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Lecture Question #1

How do scientists use ice core data to figure out earth's past temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations? (select all that are correct) They monitor the rate at which sections obtained at various depths melt to determine the temperature at which if froze. They examine it under polarized light to estimate the volume of gas bubbles present in cross sections from various depths to determine the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. They use the ratio of heavy to light water molecules in cross sectional samples from various depths to determine the atmospheric temperature at the time the ice at those depths froze. After storing ice cores for at least a year, they examine the density of ice at various points to assess temperature and carbon dioxide at the time the ice froze. They examine the gas from air bubbles trapped in the ice to determine the concentration of carbon dioxide in earth's atmosphere going back hundreds of thousands of years. You have used 2 of 2 submissions

Lecture Question #2
Beyond temperature recordings and ice core data, additional evidence that global average temperatures are increasing comes from (select all that are correct): glacial size the atmosphere spring flowering dates species movements carbon monoxide levels in

rock formations in Greenland

Lecture Question #1
Models of Earths climate (select all that are correct): are infallible enable scientists to make predictions about the Earths future climate have do not include the effects of the worlds oceans

generally have 3 variables: carbon dioxide concentrations, solar input, and aerosols increased spatial resolution over time You have used 0 of 2 submissions

Lecture Question #2

An examination of radiative forcing components reveals that(select all that are correct): solar energy has had the largest influence in the past century small but increasing cooling effect since the late nineteenth century urban aerosols have had a that greenhouse gases that the sum of all

have had a significant and growing warming effect especiallly after 1950 the forcing components taken together is near zero You have used 0 of 2 submissions Figure for Question #3

ozone has had a cooling effect

Lecture Question #3

The retrocasting experiment shown in the figure above, which compares observations to model outputs, illustrates: past observed temperature observations are unreliable explain observed warming that greenhouse gases do not

model variability is so large as to make it difficult to determine the validity of climate models and their that volcanoes matter more to earths

whether greenhouse gases are driving warming

potential to accurately make future climate projections climate than greenhouse gases.

Lecture Question #4
Climate scenarios as depicted in the tree diagram presented in class (select all that are correct): provide frameworks for population, technology and economic development that inform climate models and their predictions indicate that depending upon the choices we make today about, for instance, the types of energy we use and how large our population will grow, future global average temperatures may differ by 3 degrees C or more. do not take into account land

use change inform other research into the health effects of climate change You have used 0 of 2 submissions

Lecture Question #5
In the holocene, the earths climatic period for roughly the past 11,000 years: ice expanded to cover large portions of Asia, Europe and North America receded. agriculture has occurred amid temperatures that have varied by no more than two degrees on average. temperatures have been significantly cooler than in the pleistocene, the preceding climate period.

Lecture Question #1
Greenhouse gases, without which the planet would be 60 degrees F/28 degrees C cooler, have been known to affect the temperature of the planet by the scientists since: only the past few decades the late 20th century the early 20th century the late 19th

century the early 19th century You have used 0 of 1 submissions Figure for Question #2

Lecture Question #2
How is it that greenhouse gases disproportionately reflect radiation back towards earth rather than back towards space? as solar radiation goes through the atmosphere it changes the nature of greenhouse gases so that when the radiation bounces off the surface of the earth and heads back towards space they

are able to trap it in earth's atmosphere.

scientists do not yet understand this property of

greenhouse gases adequately to make a confident statement about it. the wavelength of incoming solar radiation changes as it is reflected off earth's surface such that greenhouse gases are able to trap it in earth's atmosphere. they do not. The greenhouse effect is caused by the none of the

increase in their atmospheric concentrations since the industrial revolution. above. You have used 0 of 2 submissions

Lecture Question #3
Year to year fluctuations in carbon dioxide concentrations as observed in the Mauna Loa records are due to: solar cycles Loa volcano measurement error industrial processes emissions from the Mauna

vegetation in the northern hemisphere

Lecture Question #1
Which of the following support the claim that the scientific community as a whole believes that the addition of greenhouse gases is causing climate change? 97.4% of surveyed climate scientists and nearly 90% of non-climate scientists agree that human activity is contributing to climate change. of 928 peer reviewed scientific publications on climate change between 1993 and 2003 75% agreed with the position that humans are causing climate change and the other 25% were either methods or paleoclimate papers that made no statement on whether human activities are contributing 27 scientific organizations from around the world have signed a statement that asserts most of the global warming in recent decades can be attributed to human activities. of 908 researchers, 97% were convinced by the evidence that climate change is very likely responsible for most of the warming observed in the latter half of the 20th century. all of the above

