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Chapter 3

Governing Equations of Fluid


Dynamics
The starting point of any numerical simulation are the governing equations of the physics of the
problem to be solved. In this chapter, we rst present the governing equations of uid dynamics
and their nondimensionalization. Then, we describe their transformation to generalized curvilin-
ear coordinates. And nally, we close this chapter by presenting the governing equations for the
case of an incompressible viscous ow.
3.1 Navier-Stokes System of Equations
The equations governing the motion of a uid can be derived from the statements of the conserva-
tion of mass, momentum, and energy [5]. In the most general form, the uid motion is governed
by the time-dependent three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes system of equations. For
a viscous Newtonian, isotropic uid in the absence of external forces, mass diusion, nite-rate
chemical reactions, and external heat addition, the strong conservation form of the Navier-Stokes
system of equations in compact dierential form can be written as

t
+ (u) = 0
(u)
t
+ (uu) = p +
(e
t
)
t
+ (e
t
u) = kT p u + ( ) u
This set of equations can be rewritten in vector form as follows
Q
t
+
E
i
x
+
F
i
y
+
G
i
z
=
E
v
x
+
F
v
y
+
G
v
z
(3.1)
where Q is the vector of the conserved ow variables given by
34
3.1. NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS
Q =
_

u
v
w
e
t
_

_
(3.2)
and E
i
= E
i
(Q), F
i
= F
i
(Q) and G
i
= G
i
(Q) are the vectors containing the inviscid uxes in
the x, y and z directions and are given by
E
i
=
_

_
u
u
2
+ p
uv
uw
(e
t
+ p) u
_

_
, F
i
=
_

_
v
vu
v
2
+ p
vw
(e
t
+ p) v
_

_
, G
i
=
_

_
w
wu
wv
w
2
+ p
(e
t
+ p) w
_

_
(3.3)
where u is the velocity vector containing the u, v and w velocity components in the x, y and z
directions and p, and e
t
are the pressure, density and total energy per unit mass respectively.
The vectors E
v
= E
v
(Q), F
v
= F
v
(Q) and G
v
= G
v
(Q) contain the viscous uxes in the x, y
and z directions and are dened as follows
E
v
=
_

_
0

xx

xy

xz
u
xx
+ v
xy
+ w
xz
q
x
_

_
F
v
=
_

_
0

yx

yy

yz
u
yx
+ v
yy
+ w
yz
q
y
_

_
G
v
=
_

_
0

zx

zy

zz
u
zx
+ v
zy
+ w
zz
q
z
_

_
(3.4)
where the heat uxes q
x
, q
y
and q
z
are given by the Fouriers law of heat conduction as follows
q
x
= k
T
x
q
y
= k
T
y
q
z
= k
T
z
(3.5)
and the viscous stresses
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
xy
,
yx
,
xz
,
zx
,
yz
and
zy
, are given by the following
35
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS
relationships

