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Riser Design

Arun S Chandel
Assistant Professor aschandel@ddn.upes.ac.in 09997200339

Offshore risers or platform legs can be represented by a very long cylinder

The drag force (in Newtons) on the length L (m) as indicated is:

1 FD = C D U 2 S 2 S = L D

Figure shows drag and lift coefficient for a circular cylinder

The CD for a short section can be gained from:

C Dshort

0.1L = C D (0.5 + ), L 10 D D

C Dshort = C D L > 10 D
we assume that the Reynolds number is known and that the CD is known from published data or from experimentation.

Members lying within the wakes of others causes problem in Cd estimation

Shielding effects:-

Typically wind tunnel tests will be required

Waves represent the dominant force mechanism on offshore systems

The forces are largely periodic but nonnon linearity can give rise to mean and low frequency drift forces Non linearity can also induce super h harmonic i high hi h frequency f f forces All forms of wave forces can be significant if they excite system resonances

Wave loading on a offshore structure is an important design consideration T Typically, picall the analysis anal sis has been directed di ected towards the influence of: Wave height Diameter of Di f structural elements Wave length

It is usual to characterise wave loading according to non-dimensional coefficients

Structural member diameter Wave length Wave height S Structural l member b di diameter

= (D / )
= ( H / D)

The Keulegan-Carpenter Number (KC) is a important parameter for analysing wave loading

U mT KC = D

Um =
T= D=

maximum fluid flow speed under the waves (m/s) wave period (s) cylinder diameter (m) KC<5; inertia dominated KC>5; drag dominated

The Morrison OBrian Equation has been developed to calculate wave loading Useful for small structural elements where D / < 0.2

Un =

The force on the short section of length dy is given by 1 & dF = Cm dVU n + C D dS U n U n 2

instantaneous wave fluid velocity instantaneous wave fluid acceleration

&= U n

water density Cm , C D = inertial and drag coefficient

the total force on the cylinder is the sum of all the sectional forces (dF)

F = dF OR F = dF
infinitesimal dy

dV = r dy d

dS = 2rdy d


F = Cm r

& U dy + C D r U n Udy
0 d

Moments about the Sea Bed is more important than force

A moment, M (Nm) is the product of a force (in Newtons) and its perpendicular distance (metres) from, in this case, the sea bed

F = CM r

& (d + y )U ( y )dy + C D r (d + y ) U ( y ) Udy

0 d

Linear wave theory relationship is needed to predict forces

Surface displacement

(t , x) = A cos(t x)
As our cylinder is vertical, we can assume a constant value of x=0m

H (t , x) = cos(t ) 2

H is the water height (m)

Using the equations for Ux etc. earlier in the course it is possible to calculate the total force and d the h total l moment

At the surface the element displacements can be described for a regular wave as

H Vertical DV ( y = 0 ) = cos(t ) 2 H Horizontal DH ( y = 0 ) = sin (t ) 2

(m) (m)

Linear theory predicts that fluid elements under a regular wave travel in circles
path of a fluid element acceleration

Assume Deepwater H y D V ( y , t ) = e cos (t ) 2 2 2 and = = T H y DH ( y , t ) = e sin (t ) 2

The equations can be differentiated to determine the fluid element velocity and acceleration as
U V ( y , t ) = DV ( y , t ) = and d U H ( y , t ) = DH ( y , t ) = H y e cos (t ) 2 H y e sin (t ) 2

& ( y , t ) = D ( y , t ) = H ey sin (t ) U V V 2 and & ( y , t ) = D ( y , t ) = H 2 ey cos (t ) U H H 2

Inertial & Drag Forces on a Riser

Inertia force:

D2 2 H Fi = C m L 4 2
2 1 H FD = C D LD 2 2 4

D Drag f force:

Force ratios:
Fi = R FD where R 2 D ; C m = 2; C D = 1 H

A riser analysis is conducted to assess effects of environmental loadings

A riser is designed based on previous design or specification ifi ti Mathematical model of hydrodynamics forces based on environmental i t l and d operating ti conditions diti is i applied li d for f load calculation Ab basic i riser i analysis l i is i then th carried i d out t to t evaluate l t the risers structural response to the hydrodynamic loadings The response is compared to the design requirements and the design is refined as necessary.