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Navier stokes equation

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Dynamics

The starting point of any numerical simulation are the governing equations of the physics of the

problem to be solved. In this chapter, we rst present the governing equations of uid dynamics

and their nondimensionalization. Then, we describe their transformation to generalized curvilin-

ear coordinates. And nally, we close this chapter by presenting the governing equations for the

case of an incompressible viscous ow.

3.1 Navier-Stokes System of Equations

The equations governing the motion of a uid can be derived from the statements of the conserva-

tion of mass, momentum, and energy [5]. In the most general form, the uid motion is governed

by the time-dependent three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes system of equations. For

a viscous Newtonian, isotropic uid in the absence of external forces, mass diusion, nite-rate

chemical reactions, and external heat addition, the strong conservation form of the Navier-Stokes

system of equations in compact dierential form can be written as

t

+ (u) = 0

(u)

t

+ (uu) = p +

(e

t

)

t

+ (e

t

u) = kT p u + ( ) u

This set of equations can be rewritten in vector form as follows

Q

t

+

E

i

x

+

F

i

y

+

G

i

z

=

E

v

x

+

F

v

y

+

G

v

z

(3.1)

where Q is the vector of the conserved ow variables given by

34

3.1. NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS

Q =

_

u

v

w

e

t

_

_

(3.2)

and E

i

= E

i

(Q), F

i

= F

i

(Q) and G

i

= G

i

(Q) are the vectors containing the inviscid uxes in

the x, y and z directions and are given by

E

i

=

_

_

u

u

2

+ p

uv

uw

(e

t

+ p) u

_

_

, F

i

=

_

_

v

vu

v

2

+ p

vw

(e

t

+ p) v

_

_

, G

i

=

_

_

w

wu

wv

w

2

+ p

(e

t

+ p) w

_

_

(3.3)

where u is the velocity vector containing the u, v and w velocity components in the x, y and z

directions and p, and e

t

are the pressure, density and total energy per unit mass respectively.

The vectors E

v

= E

v

(Q), F

v

= F

v

(Q) and G

v

= G

v

(Q) contain the viscous uxes in the x, y

and z directions and are dened as follows

E

v

=

_

_

0

xx

xy

xz

u

xx

+ v

xy

+ w

xz

q

x

_

_

F

v

=

_

_

0

yx

yy

yz

u

yx

+ v

yy

+ w

yz

q

y

_

_

G

v

=

_

_

0

zx

zy

zz

u

zx

+ v

zy

+ w

zz

q

z

_

_

(3.4)

where the heat uxes q

x

, q

y

and q

z

are given by the Fouriers law of heat conduction as follows

q

x

= k

T

x

q

y

= k

T

y

q

z

= k

T

z

(3.5)

and the viscous stresses

xx

,

yy

,

zz

,

xy

,

yx

,

xz

,

zx

,

yz

and

zy

, are given by the following

35

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

relationships

xx

=

2

3

_

2

u

x

v

y

w

z

_

yy

=

2

3

_

2

v

y

u

x

w

z

_

zz

=

2

3

_

2

w

z

u

x

v

y

_

xy

=

_

u

y

+

v

x

_

xz

=

_

u

z

+

w

x

_

yz

=

_

v

z

+

w

y

_

yx

=

xy

zx

=

xz

zy

=

yz

(3.6)

where is the laminar viscosity.

Examining closely equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4 and counting the number of

equations and unknowns, we clearly see that we have ve equations in terms of seven unknown

ow eld variables u, v, w, , p, T, and e

t

. It is obvious that two additional equations are

required to close the system. These two additional equations can be obtained by determining

relationships that exist between the thermodynamic variables (p, , T, e

i

) through the assumption

of thermodynamic equilibrium. Relations of this type are known as equations of state, and

they provide a mathematical relationship between two or more state functions (thermodynamic

variables). Choosing the specic internal energy e

i

and the density as the two independent

thermodynamic variables, then equations of state of the form

p = p (e

i

, ) , T = T (e

i

, ) (3.7)

are required.