1. Lecture Question #1

The European heatwave of 2003 (select all that are correct): was roughly twice as likely to have occurred given the addition of greenhouse gases to earths atmosphere since the industrial revolution. climate change upon Europe over other continents. of thousands of Europeans. illustrated the greater effects of caused the premature death of tens

was demonstrated via research to mostly be related to

natural climate variability provided evidence that climate change is not only changing the mean temperature but also likely the distribution, or variance, of temperatures in Europe. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

2. Lecture Question #2
The combination of increased average temperature and increased variance of temperatures: makes extreme heat much more likely than an increase in average temperature alone. makes extreme heat much less likely than an increase in average temperature alone. has little effect upon extreme temperatures as the two effects offset each other. was not suggested by the European heatwave of 2003. You have used 0 of 1 submissions none of the above

3. Lecture Question #3
Heatwaves may cause harm by (select all that are correct): causing skin cancer causing diabetes increasing air pollution contributing to heat stroke

contributing to dehydration

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

4. Lecture Question #4
Wet bulb temperature:

can be used to assess how readily people can dissipate heat from their bodies. more accurate measure of temperature than dry bulb temperature

is a

is the only way to is not

measure temperature in the tropics given the usual high ambient humidity

affected by climate change is unlikely to exceed a temperature threshold above which people will be unable to dissipate heat, even with 12 degrees Celsius of warming. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

5. Lecture Question #5
The heat index (select all that are correct): measures the health costs of extreme heat. declines with increasing humidity. is not associated with

is a measurement that combines temperature and humidity.

increased mortality. tends to peak before the peak in mortality during heat waves, as evidenced by data from the Chicago heat wave of 1995. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

6. Lecture Question #6
The urban heat island (select all that are correct): causes cities to remain warmer than their surrounding areas. warming in cities than climate change in recent decades. temperatures more than daytime high temperatures. the designs of urban landscapes. You have used 0 of 1 submissions none of the above has caused less

effects nighttime minimum

is preventable through changes to

7. Lecture Question #7
Advantages of green roofs over white roofs include (select all that are correct): prevention of urban runoff in the summer You have used 0 of 1 submissions lower heating bills in the winter lower cooling bills

1. Lecture Question #1
Increased carbon dioxide concentrations in earths atmosphere, independent of their effects upon temperature, can have effects upon human health. True False

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

2. Lecture Question #2
Rising temperatures and carbon dioxide levels in the past several decades have affected ragweed pollen production in the United States: by making it higher as a result of temperature lengthening the pollen season and carbon dioxide boosting pollen production. by making it higher as a result of higher

temperatures driving both a longer pollen season and greater pollen production. by making it higher as a result of higher temperatures overcoming the effects of higher carbon dioxide concentrations that would otherwise have decreased pollen production. by making it lower as elevated carbon dioxide interferes with the plants photosynthesis and higher temperatures have impaired the plants growth. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

3. Lecture Question #3
The Russian Heatwave occurred because of: a combination of a natural high pressure blocking event and elevated overall temperatures due to human caused global warming caused climate change alone You have used 0 of 1 submissions natural forces alone human

4. Lecture Question #4
Higher air concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 microns in diameter or smaller, or PM2.5, cause more people to die. True False

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

5. Lecture Question #5
Forest fires release which of the following air pollutants (select all that are correct): formaldehyde elements particulate matter carbon monoxide viruses radioactive

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

6. Lecture Question #6
Warmer temperatures have facilitated the spread of mountain bark beetles by (check all that apply): causing the beetles to grow larger mouthparts and wings. of reproductive cycles each summer. increasing the number

facilitating successful overwintering of beetles.

increasing the virulence of a fungus that may live on the beetles and that can block the release of tree sap. weakening the trees cellular immune system.

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

7. Lecture Question #7
The production of ground level ozone depends upon (check all that apply): volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dioxide (NOx) ultraviolet radiation from the sun temperature carbon

particulate matter concentrations

oxides of nitrogen

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

8. Lecture Question #8
Exposure to ground level ozone is primarily harmful because it causes: headaches and dizziness arrhythmias blood cancer inflammation in the lung hair to fall out heart

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #1
Intensification of the water cycle in a region refers to: more precipitation falling overall in a given time period. in a given time period. less precipitation falling overall

precipitation falling in greater amounts during some periods with less an increase in the frequency of hurricanes. none of the

precipitation falling during others. above You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #2
Based upon data in the United States, heavy precipitation events (heaviest 1% of daily events) over the past fifty years have: increased decreased remained the same You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #3
Most of the water in the atmosphere comes from: evaporation off of lakes and rivers land evaporation off of oceans You have used 0 of 1 submissions condensation from outer space none of the above evaporation off of

