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OBJECTIVE Learning Outcome 11 Assessment Criteria Describe Rope and Line. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. REFERENCES 1. Manual of Firemanship - Fire Brigade Equipment Book 2, Chapter 9. State the functions of line. State the structure of line. State the characteristics of rope. List types of line damage. List care and maintenance of line. List periodically line test. Describe the methods of line test.

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INTRODUCTION Rope is one of the oldest tools used by the fire service. Rope is very valuable for applications such as hauling tools, accomplishing rescues from areas of different elevations, stabilizing vehicles, and cordoning off areas. Firefighters must be knowledgeable of the different types of rope so that the correct one is chosen for the required job.

FUNCTIONS OF LINE Fire service rope falls into two classifications: a. Life safety rope is used to support rescuers and/or victims during actual incidents or training (Figure 1). b. Utility rope is used in any instance, excluding life safety applications, where the use of a rope is required. STRUCTURE OF LINE The fibre is received at the rope works packed in bales and requires considerable combing and cleaning before it is ready for rope making. The process is as per below: a. b. c. d. e. The first process is the preparation of the fibre, consisting of a series of combings with the object of arranging the fibres in a parallel order. After combing the fibre is known as a sliver. The silver is spun into a yarn, during which operation a permanent twist is mechanically inserted, and the resultant yarn is wound on to bobbins. The yarn is twisted into strands which are laid together to produce a three or four-strand rope. In addition to laying, the strands may be plaited to produce a plaited rope.

Sketches showing the construction of rope

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CHARACTERISTICS OF ROPE 1. Natural fibre rope. Rope, as generally used in the fire service, is made principally of: a. b. d. e. 2. Italian hemp, a bast fibre obtained from the stalks of the hemp plant. The fibre is soft, pliable and considerably stronger than other hemps; Manila, a fibre obtained from the leaf sheaths of the abaca plant; and to a much less extent of: (c) sisal, a fibre obtained from the leaves of. the sisal plant; Coir, a fibre obtained from the husk of the coconut; Cotton, a fibre obtained from the seed pods of the cotton plant.

Man-made fibre rope. The two principal fibres used for cordage are: a. b. Nylon, a man-made fibre with a complex form structure of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and A polyester fibre derived by chemical synthesis from the products of mineral oil cracking; polyester fibre in the United Kingdom is marketed under the trade name of terylene.

3. Wire rope. Wire rope is a combination of steel wires arranged around a central fibre core. Steel reaches the wire mills in the form of rods, which are first cleaned in acid to remove rust. After heat treatment to ensure uniformity in tensile strength, ductility, etc. they are cleaned again before being drawn cold through a series of dies each of which gets successively smaller until the required size is reached. After drawing, the wire may be galvanised according to requirements. TYPES OF LINE DAMAGE The following notes on the main causes of damage likely to occur to fire brigade lines, together with the signs by which they may be recognised, are given for guidance when inspecting lines. 1. Mechanical damage. a. b. c. d. 2. External wear. Internal wear. Local abrasion. Cuts, contusions, etc.

Chemical damage. a. b. c. d. Exposure to acid and alkalis. Exposure to weather conditions (bright sunlight). Mildew. Exposure to dry heat.

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CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF LINE List of factors to be followed for the rope and line benefit: 1. Store in a cool dry place with plenty of ventilation. They should never be stored damp, or mildew will set in; nor should they be stored directly on the floor, but on boards raised above ground level. Avoid from exposure to acids, alkalis or by submersion in water for any considerable time. Avoid from putting on heavy and sharp object. When lowering a weight, the line must not be allowed to chafe on a sharp edge such as a coping. Avoid long exposure to bright sunlight, as the rays of the sun produce an action which discolours the fibres and weakens them. The ideal temperature of a rope is between 13 and 21C, with a humidity of between 40 and 65 per cent. Avoid from hard snapping. Avoid long dragging in gravel surface. Dragging along the ground drives grit into the fibres and subsequent internal movement between the strands will cause the grit to cut into the fibres and seriously weaken them. Avoid from multiple knotting. Lines should be uncoiled carefully to avoid kinking, and the end to be used should be uncoiled in an anti-clockwise direction. If a line becomes very dirty it should be washed and allowed to dry in the same way as for canvas hose. The coils should be turned over from time to time.

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PERIODICALLY LINE TEST Rope and line need to be test to ensure the safety for rescue operations, among the test are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Newly receive. Before use. After use. Every three months.

METHODS OF LINE TEST Method of testing a line are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Line that more than 100 feet, need to be divide into two for testing. Using 7 personel, which one of the members act as a leader. Arrange a straight line on the ground. Check the whole line. Tie on a pole o tree. Alternating position among members between 1.5 metre (4 feet 8 inch) Make a pull between 20 seconds Check the line again.

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CONCLUCION On completion of this lesson the students shall be able to describe Rope and Line and perform daily inspection.

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