For most problems in aerodynamics and gasdynamics, it is generally reasonable to assume that

the gas behaves as a perfect gas (a perfect gas is dened as a gas whose intermolecular forces are

negligible), i.e.,

p = R

g

T (3.8)

where R

g

is the specic gas constant and is equal to 287

m

2

s

2

K

for air. Assuming also that the

working gas behaves as a calorically perfect gas (a calorically perfect gas is dened as a perfect

gas with constant specic heats), then the following relations hold

e

i

= c

v

T, h = c

p

T, =

c

p

c

v

, c

v

=

R

g

1

, c

p

=

R

g

1

(3.9)

36

3.2. NONDIMENSIONALIZATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS

where is the ratio of specic heats and is equal to 1.4 for air, c

v

the specic heat at constant

volume, c

p

the specic heat at constant pressure and h is the enthalpy. By using eq. 3.8 and

eq. 3.9, we obtain the following relations for pressure p and temperature T in the form of eq. 3.7

p = ( 1) e

i

, T =

p

R

g

=

( 1) e

i

R

g

(3.10)

where the specic internal energy per unit mass e

i

= p/( 1) is related to the total energy per

unit mass e

t

by the following relationship,

e

t

= e

i

+

1

2

_

u

2

+ v

2

+ w

2

_

(3.11)

In our discussion, it is also necessary to relate the transport properties (, k) to the thermody-

namic variables. Then, the laminar viscosity is computed using Sutherlands formula

=

C

1

T

3

2

(T + C

2

)

(3.12)

where for the case of the air, the constants are C

1

= 1.458 10

6 kg

ms

K

and C

2

= 110.4K.

The thermal conductivity, k, of the uid is determined from the Prandtl number (Pr = 0.72 for air)

which in general is assumed to be constant and is equal to

k =

c

p

Pr

(3.13)

where c

p

and are given by equations eq. 3.9 and eq. 3.12 respectively.

The rst row in eq. 3.1 corresponds to the continuity equation. Likewise, the second, third and

fourth rows are the momentum equations, while the fth row is the energy equation in terms of

total energy per unit mass.

The Navier-Stokes system of equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4, is a coupled system

of nonlinear partial dierential equations (PDE), and hence is very dicult to solve analytically.

There is no general closed-form solution to this system of equations; hence we look for an ap-

proximate solution of this system of equation in a given domain D with prescribed boundary

conditions D and given initial conditions D

U.

If in eq. 3.1 we set the viscous uxes E

v

= 0, F

v

= 0 and G

v

= 0, we get the Euler system of

equations, which governs inviscid uid ow. The Euler system of equations is a set of hyperbolic

equations while the Navier-Stokes system of equations is a mixed set of hyperbolic (in the inviscid

region) and parabolic (in the viscous region) equations. Therefore, time marching algorithms are

used to advance the solution in time using discrete time steps.

3.2 Nondimensionalization of the Governing Equations

The governing uid dynamic equations shown previously may be nondimensionalized to achieve

certain objectives. The advantage in doing this is that, rstly, it will provide conditions upon

37

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

which dynamic and energetic similarity may be obtained for geometrically similar situations.

Secondly, by nondimensionalizing the equations appropriately, the ow variables are normalized

so that their values fall between certain prescribed limits such as zero and one. Thirdly, the

procedure of nondimensionalization, also allows the solution to be independent of any system

of units and helps to reduce the sensitivity of the numerical algorithm to round-o-errors. And

nally, by nondimensionalizing the governing equations, characteristic parameters such as Mach

number, Reynolds number and Prandtl number can be varied independently. Among many

choices, in external ow aerodynamics it is reasonable to normalize with respect to the freestream

parameters so that

x =

x

L

, y =

y

L

, z =

z

L

u =

u

U

, v =

v

U

, w =

w

U

,

T =

T

T

, p =

p

U

2

t =

tU

L

, e

t

=

e

t

U

2

, =

(3.14)

where denotes nondimensional quantities, the subscript

denotes freestream conditions, L is

some dimensional reference length (such as the chord of an airfoil or the length of a vehicle), and

U

is the magnitude of the freestream velocity. The reference length L is used in dening the

nondimensional Reynolds number, this parameter represents the ratio of inertia forces to viscous

forces, and is given by

Re

L

=

(3.15)

where the freestream laminar viscosity

When dealing with high speed compressible ow, it is also useful to introduce the Mach number.