Lecture Question #4
Flooding affects availability and quality of freshwater by: shutting down water treatment facilities. cutting off access to wells. contaminating surface water with pollutants.

damaging infrastructure such as water reservoirs or distribution all of the above

channels. contaminating water with pathogens. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #5
The Texas drought of 2011 (select all that apply): cost about $8 billion to the agricultural sector. was associated with one of the hottest is less likely to recur in the future

summers on record in Texas. was over in early 2012. given the effects of climate change upon the water cycle. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #6
Glacial melt in the Andes: has not yet occurred to any significant extent but is expected to in coming decades. affect the ability to grow food due to the effects on timing of glacial melt. will not likely affect people in the Andean region within the next 50 years. example of retreating glaciers on earth. You have used 0 of 1 submissions can

is occurring but is the only

Lecture Question #7
Sea level rise related to climate change (select all that apply): is mostly due to ice melting. is mostly due to thermal expansion of water. has been underestimated by models because of previously underappreciated positive feedback in ice melt in the arctic and Greenland. is expected to reach about 100cm/40in by 2100. anticipated to affect people living in Africa and Asia. You have used 0 of 1 submissions is only

Lecture Question #8
Salinization of water supplies in Bangladesh (select all that may apply): is more likely as sea level rises because of osmotic intrusion of saltwater into fresh groundwater. poses risks to pregnant women and their fetuses. is not occurring in is unlikely to affect many none of the

Bangladesh at the present but is expected to occur in coming years.

people in Bangladesh given the population lives largely away from the coast. above

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture #9
Municipal combined sewer systems: have stormwater and sewage input. have pop-off valves that are used when flow

through the system exceeds capacity. are present in most eastern U.S. cities. may lead to greater discharges of water contaminated with bacteria into freshwater systems with more frequent heavy rainfalls. all of the above

1. Lecture Question #1
The extrinsic incubation period of the malarial parasite: gets shorter as temperature increases gets longer as temperature increases is irrelevant to malarial transmission as it refers to the parasite lifecycle outside the human host. is insensitive to changes in temperature none of the above

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

2. Lecture Question #2
Why is it important to think about the effects of temperature on both the growth of the malarial parasite and lifecycle of the mosquito vector? Because the speed of mosquito reproduction is the rate limiting step in malaria transmission Because the speed of parasite development is the rate limiting step in

malaria production Because the differing rates of development between the mosquito and parasite need to be considered in determining the overall effect of increased temperatures on risk of malarial spread. Because mosquito reproduction, but not parasite reproduction reaches a temperature threshold above which reproduction markedly slows none of the above

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

3. Lecture Question #3
Through which of the following pathways might climate change affect the likelihood of malarial spread: by enabling the survival of mosquitoes in parts of the world presently unsuitable because they are too cold. by increasing the likelihood of extreme precipitation events a and b none of

that can produce standing water in which mosquitoes may breed. the above You have used 0 of 1 submissions

4. Lecture Question #4
Given the trends in malarial prevalence around the globe between 1900 and 2007, the following conclusion can be made: climate change has greatly reduced the prevalence of malaria over time. population growth has decreased malarial prevalence over time. has decreased despite increasing global average temperature. has not substantially altered malarial prevalence. all the areas it had been prevalent in 1900. You have used 0 of 1 submissions malarial incidence extreme precipitation

malaria remains prevalent in 2007 in

Lecture Question #1
Which of the following statements is true? (select all that apply) Air conditioning is a protective mechanism by which humans can adapt to climate change Air conditioning is a mechanism which contributes to climate change Increased urban

infrastructure is correlated with increased urban temperatures over time. Increased urban infrastructure is necessary to protect vulnerable populations against adverse effects of climate change. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #2
What are the mechanisms by which climate change increases health risks from indoor air pollution? More time indoors with increasing indoor pollutant sources. More time indoors with less a and b a, b and c

physical activity. More time indoors with inadequate ventilation. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

Lecture Question #3
What is the approximate temperature increase inside an attic space (compared to the outdoor temperature) when black or grey shingles are used: 5 Degrees 20 Degrees 40 Degrees 100 Degrees

1. Lecture Question #1
Worldwide, undernourishment is (select all that are correct): decreasing in prevalence since the early 90s. Africa today than 20 years ago. more prevalent in sub-Saharan a problem of

most common in South America. none of the above

distribution, rather than production, of food. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

