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REVIEW OF LITREATURE The review of literature pertaining to the study entitled, A Study on Value Added Convenience Food of Pumpkin

Seed flour, Acceptability and Popularization. History of pumpkin Nutritional profile for pumpkin seeds Description and other health nutrients in pumpkin seeds Remarkable healing properties of pumpkin seeds Possible benefits for benign prostatic hyperplasia Cholesterol lowering benefits Cancer related benefits Reducing rheumatoid arthritis Decrease the risk of diabetes Whats new and beneficial about pumpkin seeds? Quick and easy way to eat pumpkin seeds

History of pumpkin
(Michael, 2000) Stated that the word pumpkin originates from the word pepon, which is Greek for large melon. The French adapted this word to pompon, which the British changed to pumpion and later American colonies changed that to the word we use pumpkin related seeds dating between 7000 and 5500BC were found in Mexico. Pumpkins generally weigh 9-18lbs (4-8) with the largest capable of reaching a weight of over 75lbs (34kg). The pumpkin varies greatly in shape, ranging from oblate to oblong. Although pumpkins are usually orange or yellow, some fruits are dark green, pale green, orange-yellow, white, red and grey. (Wolford, 2008) According to integrated taxonomic information system, 2009 pumpkin is the fruit of the species cucurbita pope or cucurbitamixta. It can refer to a specific variety of the species cucurbit maxima or cucurbitamoschata, which are all of the genus cucurbita and the family cucurbitaceae. Pumpkins are grown all around the world for a variety of reasons ranging from agricultural purpose to commercial and ornamental sales.(Ron, 2008) of the seven continents, only Antarctica is international producers of pumpkins; the biggest international producers include the united states, Canada, Mexico, India and China. (The pumpkin patch, 2007) Seigmiund B, 2004 indicated that pumpkins and their seeds are native to the America. The word pepito is consistent with this heritage, since it comes from

Mexico, where the Spanish phrase pepita de calabza means little seed of squash.

Nutritional profile for pumpkin seeds


Pumpkin seeds like all edible seeds, pack an immense nutritional and medicinal punch. After all, they contain future worlds within their compact structure. As Emerson said, the creation of a thousand forests is within one acorn. (Vassiliou AG, et al., 2005) In order to prepare their babies for survival outside the pumpkin.Nature equips these seeds with an extremely dense source of organically bound nutrients, including exceptionally high levels of key, health- promoting minerals. (Xanthopoulou, 2009) Pumpkin seeds contain a wide variety of antioxidant phytonutrients, including the phenolic acids hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, protocatechuric, vaninnic, and syringic acid; and the lignanspinoresinol, medioresinol, and lariciresinol. Pumpkin seeds also contain health- supportive phytosterols, including beta-sitosterol, sitosterol, and avanosterol. (KrimerMalesevic, V 2011) Carbohydrates Smeds AI, 2012 One cup of raw seeds (28 grams) has only 4 grams of carbohydrates. They also have a very low glycemic index. Pumpkin seeds make a great addition to low carbohydrate diets and are particularly useful for snacking. Protien content

Pumpkin seeds would have to have one of the highest protein content of any commonly eaten seed or nut. At around 9 grams of protein per 28grams (1ounce) of seeds.The tryptophan content is quite high in pumpkin seeds. tryptophan is an important amino acid that converts to the neurotransmitter seronin in our brain. It is beneficial to reduce anxiety, stress and improve sleeping patterns.(Glew, RH, 2006) Vitamins Pumpkin seeds contain high number of anti oxidants. They contain a variety of B vitamins and a small amount of vitamin C. They also have good levels of vitamin E and vitamin K. quarter cup serving of pumpkin seeds provides 23 percent of daily value of vitamin K. (National institute of health, 2001) Raw pumpkin seeds contain 0.6mg of vitamin E per ounce, according to (office of dietary supplements) raw pumpkin seeds contain 2mg of vitamin K per 1-ounce. (Linus pauling institute, 2004) Mineral content Pumpkin seeds are a very beneficial source of minerals and have high levels of magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, iron, copper and zinc. These are also good amounts of other minerals like potassium, sodium, and selenium. (Eneobong, 1992) Manganese is a mineral that plays several contributing roles in the body including increasing bone strength, protective nerve health, managing cholesterol, maintaining blood sugar levels and thyroid gland function. A cup (34.50g) serving of pumpkin seeds provide 1.04 mg of manganese.(Glew RS,2006)