The Mach number is a nondimensional parameter that measures the speed of the gas motion in

relation to the speed of sound a,

a =

__

p

_

s

_1

2

=

_

=

_

R

g

T (3.16)

Then the Mach number M

is given by,

M

=

U

a

=

U

_

(p/)

=

U

_

R

g

T

(3.17)

Finally, the remaining nondimensional quantities are dened as follows

38

3.2. NONDIMENSIONALIZATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS

R

g

=

R

g

U

2

/T

=

1

M

2

c

p

=

1

( 1) M

2

C

1

= C

1

T

1/2

C

2

=

C

2

T

(3.18)

Now, by simple replacing into the governing equations eq. 3.1 the dimensional quantities by their

corresponding nondimensional equivalent, the following nondimensional equations are obtained

t

+

E

i

x

+

F

i

y

+

G

i

z

=

E

v

x

+

F

v

y

+

G

v

z

(3.19)

where

Q is the vector of the nondimensional conserved ow variables given by

Q =

_

_

u

v

w

e

t

_

_

(3.20)

and

E

i

=

E

i

(Q),

F

i

=

F

i

(Q) and

G

i

=

G

i

(Q) are the vectors containing the nondimensional

inviscid uxes in the x, y and z directions and are given by

E

i

=

_

_

u

u

2

+ p

u v

u w

( e

t

+ p) u,

_

_

,

F

i

=

_

_

v

v u

v

2

+ p

v w

( e

t

+ p) v,

_

_

,

G

i

=

_

_

w

w u

w v

w

2

+ p

( e

t

+ p) w

_

_

(3.21)

and

E

v

=

E

v

(Q),

F

v

=

F

v

(Q) and

G

v

=

G

v

(Q) are the vectors containing the nondimensional

viscous uxes in the x, y and z directions and are given by

39

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

E

v

=

_

_

0

xx

xy

xz

u

xx

+ v

xy

+ w

xz

q

x

_

F

v

=

_

_

0

yx

yy

yz

u

yx

+ v

yy

+ w

yz

q

y

_

G

v

=

_

_

0

zx

zy

zz

u

zx

+ v

zy

+ w

zz

q

z

_

_

(3.22)

However, in the process of nondimensionalizing the equations, the terms M

and Re

L

arises from

the nondimensional viscous ux vectors. Therefore, the denition of the heat ux components

and the viscous stresses may be modied as follows

q

x

=

( 1) M

2

Re

L

Pr

T

x

q

y

=

( 1) M

2

Re

L

Pr

T

y

q

z

=

( 1) M

2

Re

L

Pr

T

z

(3.23)

and

40

3.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS TO

GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

xx

=

2

3

Re

L

_

2

u

x

v

y

w

z

_

yy

=

2

3

Re

L

_

2

v

y

u

x

w

z

_

zz

=

2

3

Re

L

_

2

w

z

u

x

v

y

_

xy

=

Re

L

_

u

y

+

v

x

_

xz

=

Re

L

_

u

z

+

w

x

_

yz

=

Re

L

_

v

z

+

w

y

_

yx

=

xy

zx

=

xz

zy

=

yz

(3.24)

Finally, by nondimensionalizing the equations of state eq. 3.10, we obtain

p = ( 1) e

i

,

T =

p

R

g

=

( 1) e

i

R

g

(3.25)

where the nondimensional specic internal energy per unit mass e

i

= p/( 1) is related to the

nondimensional total energy per unit mass e

t

by the following relationship,

e

t

= e

i

+

1

2

_

u

2

+ v

2

+ w

2

_

(3.26)

Note that the nondimensional form of the equations given by eq. 3.19, eq. 3.20, eq. 3.21 and

eq. 3.22 are identical (except for the) to the dimensional form given by equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2,

eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4. For the sake of simplicity, the notation will be dropped for the remainder of

this dissertation. Thus, all the equations will be given in nondimensional form unless otherwise

specied.

3.3 Transformation of the Governing Equations to Generalized

Curvilinear Coordinates

The Navier-Stokes system of equation (eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4) are valid for any

coordinate system. We have previously expressed these equations in terms of a Cartesian co-

ordinate system. For many applications it is more convenient to use a generalized curvilinear

coordinate system. The use of generalized curvilinear coordinates implies that a distorted region

in physical space is mapped into a rectangular region in the generalized curvilinear coordinate

space (gure 3.1). Often, the transformation is chosen so that the discretized equations are

solved in a uniform logically rectangular domain for 2D applications and an equivalent uniform

logically hexahedral domain for 3D applications. The transformation shall be such that there is

a one-to-one correspondence of the grid points from the physical space (Cartesian coordinates)

41

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

to computational space (generalized curvilinear coordinates).