2. Lecture Question #2
C3 plants (select all that are correct): have higher protein concentrations as carbon dioxide concentrations increase. more photosynthesis in comparison to C4 plants when exposed to carbon dioxide do

concentrations above current levels. include wheat, rice, barley, and oats. are distinguished from C4 plants by the mechanism they use to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. dioxide levels. tend to have lower protein concentrations if exposed to higher carbon

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

3. Lecture Question #3
In our diets, protein comes (select all correct statements): more than half from plant sources in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa from plant and animal sources for most people in the world globally. equally

half from plant sources

predominantly from animal sources in North America

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

4. Lecture Question #4
In coming decades, ground level ozone concentrations: will generally improve crop yields. south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. have no bearing upon crop yields. You have used 0 of 1 submissions pose the greatest risks to crop production in are expected to increase in the United States. none of the above

5. Lecture Question #5
Available evidence suggests that exposure to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations: will make crop pests and pathogens generally more successful. pests and pathogens generally less successful. rootworm and Japanese beetle infestations. rootworm and Japanese beetle infestations. You have used 0 of 1 submissions will make crop

may increase soy vulnerability to corn may decrease soy vulnerability to corn none of the above

6. Lecture Question #6
Increasing global temperatures due to climate change matter to crop productivity because (select all that are correct):

crops tend to have a linear increase in yield with increases in temperature. many staple crops are already being grown in climate that are above their optimum temperature. C4 plants may fare better than C3 plants at higher temperatures average, yield increases in global crop yields. yield response to temperature extremes. You have used 0 of 1 submissions they will, on

several staple crops have a non-linear

1. Lecture Question #1
Many factors have contributed to the humanitarian crisis in Syria. Available evidence suggests that climate change may be contributing primarily via: more intense heat waves ozone concentrations more intense droughts sea level rise increased

wildfires

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2. Lecture Question #2
Which of the following affects flooding risk in Bangladesh: sea level rise regular cyclones subsidence all of the above increased glacial melt off the Tibetan plateau

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3. Lecture Question #3
In the United States, sea level rise (select all that are correct): puts at risk about 3.7 million people in the United States who live at or below 1m above sea level. hurricanes. is unlikely to augment the flooding potential of intensifying Atlantic

may lead to certain coastal populations experiencing 100 year floods

every few years by 2050. none of the above

is occurring at equal rates on the east and west coasts.

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4. Lecture Question #4
Factors that contributed to damages from Hurricane Sandy included: the extent of storm surge off the coast of New Jersey and New York. population density of the coastal areas where it made landfall in the U.S. prevented aid from gaining access to some the most affected areas in Haiti. deforestation in Haiti. all of the above the high flooding that

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

5. Lecture Question #5
Based upon the best available scientific models, by 2100, tropical cyclones are expected to: increase in frequency and intensity decrease in frequency and intensity decrease in frequency but increase in

increase in frequency but decrease in intensity intensity

remain constant in frequency and intensity

You have used 0 of 1 submissions

1. Lecture Question #1
Jim Hansens climate dice: are an analogy about how climate science is like rolling the dice. capture the chance that the planet will heal itself. change exceeding 4 degrees celsius. are intended to

describe the probabilities of climate

deal with the value of investing in adaptation

over mitigation. are used to help people understand how the odds of extreme weather have been changing under the influence of greenhouse gas added to earths atmosphere. You have used 0 of 1 submissions

2. Lecture Question #2
Which of the following affect scientists abilities to attribute specific extreme weather events to climate change? the amount of data on extreme events as they are infrequent extreme weather events computing power a and c the various types of

a and b

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3. Lecture Question #3
The social cost of carbon refers to: an estimate of the effects of climate change upon social networks. climate change as applied across a country. the costs of

the effects of climate upon social media.

an estimate of the damage caused by additions of carbon dioxide to earths atmosphere. none of the above

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4. Lecture Question #4
The benefits of mitigation over adapation include greater clarity about (select all that are correct): the value of near-term benefits, in the next 10 years what and how it can be achieved. centuries none of the above the up front costs where,

the long term benefits, over the span of decades to

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5. Lecture Question #5

Comparing the nations that have emitted the most carbon dioxide to those most likely to be harmed by climate change reveals that: they are roughly the same countries. they are for the most part different countries. that China has been both the none of

that theres no clear relationship between them.

greatest emitter of carbon dioxide and is likely to be the most affected by it. the above You have used 0 of 1 submissions