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# Using Manipulatives to Teach Regrouping (addition)

It can be difficult for children to understand the abstract concept of regrouping, so many lessons on addition with regrouping use manipulatives to teach it in a concrete way. Manipulatives are any physical objects that students can use to represent addition. You can use the virtual manipulatives at websites such as the one provided by National Library of Virtual Manipulatives. Everyday objects, like dried beans or pasta, can be used as manipulatives in your classroom. Here's an addition with regrouping lesson that could help your students: Draw two columns on a large sheet of construction paper. Label the left column '10s' and the right column '1s.' Then, set up your manipulatives by placing 10 dried beans into mini paper cups. Each paper cup represents 10. Set up your math problem on the construction paper. As an example, let's use the problem 22 + 19. To represent 22 with manipulatives, use two cups and two beans. If you want to represent 19, use one cup and nine beans. Children can solve the problem by counting 10 beans from the '1s' column and placing them in a cup. Those beans go into the '10s' column. Now there are four cups and one bean, so the answer is 41.

Instructional Plan
The following teaching plan proposes recording subtraction experiences in the form of a chart with headings: Start With; Take Away; Have Left. Introducting Subtraction Start With Take Away Have Left

This recording device, which precedes the introduction of the algorithm, can be used as long as necessary. The children explore subtraction through problem solving with manipulatives, such as counters, which help students make connections to numbers. Thus they begin to discover the symbolic nature of manipulatives and, by extension, of number. The plan develops the language for discussing and recording subtraction situations that will give meaning to the algorithm. Activity: Subtraction as Take Away Materials: Six snack items, such as pretzels or crackers, for each child This activity introduces the concept of subtraction as taking away. Give each child six snack items and ask, "Is it possible to eat some now and still have some left for snack time later?" Most children will easily see that possibility. Next, ask the children to plan how many pieces to eat now and how many to save. Elicit from the children a workable method of planning or pretending to eat so that they can investigate their options. For example, children might put part of the snack under a napkin to represent the "eaten" portion.

As the children manipulate the snacks, they share their discoveries. "If I eat three now, I'll have three left for snack time." Once the possibilities have been explored, each child makes a decision, which the teacher records on a chart, as shown. Snack Chart Name Jessica Jeffrey Alexandra Start With 6 Ate 3 Have Left 3