The iron in pumpkin seeds plays an important role in creating hemoglobin. Iron is also important for healthy muscles and bones. (National Anemia Action Council). cup serving of pumpkin seeds provide 5.16mg of iron. (Nutriondata.com, 2009) Zinc has multiple roles in the body including enzyme operation, hormone release, gene expression, maintaining proper glucose levels, preventing infections, wound healing and skin repair. (Super food profile.com) 100g of the pumpkin seed flour contains protein: not less than 40g .fat not less than 10g, carbohydrates -5g, calorie content-286kcal. (Antonio foods, 2001)

Description
Pumpkin seeds- also known as peptitas, are flat ,dark green seeds.some are encased in a yellow-white husk ,although some varities of pumpkin seeds with outshells.pumpkin have a wallable,chewy texture and a subtly sweet,nutyflavor.while roasting pumpkin seeds are so delicious, and nutritious,that they can be enjoyed throughout the year.(OvcaA,et al.,2011). Like cantaloupe, water melon and cucumber, pumpkin and pumpkin seeds belong to the gourd or cucurbitaceae family. (Sacilik K,2007). Pumpkin flour is a great substitute for use in just about any recipe that uses flour.pumpkin flour in minerals and vitamins,many of which are belived to have several medicinal benefits(www.pumpkin nook.com.2013)

Other health nutrients in pumpkin seeds


Raw pumpkin seeds are high in the antioxcident lutein. Important for healthy eyes.they also contain a compound called delta -7-sterine that competes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body ,DHT can have damaging effect in the cells of a mans prostate gland ,causing benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) (http:/superfoodprofiles.com 2012).

REMARKABLE HEALING PROPERTIES OF PUMPKIN SEEDS


Pumpkin seeds are normally something we throw in the trash after use. But these are rich in many nutrients and having the remarkable health benefits.

POSSIBLE BENEFITS FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA


Pumpkin seed and its oil have long been used in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH). BPH is a health problem involving non cancer enlargement of the prostate gland, and it commonly affects middle aged. studies have linked different nutrients in pumpkin seeds to their beneficial effects on BPH,including their phytosterols, lingnans and zinc.(Shrivastava .A et al.,2012). According to (Chung WC, 2004) oily parts of the seeds other phytochemicals may also help to treat hyperplasia. These compounds can also be found in flaxseed, saw palmetto berries and soy.

CHOLESTEROL LOWERING BENEFITS


Pumpkin seeds contain phytosteroles, plant fibers that bind to cholesterol. Therefore, pumpkin seeds can help to lower LDL (bad cholesterol) levels in the body.(ButinartB,et al.,2011).

Pumpkin seeds are very rich in compounds called phytosterols.According to the world,s healthiest foods(WHF)encyclopedia,phytosterols are very much like the cholewsterol that is inside the body .when enough phytosterols are in the body,it is belived that they reduce the levels of cholesterol in the blood.WHO also states that they boost the immune system and lower cancer risks.(WHF,2011). Pumpkin seeds are a natural source of omega -3-fatty acida.the American heart association recommends eating foods rich in omega -3 sush as oily fisf,nuts,legumes and seeds to set healthy nutritional goals.research shows that omega-3 fatty acids in pumpkin seeds decrease heart disease and cancer.(American heart association,2012).