xx
=
2
3

_
2
u
x

v
y

w
z
_

yy
=
2
3

_
2
v
y

u
x

w
z
_

zz
=
2
3

_
2
w
z

u
x

v
y
_

xy
=
_
u
y
+
v
x
_

xz
=
_
u
z
+
w
x
_

yz
=
_
v
z
+
w
y
_

yx
=
xy

zx
=
xz

zy
=
yz
(3.6)
where is the laminar viscosity.
Examining closely equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4 and counting the number of
equations and unknowns, we clearly see that we have ve equations in terms of seven unknown
ow eld variables u, v, w, , p, T, and e
t
. It is obvious that two additional equations are
required to close the system. These two additional equations can be obtained by determining
relationships that exist between the thermodynamic variables (p, , T, e
i
) through the assumption
of thermodynamic equilibrium. Relations of this type are known as equations of state, and
they provide a mathematical relationship between two or more state functions (thermodynamic
variables). Choosing the specic internal energy e
i
and the density as the two independent
thermodynamic variables, then equations of state of the form
p = p (e
i
, ) , T = T (e
i
, ) (3.7)
are required.
For most problems in aerodynamics and gasdynamics, it is generally reasonable to assume that
the gas behaves as a perfect gas (a perfect gas is dened as a gas whose intermolecular forces are
negligible), i.e.,
p = R
g
T (3.8)
where R
g
is the specic gas constant and is equal to 287
m
2
s
2
K
for air. Assuming also that the
working gas behaves as a calorically perfect gas (a calorically perfect gas is dened as a perfect
gas with constant specic heats), then the following relations hold
e
i
= c
v
T, h = c
p
T, =
c
p
c
v
, c
v
=
R
g
1
, c
p
=
R
g
1
(3.9)
36
3.2. NONDIMENSIONALIZATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS
where is the ratio of specic heats and is equal to 1.4 for air, c
v
the specic heat at constant
volume, c
p
the specic heat at constant pressure and h is the enthalpy. By using eq. 3.8 and
eq. 3.9, we obtain the following relations for pressure p and temperature T in the form of eq. 3.7
p = ( 1) e
i
, T =
p
R
g
=
( 1) e
i
R
g
(3.10)
where the specic internal energy per unit mass e
i
= p/( 1) is related to the total energy per
unit mass e
t
by the following relationship,
e
t
= e
i
+
1
2
_
u
2
+ v
2
+ w
2
_
(3.11)
In our discussion, it is also necessary to relate the transport properties (, k) to the thermody-
namic variables. Then, the laminar viscosity is computed using Sutherlands formula
=
C
1
T
3
2
(T + C
2
)
(3.12)
where for the case of the air, the constants are C
1
= 1.458 10
6 kg
ms

K
and C
2
= 110.4K.
The thermal conductivity, k, of the uid is determined from the Prandtl number (Pr = 0.72 for air)
which in general is assumed to be constant and is equal to
k =
c
p

Pr
(3.13)
where c
p
and are given by equations eq. 3.9 and eq. 3.12 respectively.
The rst row in eq. 3.1 corresponds to the continuity equation. Likewise, the second, third and
fourth rows are the momentum equations, while the fth row is the energy equation in terms of
total energy per unit mass.
The Navier-Stokes system of equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4, is a coupled system
of nonlinear partial dierential equations (PDE), and hence is very dicult to solve analytically.
There is no general closed-form solution to this system of equations; hence we look for an ap-
proximate solution of this system of equation in a given domain D with prescribed boundary
conditions D and given initial conditions D

U.
If in eq. 3.1 we set the viscous uxes E
v
= 0, F
v
= 0 and G
v
= 0, we get the Euler system of
equations, which governs inviscid uid ow. The Euler system of equations is a set of hyperbolic
equations while the Navier-Stokes system of equations is a mixed set of hyperbolic (in the inviscid
region) and parabolic (in the viscous region) equations. Therefore, time marching algorithms are
used to advance the solution in time using discrete time steps.
3.2 Nondimensionalization of the Governing Equations
The governing uid dynamic equations shown previously may be nondimensionalized to achieve
certain objectives. The advantage in doing this is that, rstly, it will provide conditions upon
37
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS
which dynamic and energetic similarity may be obtained for geometrically similar situations.
Secondly, by nondimensionalizing the equations appropriately, the ow variables are normalized
so that their values fall between certain prescribed limits such as zero and one. Thirdly, the
procedure of nondimensionalization, also allows the solution to be independent of any system
of units and helps to reduce the sensitivity of the numerical algorithm to round-o-errors. And
nally, by nondimensionalizing the governing equations, characteristic parameters such as Mach
number, Reynolds number and Prandtl number can be varied independently. Among many
choices, in external ow aerodynamics it is reasonable to normalize with respect to the freestream
parameters so that
x =
x
L
, y =
y
L
, z =
z
L
u =
u
U

, v =
v
U

, w =
w
U

,

T =
T
T

, p =
p

U
2

t =
tU

L
, e
t
=
e
t
U
2

, =

(3.14)
where denotes nondimensional quantities, the subscript

denotes freestream conditions, L is
some dimensional reference length (such as the chord of an airfoil or the length of a vehicle), and
U

is the magnitude of the freestream velocity. The reference length L is used in dening the
nondimensional Reynolds number, this parameter represents the ratio of inertia forces to viscous
forces, and is given by
Re
L
=

(3.15)
where the freestream laminar viscosity

is computed using the freestream temperature T

according to eq. 3.12.


