been held 1. courts also cannot dissolve constituent assembly F. president insists that his powers are there only to facilitate with the transitional period and to protect democracy G. nation fears that Morsi will become yet another strongman H. Drafting of Egyptian Constitution 1. drafting process began in March 2. first constituent assembly dissolved in April due to court ruling 3. new panel would consist of a. a range of politicians b. members of the armed forces c. police d. judiciary c. trade unions e. Muslim and Christian leaders 4. at first, liberals and Christians disagreed with the seat distribution and boycotted the assembly, leaving the Islamists to do whatever they pleased 5. Morsis decree of November 22 mandated that the drafting be finished by January 6. Marathon session results in 234 articles being passed I. Changes to the Constitution 1. limits president to serve 2 4-year terms 2. civilian oversight of military establishment 3. defense minister chosen from armed forces but a special council will oversee military affairs and defense budget 4. Sharia is main source of legislation 5. freedom of worship is limited to 3 religious groups Christianity, Islam, and Judaism 6. freedom of discrimination V. http://egyptelections.carnegieendowment.org/category/political-parties A. The Democratic Alliance 1. coalition of liberal, leftist, and Islamist parties 2. Freedom and Justice Party, al-Karama, and 8 other unknown parties B. The Egypt Bloc 1. liberal alliance

2. composed of Free Egyptians Party, Social Democratic Party, and al-Tagammu C. The Islamist Alliance 1. Consists of Salafi al-Asala Party and al-Gamaa al-Islamiyyas Building and Development Party D. The Completing the Revolution Alliance 1. made up of former members of the Egyptian bloc 2. known as a significant new player after the Islamist Alliance VI. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/21/mohamed-morsi-date-egyptian-elections A. President Morsi has called for parliamentary elections that will begin on 27 April and finish in late June B. 4-stage vote 1. initial 2 days of voting 2. further 2 days for runoffs for closely-contested seats 3. held in phases in different regions because of a shortage of poll supervisors C. new parliament will convene July 6 VII. http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205403289_text A. Libyas constituent assembly elects Mohammad al-Moqrif as Chairman of assembly B. assembly will select cabinet members for transitional government C. Transitional Council as de facto government to replace Qaddafis regime D. constituent assembly comprised of 200 members 1. in charge of: a. issuing laws b. drafting new constitution E. Parliamentary elections held after constituent assembly approves final draft VIII. http://www.ntclibya.org/english/about/ A. Transitional National Council manages daily life in liberated cities and villages B. goal is to steer Libya during time of transition C. council notes that it is the only legitimate body that represents the people of Libya and wants the international community to recognize its legitimacy. D. seeks to maintain peace and security in liberated cities of Libya E. plans to liberate remaining cities under Gaddafis remaining forces IX. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c2252,459b75e21ef,4e80475b2,0,,,.html A. Libyas draft constitutional charter includes human rights 1. states that all rights and basic freedoms will be respected 2. guarantees citizens equal rights and opportunities 3. extradition of political refugees is illegal; everyone is guaranteed right of asylum 4. each law protects privacy of citizens B. role of government during transitional stage

1. Transitional National Council a. remains supreme authority of Libya and lays down general policy for state b. legitimate representative of Libyan people and state c. in charge of elected presidents and vice presidents X. http://transitions.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2013/02/21/libyas_year_to_come A. February 15, people celebrate in Benghazis Freedom Square, calling for: 1. greater security 2. investment in local economy 3. employment opportunities 4. recognition of Benghazi as Libyas second capital nd B. 2 Anniversary of Revolution C. 2013 will be a big year and Libya should address their situation from 4 different standpoints 1. finish drafting a permanent constitution a. General National Congress (GNC, countrys national legislature) will put together a 3-man committee to decide on election laws i. will consist of 60 members, 20 representing each region of Libya b. referendum on draft constitution will take place at the end of 2013 c. issue of Libyas indigenous population 2. security and armed forces 3. reviving the economy 4. reconciliation and transitional justice XI. http://www.oecd.org/about/ A. goal is to promote policies that will improve economic and social well being of people in nations B. OECD provides forum in which governments can come together and share solutions and experiences to common problems C. wants to focus on 4 main areas 1. government needs to restore confidence in markets and institution that make that help the nation to function properly 2. government must establish healthy finance that will help them to provide a basis for future economic growth 3. find new sources of growth through innovation 4. people of all ages can have access to skill that will enable them to find work in the future XII. http://www.oecd.org/mena/investment/aboutthemena-oecdinvestmentprogramme.htm A. focuses on economic growth in the Middle East and North African regions B. stimulate foreign, domestic, and regional investment

C. based upon the concept of peer-review, policy makers address each nations according to their current situations and what they need. XIII. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/may/23/arab-spring-uprisings-the-scorecard A. list of countries affected by Arab Spring 1. Syria 2. Libya 3. Bahrain 4. Yemen 5. Tunisia 6. Jordan 7. Egypt XIV. http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/09/30/the-benefits-of-a-constituent-assembly-fortunisia-and-the-arab-spring/ A. process of Tunisian elections 1. country divided into 33 electoral districts a. 27 in Tunisia b. 1 in France c. 1 in Italy d. 1 in Germany e. 1 for Arab World f. 1 for Americas 2. distribution of seats a. half the list of each party to be filled by women 3. voter representation is still an issue a. period of voter registration in designated areas/centers b. because of fears for low voter turnout, ISIE repudiated the need to register XV. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/27/egypt-elections-process_n_1114973.html A. voting procedure designed by Egyptian military 1. vote will take place over the course of 2 days 2. 3rd runoff period 3. process repeated twice in different regions of the country 4. In the booth a. voters will select a party list w/ 2 different candidates

Legality of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles I. http://www.un.org/en/conf/npt/2005/npttreaty.html