CANCER RELATED BENEFITS


Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the development of some cancers, A new study puplishedin currentpharmaceutaical design reports that compounds known as cucurbitacinscn help combat cancer and pumpkin seeds are loaded with them.these compounds have been show to kill various types of cancer cells and also have potent anti- inflammatory properties .Taking all the se effects into account ,cucurbitanins may prove useful in the treatmaent of different types of cancers,(tayler
herbset,Sharon,2008)

Pumpkin seeds are rich in antioxcidents.research has focus on lingnans of pumpkin seeds .this component is preventing breast and prostate cancer.(Zaineddin AK ,et al.,2012). In another study ,german scientists found that eating pumpkin seeds lowered the risk of breast cancer by 23 percent in postmenopausal women.(Plotnikov AA etal.,2010).

REDUCING RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS


Pumpkin seeds contain alpha linolenicacid,a type of fatty acid known as omega-3.these type of fatty acids can reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis .Dietary pumpkin seeds can control pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a manner similar to non-steroid anti- inflammatory medications that are frequently used for this condition.(University of Maryland Medical centre,2010). Pumpkin seed oil has the effect of indomethacin,a popular anti-inflammatory drug ,and offers an all-natural way to treat arthritis symptoms.(Rybaltovskii OV,2008).

DECERASE THE RISK OF DIABETES


Most of the evidence about pumpkin seeds abd prevention or treatment of diabetea are there.Recent studies shown the ability of ground pumpkin seeds,pumpkin seeds extract, and pumpkin seed oil to improve insulin regulation in diabetics nad to prevent some unwanted consequances of diabetics on kidney function.(MakniM,et al.,2011) Pumpkin seeds are a must try for diabetic s.they are high in iron and hearthealthy unsaturated fats.researchers have indicated that the compounds in pumpkin may be successful in managing insulin levels and diabetes risk.(SEfiM,et al,.2010).

OTHER HEALTH BENEFITS


Pumpkin seeds may help to shed pounds.Theyaareparkewd with fiber and protein two components for weight loss just one ounce of pumpkin seeds includes five grams of protein ,which keep as fully longer.(PlotnikovAA,et al.,2101).

Pumpkin seeds contain a high level of tryptophan(22mg/gram of pumpkin seed protein),the aminoacid precursor to serotonin which is itself converted to melatonin ,the sleep hormone.researchpuplished in 2007 in the Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology found with de-oiled pumpkin seed was taken in combination with glucose ,a clinical effect similar to that of pharmaceutical grade tryphtophan was achived. Pumpkin seed have many nutrients that contribute to over allgoog health .one fourth cup of raw pumpkin seeds contains 2.57 mg of zinc,which is more than 17 percent of the recommended daily amount,as stated by worlds Healthiest foods resource.zinc is important for bone density, particularly among older men.(www.healthmailer.info/treatment,2010). Having 5 to 10 grams of pumpkin seeds every day .This stimulates the kidneys and prevents the formation of calcium oxalate stones(Suphakarn V S ,et al)2000).

WHATS NEW AND BENEFICIAL ABOUT PUMPKIN SEEDS


Pumpkin seeds have long been valued as a source of the mineral Zinc ,recent studies have shown there to be little zinc in the shell itself ,there is a very thin layer directly beneath the shell called endosperm.zinc is especially concentrated in endodosperm.wholeroasted,unshelled pumpkin seeds contain about 10mg of zinc per 3.5 ounces ,and shelled roasted pumpkin seeds contain about 78mgs.(siegmiund,B,2004). Roasting time for pumpkin seeds of the no more than 15=20 minutes when roasting at home.A new study pinpointed 20 minutes as a thresholed time for changes in pumpkin seed fats.(Murkovic M,2003)

In recent study ,pumpkin seeds were roasted in a microwave oven for varying lengths of time,and limited changes in te pumpkin seeds fat were determined to occur under 20 minutes .how ever ,when a number of unwanted changes in fat were occur frequently.(yoshida H,2006).