When dealing with high speed compressible ow, it is also useful to introduce the Mach number.
The Mach number is a nondimensional parameter that measures the speed of the gas motion in
relation to the speed of sound a,
a =
__
p

_
s
_1
2
=
_

=
_
R
g
T (3.16)
Then the Mach number M

is given by,
M

=
U

a
=
U

_
(p/)
=
U

_
R
g
T
(3.17)
Finally, the remaining nondimensional quantities are dened as follows
38
3.2. NONDIMENSIONALIZATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS

R
g
=
R
g
U
2

/T

=
1
M
2

c
p
=
1
( 1) M
2

C
1
= C
1
T
1/2

C
2
=
C
2
T

(3.18)
Now, by simple replacing into the governing equations eq. 3.1 the dimensional quantities by their
corresponding nondimensional equivalent, the following nondimensional equations are obtained

t
+

E
i
x
+

F
i
y
+


G
i
z
=

E
v
x
+

F
v
y
+


G
v
z
(3.19)
where

Q is the vector of the nondimensional conserved ow variables given by

Q =
_

_

u
v
w
e
t
_

_
(3.20)
and

E
i
=

E
i

(Q),

F
i
=

F
i

(Q) and

G
i
=

G
i

(Q) are the vectors containing the nondimensional
inviscid uxes in the x, y and z directions and are given by

E
i
=
_

_
u
u
2
+ p
u v
u w
( e
t
+ p) u,
_

_
,

F
i
=
_

_
v
v u
v
2
+ p
v w
( e
t
+ p) v,
_

_
,

G
i
=
_

_
w
w u
w v
w
2
+ p
( e
t
+ p) w
_

_
(3.21)
and

E
v
=

E
v

(Q),

F
v
=

F
v

(Q) and

G
v
=

G
v

(Q) are the vectors containing the nondimensional
viscous uxes in the x, y and z directions and are given by
39
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

E
v
=
_

_
0

xx

xy

xz
u
xx
+ v
xy
+ w
xz
q
x
_

F
v
=
_

_
0

yx

yy

yz
u
yx
+ v
yy
+ w
yz
q
y
_

G
v
=
_

_
0

zx

zy

zz
u
zx
+ v
zy
+ w
zz
q
z
_

_
(3.22)
However, in the process of nondimensionalizing the equations, the terms M

and Re
L
arises from
the nondimensional viscous ux vectors. Therefore, the denition of the heat ux components
and the viscous stresses may be modied as follows
q
x
=

( 1) M
2

Re
L
Pr


T
x
q
y
=

( 1) M
2

Re
L
Pr


T
y
q
z
=

( 1) M
2

Re
L
Pr


T
z
(3.23)
and
40
3.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS TO
GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

xx
=
2
3

Re
L
_
2
u
x

v
y

w
z
_

yy
=
2
3

Re
L
_
2
v
y

u
x

w
z
_

zz
=
2
3

Re
L
_
2
w
z

u
x

v
y
_

xy
=

Re
L
_
u
y
+
v
x
_

xz
=

Re
L
_
u
z
+
w
x
_

yz
=

Re
L
_
v
z
+
w
y
_

yx
=
xy

zx
=
xz

zy
=
yz
(3.24)
Finally, by nondimensionalizing the equations of state eq. 3.10, we obtain
p = ( 1) e
i
,