A. parties to the NPT cant trade fissionable material with non-party states B. non-party states cant receive fissionable material C. parties agree to accept safeguards negotiated by the IAEA D. all parties will take measures to make sure that the peaceful uses for nuclear energy are made available to non-party states E. NPT is opened to all states for signature II. http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Bio/ A. the Biological Weapons Convention bans stockpiling of biological weapons B. state parties undertook responsibility to provide reports on their activities regarding biological weapons C. BWC implemented confidence-building measures III. http://www.un.org/disarmament/HomePage/about_us/aboutus.shtml A. Office promotes nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation B. strengthens disarmament regimes with regards to weapons of mass destruction C. disarmament efforts extending to conventional weapons such as SALWs D. other UN bodies it works with 1. 1st Committee 2. Disarmament Commission 3. Conference of Disarmament E. encourages disarmament through the following 1. dialogue 2. transparency 3. confidence building measures with regards to military on a regional basis IV. http://www.opcw.org/chemical-weapons-convention/about-the-convention/ A. Article one asks parties to refrain from using chemical weapons in times of warfare B. Article 3 asks parties to submit declarations to the OPCW to promise that they will destroy their chemical weapons C. article 6 allows parties to use their precursor chemicals for peaceful purposes D. establishes OPCW locations 1. The Hague, the Netherlands 2. organization comprised of 3 parts a. Executive Council b. Technical Secretariat c. Conference of the States Parties V. http://www.icrc.org/eng/war-and-law/treaties-customary-law/geneva-conventions/index.jsp A. Geneva Convention and its additional protocols are core of international humanitarian law B. regulate conduct during armed conflict

C. seeks to limit effects of armed conflict D. protect people not engaged in hostilities 1. civilians 2. non-combatants 3. wounded 4. ship-wrecked 5. prisoners of war VI. http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/additional-protocols-1977.htm A. Additional Protocols to Geneva Convention of 1949 B. adopted to make humanitarian laws more universal C. adapts to modern warfare D. Protocol 1 1. deals with international armed conflicts E. Protocol II 1. deals with non-international armed conflicts F. reasons for adopting new protocols 1. in todays world civilians suffer the most 2. improve civilians rights and protection during wartime 3. deals with changing nature of armed conflict and advanced weapons technology G. main duty is to distinguish between combatants and noncombatants H. also must distinguish between civilian objects and military objects VII. http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/LOAC-Deskbook-2012.pdf A. primary sources for Law of War 1. Hague Tradition a. regulates means and methods of warfare 2. Geneva Tradition a. protects civilians b. distinguishes between civilians and combatants B. other sources for analyzing LOAC 1. treaty commentaries 2. military publications C. LOAC is triggered when state sovereignty is intruded upon VIII. http://www.icrc.org/eng/war-and-law/conduct-hostilities/methods-meanswarfare/overview-methods-and-means-of-warfare.htm A. Combatants are authorized to exercise proper distribution of force B. military objects 1. must contribute to military advantage 2. all objects not under this category are considered civilian objects and cannot be

attacked C. IHL requires combatants to be distinguished from civilians by 1. wearing a uniform, etc. D. IHL prohibits indiscriminate attacks 1. provides the principle for proportionality 2. reduces collateral damage of environment and innocent lives IX. http://www.adcom-systems.com/ENG/Home.html A. Adcom systems is a group of companies B. manufactures UAVs C. aerial targets D. air traffic control radar systems E. founded 20 years ago by a group of 20 companies within the region F. main offices located in Abu Dhabi G. has branches worldwide X. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/24/un-examine-uk-afghanistan-drone-strikes A. 20 or 30 strikes will be assessed to find out the extent of civilian casualties B. legality of strikes is in question 1. armed conflict is not noted in the regions of the strikes C. questions of the risks aerial attacks pose to civilian casualties 1. disproportionate means of attack D. drone strikes in Pakistan killed between 2,562 and 3,325 people 1. 474 - 881 were civilians 2. 176 were children XI. http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130219/DEFREG04/302190016/IDEX-UAEFirm-Shows-Off-Armed-UAV A. International Defense Exhibition and Conference (IDEX) B. ADCOM Systems displays its new UAV C. company is finalizing sales with 4 other countries D. ADCOM looking to build UAV in the U.S. E. UAVs drawn interest in Europe, Asia, and Russia because of cost-efficiency XII. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost-blogs/rights/iran-has-new-toy-droneproliferation-continues A. Shahed-129 is Irans newest UAV B. domestically-made drone C. capabilities 1. reach targets 2,000 km away 2. doubles the range of previous drones D. similar to U.S. Septennial Drone that crashed in Iran

E. Iran warned that it would readily defend itself against threats posed by Israel F. use of drones among domestic police forces 1. invades privacy XIII. http://dawn.com/2012/11/29/chinas-development-of-drone-technology-sets-off-alarmbells-in-washington/ A. China has potential to outpace U.S. drones B. Chinese fleet of UAVs resemble those of the U.S. C. Chinas UAVs made them ideal for reconnaissance missions off the coast of South China Sea D. UAVs fit for dirty, dull, and dangerous work E. China becomes competitor in Unmanned Aerial Systems XIV. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/165500#.USsLDB2OSSo A. Syria claims to have shot down Israeli drone near the border of Lebanon B. Lebanese news claims that Israelis have been conducting a series of mock raids 1. located over southern Lebanon 2. reconnaissance flights over villages and towns around the country C. Israeli military vehicles seen near Lebanon XV. http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregorymcneal/2012/04/10/a-primer-on-domestic-dronesand-privacy-implications/ A. FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 passed by Congress B. expanded access to USs airspace for UAVs C. private parties can infringe upon privacy rights D. current laws restrict drones to fly in specific airspace