Figure 3.1: Correspondence between the physical space (Cartesian coordinates) and the computational

space (generalized curvilinear coordinates).

Hereafter, we will describe the general transformation of the nondimensional Navier-Stokes sys-

tem of equations (eq. 3.19, eq. 3.20, eq. 3.21 and eq. 3.22) given in the previous section between

the physical space (Cartesian coordinates) and the computational space (generalized curvilinear

coordinates). The governing equations are written in strong conservation form and expressed in

terms of the generalized curvilinear coordinates as independent variables, thus the computations

are performed in the generalized curvilinear coordinate space.

The governing equations of uid dynamics are transformed from the physical space P = P(x, y, z, t)

to the computational space C = C(, , , ) by using the following transformations

= (t) = t

= (x, y, z, t)

= (x, y, z, t)

= (x, y, z, t)

(3.27)

where is considered to be equal to t and thus the transformation with respect to time is simple

dened as = t as shown in eq. 3.27.

Applying the chain rule, the partial derivatives of any quantity = (x, y, z, t) with respect to

the Cartesian coordinates can be written as

42

3.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS TO

GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

t

=

+

t

+

t

+

t

x

=

x

+

x

+

x

y

=

y

+

y

+

y

z

=

z

+

z

+

z

(3.28)

Then the governing equations may be transformed from physical space P to computational space

C by replacing the Cartesian derivatives by the partial derivatives given in eq. 3.28, where the

terms

x

,

x

,

x

,

y

,

y

,

y

,

z

,

z

,

z

,

t

,

t

and

t

are called metrics (they represents the ratio of arc

lengths in the computational space C to that of the physical space P) and where

x

represents

the partial derivative of with respect to x, i.e. /x, and so forth.

Figure 3.2: Transformation from physical space to computational space. Left: structured grid in physical

space. Right: logically uniform grid in computational space.

In most cases, the transformation eq. 3.27 from physical space P to computational space C is not

known analytically, rather it is generated numerically by a grid generation scheme. That is, we

usually are provided with just the x, y and z coordinates of the grid points and we numerically

generate the metrics using nite dierences. The metrics

x

,

x

,

x

,

y

,

y

,

y

,

z

,

z

,

z

,

t

,

t

and

t

appearing in eq. 3.28 can be determined in the following manner. First, we write down the

dierential expressions of the inverse of the transformation eq. 3.27,

dt = t

d + t

d + t

d + t

d

dx = x

d + x

d + x

d + x

d

dy = y

d + y

d + y

d + y

d

dz = z

d + z

d + z

d + z

d

(3.29)

where the inverse of the transformation eq. 3.27 is

43

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

t = t () =

x = x(, , , )

y = y (, , , )

z = z (, , , )

(3.30)

and recalling that for a grid that is not changing (moving, adapting or deforming)

t

= 1 and

t

=

t

=

t

= 0 thus

dt = d

Expressing eq. 3.29 in matrix form, we obtain

_

_

dt

dx

dy

dz

_

_

=

_

_

1 0 0 0

x

_

_

_

d

d

d

d

_

_

(3.31)

In a like manner, we proceed with the transformation eq. 3.27, and we obtain the following

dierential expressions

d = dt

d =

t

dt +

x

dx +

y

dy +

z

dz

d =

t

dt +

x

dx +

y

dy +

z

dz

d =

t

dt +

x

dx +

y

dy +

z

dz

(3.32)

which can be written in matrix form as

_

_

d

d

d

d

_

_

=

_

_

1 0 0 0

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

_

_

_

_

dt

dx

dy

dz

_

_

(3.33)

By relating the dierential expressions eq. 3.33 of the transformation eq. 3.27 to the dierential

expressions eq. 3.31 of the transformation eq. 3.30, so that the metrics

x

,

x

,

x

,

y

,

y

,

y

,

z

,

z

,

z

,

t

,

t

,

t

can be found, we conclude that

_

_

1 0 0 0

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

_

_

=

_

_

1 0 0 0

x

_

1

(3.34)

44

3.3. TRANSFORMATION OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS TO

GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES

This yields the following metrics relationships

x

= J

x

(y

y

= J

x

(x

z

= J

x

(x

t

= (

t

x

x

+

t

y

y

+

t

z

z

)

x

= J

x

(y

y

= J

x

(x

z

= J

x

(x

t

= (

t

x

x

+

t

y

y

+

t

z

z

)

x

= J

x

(y

y

= J

x

(x

z

= J

x

(x

t

= (

t

x

x

+

t

y

y

+

t

z

z

)