T =
p


R
g
=
( 1) e
i

R
g
(3.25)
where the nondimensional specic internal energy per unit mass e
i
= p/( 1) is related to the
nondimensional total energy per unit mass e
t
by the following relationship,
e
t
= e
i
+
1
2
_
u
2
+ v
2
+ w
2
_
(3.26)
Note that the nondimensional form of the equations given by eq. 3.19, eq. 3.20, eq. 3.21 and
eq. 3.22 are identical (except for the) to the dimensional form given by equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2,
eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4. For the sake of simplicity, the notation will be dropped for the remainder of
this dissertation. Thus, all the equations will be given in nondimensional form unless otherwise
specied.
3.3 Transformation of the Governing Equations to Generalized
Curvilinear Coordinates
The Navier-Stokes system of equation (eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4) are valid for any
coordinate system. We have previously expressed these equations in terms of a Cartesian co-
ordinate system. For many applications it is more convenient to use a generalized curvilinear
coordinate system. The use of generalized curvilinear coordinates implies that a distorted region
in physical space is mapped into a rectangular region in the generalized curvilinear coordinate
space (gure 3.1). Often, the transformation is chosen so that the discretized equations are
solved in a uniform logically rectangular domain for 2D applications and an equivalent uniform
logically hexahedral domain for 3D applications. The transformation shall be such that there is
a one-to-one correspondence of the grid points from the physical space (Cartesian coordinates)
41
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS
to computational space (generalized curvilinear coordinates).
Figure 3.1: Correspondence between the physical space (Cartesian coordinates) and the computational
space (generalized curvilinear coordinates).
Hereafter, we will describe the general transformation of the nondimensional Navier-Stokes sys-
tem of equations (eq. 3.19, eq. 3.20, eq. 3.21 and eq. 3.22) given in the previous section between
the physical space (Cartesian coordinates) and the computational space (generalized curvilinear
coordinates). The governing equations are written in strong conservation form and expressed in
terms of the generalized curvilinear coordinates as independent variables, thus the computations
are performed in the generalized curvilinear coordinate space.
The governing equations of uid dynamics are transformed from the physical space P = P(x, y, z, t)
to the computational space C = C(, , , ) by using the following transformations
= (t) = t
= (x, y, z, t)
= (x, y, z, t)
= (x, y, z, t)
(3.27)
where is considered to be equal to t and thus the transformation with respect to time is simple
dened as = t as shown in eq. 3.27.
Applying the chain rule, the partial derivatives of any quantity = (x, y, z, t) with respect to
the Cartesian coordinates can be written as
42
3.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS TO
GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

t
=

+
t

+
t

+
t

x
=
x

+
x

+
x

y
=
y

+
y

+
y

z
=
z

+
z

+
z

(3.28)
Then the governing equations may be transformed from physical space P to computational space
C by replacing the Cartesian derivatives by the partial derivatives given in eq. 3.28, where the
terms
x
,
x
,
x
,
y
,
y
,
y
,
z
,
z
,
z
,
t
,
t
and
t
are called metrics (they represents the ratio of arc
lengths in the computational space C to that of the physical space P) and where
x
represents
the partial derivative of with respect to x, i.e. /x, and so forth.
Figure 3.2: Transformation from physical space to computational space. Left: structured grid in physical
space. Right: logically uniform grid in computational space.
In most cases, the transformation eq. 3.27 from physical space P to computational space C is not
known analytically, rather it is generated numerically by a grid generation scheme. That is, we
usually are provided with just the x, y and z coordinates of the grid points and we numerically
generate the metrics using nite dierences. The metrics
x
,
x
,
x
,
y
,
y
,
y
,
z
,
z
,
z
,
t
,
t
and
t
appearing in eq. 3.28 can be determined in the following manner. First, we write down the
dierential expressions of the inverse of the transformation eq. 3.27,
dt = t

d + t

d + t

d + t

d
dx = x

d + x

d + x

d + x

d
dy = y

d + y

d + y

d + y

d
dz = z

d + z

d + z

d + z

d
(3.29)
where the inverse of the transformation eq. 3.27 is
43
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS
t = t () =
x = x(, , , )
y = y (, , , )
z = z (, , , )
(3.30)
and recalling that for a grid that is not changing (moving, adapting or deforming)
t

= 1 and
t

=
t

=
t

= 0 thus
dt = d
Expressing eq. 3.29 in matrix form, we obtain
_

_
dt
dx
dy
dz
_

_
=
_

_
1 0 0 0
x

_
_

_
d
d
d
d
_

_
(3.31)
In a like manner, we proceed with the transformation eq. 3.27, and we obtain the following
dierential expressions
d = dt
d =
t
dt +
x
dx +
y
dy +
z
dz
d =
t
dt +
x
dx +
y
dy +
z
dz
d =
t
dt +
x
dx +
y
dy +
z
dz
(3.32)
which can be written in matrix form as
_

_
d
d
d
d
_

_
=
_

_
1 0 0 0

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z
_

_
_

_
dt
dx
dy
dz
_

_
(3.33)
By relating the dierential expressions eq. 3.33 of the transformation eq. 3.27 to the dierential
expressions eq. 3.31 of the transformation eq. 3.30, so that the metrics

x
,
x
,
x
,
y
,
y
,
y
,
z
,
z
,
z
,
t
,
t
,
t
can be found, we conclude that
_

_
1 0 0 0

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z
_

_
=
_

_
1 0 0 0
x

_
1
(3.34)
44
3.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS TO
GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES
This yields the following metrics relationships

x
= J
x
(y

y
= J
x
(x

z
= J
x
(x

t
= (
t
x

x
+
t
y

y
+
t
z

z
)

x
= J
x
(y

y
= J
x
(x

z
= J
x
(x

t
= (
t
x

x
+
t
y

y
+
t
z

z
)

x
= J
x
(y

y
= J
x
(x

z
= J
x
(x

t
= (
t
x

x
+
t
y

y
+
t
z

z
)
(3.35)
For
t
,
t
and
t
the following values are obtained after some manipulation

t
= J
x
[x

(y

) + y

(x

) + z

(x

)]

t
= J
x
[x

(y

) + y

(x

) + z

(x

)]

t
= J
x
[x

(y

) + y

(x

) + z

(x

)]
(3.36)
In eq. 3.35 and eq. 3.36, J
x
is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix of the transformation
dened by
J
x
=

(, , )
(x, y, z)

or
J
x
=
1
x

(y

) x

(y

) + x

(y

)
(3.37)
which can be interpreted as the ratio of the areas (volumes in 3D) in the computational space C
to that of the physical space P.
Once relations for the metrics and for the Jacobian of the transformation are determined, the
governing equations eq. 3.19 are then written in strong conservation form as


Q
t
+

E
i

F
i

+


G
i

E
v

F
v

+


G
v

(3.38)
where
45
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

Q =
Q
J
x

E
i
=
1
J
x
(
t
Q+
x
E
i
+
y
F
i
+
z
G
i
)

F
i
=
1
J
x
(
t
Q+
x
E
i
+
y
F
i
+
z
G
i
)

G
i
=
1
J
x
(
t
Q+
x
E
i
+
y
F
i
+
z
G
i
)

E
v
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
v
+
y
F
v
+
z
G
v
)

E
v
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
v
+
y
F
v
+
z
G
v
)

E
v
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
v
+
y
F
v
+
z
G
v
)
(3.39)
The viscous stresses given by eq. 3.24 in the transformed computational space are

xx
=
2
3

Re
L
[2 (
x
u

+
x
u

+
x
u

) (
y
v

+
y
v

+
y
v

) . . .
. . . (
z
w

+
z
w

+
z
w

)]

yy
=
2
3

Re
L
[2 (
y
v

+
y
v

+
y
v

) (
x
u

+
x
u

+
x
u

) . . .
. . . (
z
w

+
z
w

+
z
w

)]