(3.35)

For

t

,

t

and

t

the following values are obtained after some manipulation

t

= J

x

[x

(y

) + y

(x

) + z

(x

)]

t

= J

x

[x

(y

) + y

(x

) + z

(x

)]

t

= J

x

[x

(y

) + y

(x

) + z

(x

)]

(3.36)

In eq. 3.35 and eq. 3.36, J

x

is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix of the transformation

dened by

J

x

=

(, , )

(x, y, z)

or

J

x

=

1

x

(y

) x

(y

) + x

(y

)

(3.37)

which can be interpreted as the ratio of the areas (volumes in 3D) in the computational space C

to that of the physical space P.

Once relations for the metrics and for the Jacobian of the transformation are determined, the

governing equations eq. 3.19 are then written in strong conservation form as

Q

t

+

E

i

F

i

+

G

i

E

v

F

v

+

G

v

(3.38)

where

45

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

Q =

Q

J

x

E

i

=

1

J

x

(

t

Q+

x

E

i

+

y

F

i

+

z

G

i

)

F

i

=

1

J

x

(

t

Q+

x

E

i

+

y

F

i

+

z

G

i

)

G

i

=

1

J

x

(

t

Q+

x

E

i

+

y

F

i

+

z

G

i

)

E

v

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

v

+

y

F

v

+

z

G

v

)

E

v

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

v

+

y

F

v

+

z

G

v

)

E

v

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

v

+

y

F

v

+

z

G

v

)

(3.39)

The viscous stresses given by eq. 3.24 in the transformed computational space are

xx

=

2

3

Re

L

[2 (

x

u

+

x

u

+

x

u

) (

y

v

+

y

v

+

y

v

) . . .

. . . (

z

w

+

z

w

+

z

w

)]

yy

=

2

3

Re

L

[2 (

y

v

+

y

v

+

y

v

) (

x

u

+

x

u

+

x

u

) . . .

. . . (

z

w

+

z

w

+

z

w

)]

zz

=

2

3

Re

L

[2 (

z

w

+

z

w

+

z

w

) (

x

u

+

x

u

+

x

u

) . . .

. . . (

y

v

+

y

v

+

y

v

)]

(3.40)

xy

=

yx

=

Re

L

(

y

u

+

y

u

+

y

u

+

x

v

+

x

v

+

x

v

)

xz

=

zx

=

Re

L

(

z

u

+

z

u

+

z

u

+

x

w

+

x

w

+

x

w

)

yz

=

zy

=

Re

L

(

z

v

+

z

v

+

z

v

+

y

w

+

y

w

+

y

w

)

and the heat ux components given by eq. 3.23 in the computational space are

q

x

=

( 1) M

2

Re

L

Pr

(

x

T

+

x

T

+

x

T

)

q

y

=

( 1) M

2

Re

L

Pr

(

y

T

+

y

T

+

y

T

)

q

z

=

( 1) M

2

Re

L

Pr

(

z

T

+

z

T

+

z

T

)

(3.41)

Equations eq. 3.38 and eq. 3.39 are the generic form of the governing equations written in strong

conservation form in the transformed computational space C (see [14], [85] and [181] for a detailed

derivation). The coordinate transformation presented in this section, follows the same develop-

ment proposed by Viviand [202] and Vinokur [201], where they show that the governing equations

46

3.4. SIMPLIFICATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS:

INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW CASE

of uid dynamics can be put back into strong conservation form after a coordinate transformation

has been applied.

Comparing the original governing equations eq. 3.19, eq. 3.20, eq. 3.21 and eq. 3.22 and the trans-

formed equations eq. 3.38 and eq. 3.39, it is obvious that the transformed equations are more

complicated than the original equations. Thus, a trade-o is introduced whereby advantages

gained by using the generalized curvilinear coordinates are somehow counterbalanced by the re-

sultant complexity of the equations. However, the advantages (such as the capability of using

standard nite dierences schemes and solving the equations in a uniform rectangular logically

grid) by far outweigh the complexity of the transformed governing equations.

One nal word of caution. The strong conservation form of the governing equations in the

transformed computational space C is a convenient form for applying nite dierence schemes.