zz
=
2
3

Re
L
[2 (
z
w

+
z
w

+
z
w

) (
x
u

+
x
u

+
x
u

) . . .
. . . (
y
v

+
y
v

+
y
v

)]
(3.40)

xy
=
yx
=

Re
L
(
y
u

+
y
u

+
y
u

+
x
v

+
x
v

+
x
v

)

xz
=
zx
=

Re
L
(
z
u

+
z
u

+
z
u

+
x
w

+
x
w

+
x
w

)

yz
=
zy
=

Re
L
(
z
v

+
z
v

+
z
v

+
y
w

+
y
w

+
y
w

)
and the heat ux components given by eq. 3.23 in the computational space are
q
x
=

( 1) M
2

Re
L
Pr
(
x
T

+
x
T

+
x
T

)
q
y
=

( 1) M
2

Re
L
Pr
(
y
T

+
y
T

+
y
T

)
q
z
=

( 1) M
2

Re
L
Pr
(
z
T

+
z
T

+
z
T

)
(3.41)
Equations eq. 3.38 and eq. 3.39 are the generic form of the governing equations written in strong
conservation form in the transformed computational space C (see [14], [85] and [181] for a detailed
derivation). The coordinate transformation presented in this section, follows the same develop-
ment proposed by Viviand [202] and Vinokur [201], where they show that the governing equations
46
3.4. SIMPLIFICATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS:
INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW CASE
of uid dynamics can be put back into strong conservation form after a coordinate transformation
has been applied.
Comparing the original governing equations eq. 3.19, eq. 3.20, eq. 3.21 and eq. 3.22 and the trans-
formed equations eq. 3.38 and eq. 3.39, it is obvious that the transformed equations are more
complicated than the original equations. Thus, a trade-o is introduced whereby advantages
gained by using the generalized curvilinear coordinates are somehow counterbalanced by the re-
sultant complexity of the equations. However, the advantages (such as the capability of using
standard nite dierences schemes and solving the equations in a uniform rectangular logically
grid) by far outweigh the complexity of the transformed governing equations.
One nal word of caution. The strong conservation form of the governing equations in the
transformed computational space C is a convenient form for applying nite dierence schemes.
However, when using this form of the equations, extreme care must be exercised if the grid is
changing (that is moving, adapting or deforming). In this case, a constraint on the way the
metrics are dierenced, called the geometric conservation law or GCL (see [50], [55] and [185]),
must be satised in order to prevent additional errors from being introduced into the solution.
3.4 Simplication of the Navier-Stokes System of Equations: In-
compressible Viscous Flow Case
Equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4 with an appropriate equation of state and boundary
and initial conditions, governs the unsteady three-dimensional motion of a viscous Newtonian,
compressible uid. In many applications the uid density may be assumed to be constant. This
is true not only for liquids, whose compressibility may be neglected, but also for gases if the
Mach number is below 0.3 [6, 53]; such ows are said to be incompressible. If the ow is also
isothermal, the viscosity is also constant. In this case, the dimensional governing equations in
primitive variable formulation (u, v, w, p) and written in compact conservative dierential form
reduce to the following set
(u) = 0
u
t
+ (uu) =
p

+
2
u
where is the kinematic viscosity and is equal = /. The same set of equations in nondimen-
sional form is written as follows
(u) = 0
u
t
+ (uu) = p +
1
Re
L

2
u
which can be also written in nonconservative form (or advective/convective form [60])
u = 0
u
t
+u u = p +
1
Re
L

2
u
or in expanded three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates
47
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS
u
x
+
v
y
+
w
z
= 0
u
t
+ u
u
x
+ v
u
y
+ w
u
z
=
p
x
+
1
Re
L
_

2
u
x
2
+

2
u
y
2
+

2
u
z
2
_
v
t
+ u
v
x
+ v
v
y
+ w
v
z
=
p
x
+
1
Re
L
_

2
v
x
2
+

2
v
y
2
+

2
v
z
2
_
w
t
+ u
w
x
+ v
w
y
+ w
w
z
=
p
x
+
1
Re
L
_

2
w
x
2
+

2
w
y
2
+

2
w
z
2
_
(3.42)
This form (the advective/convective form), provides the simplest form for discretization and is
widely used when implementing numerical methods for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes
equations, as noted by Gresho [60].
Equation eq. 3.42 governs the unsteady three-dimensional motion of a viscous, incompressible
and isothermal ow. This simplication is generally not of a great value, as the equations are
hardly any simpler to solve. However, the computing eort may be much smaller than for the
full equations (due to the reduction of the unknowns and the fact that the energy equation is
decoupled from the system of equation), which is a justication for such a simplication. The set
of equations eq. 3.42 can be rewritten in vector form as follow
Q
t
+
E
i
x
+
F
i
y
+
G
i
z
=
E
v
x
+
F
v
y
+
G
v
z
(3.43)
where Q is the vector containing the primitive variables and is given by
Q =
_

_
0
u
v
w
_

_
(3.44)
and E
i
, F
i
and G
i
are the vectors containing the inviscid uxes in the x, y and z directions and
are given by
E
i
=
_

_
u
u
2
+ p
uv
uw
_

_
, F
i
=
_

_
v
vu
v
2
+ p
vw
_

_
, G
i
=
_

_
w
wu
wv
w
2
+ p
_

_
(3.45)
The viscous uxes in the x, y and z directions, E
v
, F
v
and G
v
respectively, are dened as follows
E
v
=
_

_
0

xx

xy

xz
_

_
, F
v
=
_

_
0

yx

yy

yz
_

_
, G
v
=
_

_
0

zx

zy

zz
_

_
(3.46)
Since we made the assumptions of an incompressible ow, appropriate nondimensional terms and
48
3.4. SIMPLIFICATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS:
INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW CASE
expressions for shear stresses must be used, these expressions are given as follows

xx
=
2
Re
L
u
x

yy
=
2
Re
L
v
y

zz
=
2
Re
L
w
z

xy
=
1
Re
L
_
u
y
+
v
x
_

xz
=
1
Re
L
_
w
x
+
u
z
_

yz
=
1
Re
L
_
w
y
+
v
z
_

yx
=
xy

zx
=
xz

zy
=
yz
(3.47)
Following the procedure presented in the previous section, the nondimensional incompressible
Navier-Stokes system of equations eq. 3.43 in the computational space C is expressed as


Q
t
+

E
i

F
i

+


G
i

E
v

F
v

+


G
v

(3.48)
where

Q =
Q
J
x

E
i
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
i
+
y
F
i
+
z
G
i
)

F
i
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
i
+
y
F
i
+
z
G
i
)

G
i
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
i
+
y
F
i
+
z
G
i
)

E
v
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
v
+
y
F
v
+
z
G
v
)

F
v
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
v
+
y
F
v
+
z
G
v
)

G
v
=
1
J
x
(
x
E
v
+
y
F
v
+
z
G
v
)
(3.49)
In eq. 3.49,

Q is the vector containing the primitive variables and

E
i
,

F
i
and

G
i
are the vectors
containing the inviscid uxes in the , and directions respectively, and are given by
49
CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

Q =
1
J
x
_

_
0
u
v
w
_

_
,

E
i
=
1
J
x
_

_
U
uU + p
x
vU + p
y
wU + p
z
_

_
,

F
i
=
1
J
x
_

_
V
uV + p
x
vV + p
y
wV + p
z
_

_
,

G
i
=
1
J
x
_

_
W
uW + p
x
vW + p
y
wW + p
z
_

_
(3.50)
where U, V and W are the contravariant velocities
U = u
x
+ v
y
+ w
z
, V = u
x
+ v
y
+ w
z
, W = u
x
+ v
y
+ w
z
The shear stresses given by eq. 3.47 expressed in the computational space C are as follow

xx
=
2
Re
L
(
x
u

+
x
u

+
x
u

yy
=
2
Re
L
(
y
v

+
y
v

+
y
v

zz
=
2
Re
L
(
z
w

+
z
w

+
z
w

xy
=
1
Re
L
(
y
u

+
y
u

+
y
u

+
x
v

+
x
v

+
x
v

xz
=
1
Re
L
(
z
u

+
z
u

+
z
u

+
x
w

+
x
w

+
x
w

yz
=
1
Re
L
(
y
w

+
y
w

+
y
w

+
z
v

+
z
v

+
z
v

yx
=
xy

zx
=
xz

zy
=
yz
(3.51)
Substituting the expressions for the shear stresses given by eq. 3.51 into the viscous ux vectors

E
v
,

F
v
and

G
v
(given by eq. 3.49) in the , and directions respectively, we obtain the following
equations
50
3.4. SIMPLIFICATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS:
INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW CASE

E
v
=
1
J
x
Re
L
_

_
0
a
1
u

+ b
1
u

c
1
v

+ c
2
w

+ b
2
u

d
1
v

+ d
2
w

a
1
v

+ c
1
u

+ b
1
v

c
3
w

+ d
1
u

+ b
2
v

d
3
w

a
1
w

c
2
u

+ c
3
v

+ b
1
w

d
2
u

+ d
3
v

+ b
2
w

F
v
=
1
J
x
Re
L
_

_
0
a
2
u

+ b
1
u

+ c
1
v

c
2
w

+ b
2
u

e
1
v

+ e
2
w

a
2
v

c
1
u

+ b
1
v

+ c
3
w

+ e
1
u

+ b
3
v

e
3
w

a
2
w

+ c
2
u

c
3
v

+ b
1
w

e
2
u

+ e
3
v

+ b
3
w

G
v
=
1
J
x
Re
L
_

_
0
a
3
u

+ b
2
u

+ d
1
v

d
2
w

+ b
3
u

+ e
1
v

e
2
w

a
3
v

c
4
u

+ b
2
v

+ d
3
w

e
1
u

+ b
3
v

+ e
3
w

a
3
w

+ d
2
u

d
3
v

+ b
2
w

+ c
8
u

e
3
v

+ b
3
w

_
(3.52)
where
a
1
=
2
x
+
2
y
+
2
z
, a
2
=
2
x
+
2
y
+
2
z
, a
3
=
2
x
+
2
y
+
2
z
,
b
1
=
x

x
+
y

y
+
z

z
, b
2
=
x

x
+
y

y
+
z

z
,
b
3
=
x

x
+
y

y
+
z

z
,
c
1
=
x

y
, c
2
=
x

z
, c
3
=
y

z
,
d
1
=
x

y
, d
2
=
x

z
, d
3
=
y

z
,
e
1
=
x

y
, e
2
=
x

z
, e
3
=
y

z
(3.53)
equations eq. 3.52 and eq. 3.53 written in a more compact way, can be expressed as

E
v
=
1
J
x
Re
L
_

_
0
( ) u

+ ( ) u

+ ( ) u

( ) v

+ ( ) v

+ ( ) v

( ) w

+ ( ) w

+ ( ) w

F
v
=
1
J
x
Re
L
_

_
0
( ) u

+ ( ) u

+ ( ) u

( ) v

+ ( ) v

+ ( ) v

( ) w

+ ( ) w

+ ( ) w

G
v
=
1
J
x
Re
L
_

_
0
( ) u

+ ( ) u

+ ( ) u

( ) v

+ ( ) v

+ ( ) v

( ) w

+ ( ) w

+ ( ) w

_
(3.54)
Equation eq. 3.48, together with eq. 3.49, eq. 3.50 and eq. 3.54, are the governing equations of an
incompressible viscous ow written in strong conservation form in the transformed computational
space C. Hence, we look for an approximate solution of this set of equations in a given domain
D with prescribed boundary conditions D and given initial conditions D

U. So far, we have just


presented the governing equations; in the following chapters the grid generation method as well
as the numerical scheme for solving the governing equations will be explained.
51