However, when using this form of the equations, extreme care must be exercised if the grid is

changing (that is moving, adapting or deforming). In this case, a constraint on the way the

metrics are dierenced, called the geometric conservation law or GCL (see [50], [55] and [185]),

must be satised in order to prevent additional errors from being introduced into the solution.

3.4 Simplication of the Navier-Stokes System of Equations: In-

compressible Viscous Flow Case

Equations eq. 3.1, eq. 3.2, eq. 3.3 and eq. 3.4 with an appropriate equation of state and boundary

and initial conditions, governs the unsteady three-dimensional motion of a viscous Newtonian,

compressible uid. In many applications the uid density may be assumed to be constant. This

is true not only for liquids, whose compressibility may be neglected, but also for gases if the

Mach number is below 0.3 [6, 53]; such ows are said to be incompressible. If the ow is also

isothermal, the viscosity is also constant. In this case, the dimensional governing equations in

primitive variable formulation (u, v, w, p) and written in compact conservative dierential form

reduce to the following set

(u) = 0

u

t

+ (uu) =

p

+

2

u

where is the kinematic viscosity and is equal = /. The same set of equations in nondimen-

sional form is written as follows

(u) = 0

u

t

+ (uu) = p +

1

Re

L

2

u

which can be also written in nonconservative form (or advective/convective form [60])

u = 0

u

t

+u u = p +

1

Re

L

2

u

or in expanded three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates

47

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

u

x

+

v

y

+

w

z

= 0

u

t

+ u

u

x

+ v

u

y

+ w

u

z

=

p

x

+

1

Re

L

_

2

u

x

2

+

2

u

y

2

+

2

u

z

2

_

v

t

+ u

v

x

+ v

v

y

+ w

v

z

=

p

x

+

1

Re

L

_

2

v

x

2

+

2

v

y

2

+

2

v

z

2

_

w

t

+ u

w

x

+ v

w

y

+ w

w

z

=

p

x

+

1

Re

L

_

2

w

x

2

+

2

w

y

2

+

2

w

z

2

_

(3.42)

This form (the advective/convective form), provides the simplest form for discretization and is

widely used when implementing numerical methods for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes

equations, as noted by Gresho [60].

Equation eq. 3.42 governs the unsteady three-dimensional motion of a viscous, incompressible

and isothermal ow. This simplication is generally not of a great value, as the equations are

hardly any simpler to solve. However, the computing eort may be much smaller than for the

full equations (due to the reduction of the unknowns and the fact that the energy equation is

decoupled from the system of equation), which is a justication for such a simplication. The set

of equations eq. 3.42 can be rewritten in vector form as follow

Q

t

+

E

i

x

+

F

i

y

+

G

i

z

=

E

v

x

+

F

v

y

+

G

v

z

(3.43)

where Q is the vector containing the primitive variables and is given by

Q =

_

_

0

u

v

w

_

_

(3.44)

and E

i

, F

i

and G

i

are the vectors containing the inviscid uxes in the x, y and z directions and

are given by

E

i

=

_

_

u

u

2

+ p

uv

uw

_

_

, F

i

=

_

_

v

vu

v

2

+ p

vw

_

_

, G

i

=

_

_

w

wu

wv

w

2

+ p

_

_

(3.45)

The viscous uxes in the x, y and z directions, E

v

, F

v

and G

v

respectively, are dened as follows

E

v

=

_

_

0

xx

xy

xz

_

_

, F

v

=

_

_

0

yx

yy

yz

_

_

, G

v

=

_

_

0

zx

zy

zz

_

_

(3.46)

Since we made the assumptions of an incompressible ow, appropriate nondimensional terms and

48

3.4. SIMPLIFICATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS:

INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW CASE

expressions for shear stresses must be used, these expressions are given as follows

xx

=

2

Re

L

u

x

yy

=

2

Re

L

v

y

zz

=

2

Re

L

w

z

xy

=

1

Re

L

_

u

y

+

v

x

_

xz

=

1

Re

L

_

w

x

+

u

z

_

yz

=

1

Re

L

_

w

y

+

v

z

_

yx

=

xy

zx

=

xz

zy

=

yz

(3.47)

Following the procedure presented in the previous section, the nondimensional incompressible

Navier-Stokes system of equations eq. 3.43 in the computational space C is expressed as

Q

t

+

E

i

F

i

+

G

i

E

v

F

v

+

G

v

(3.48)

where

Q =

Q

J

x

E

i

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

i

+

y

F

i

+

z

G

i

)

F

i

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

i

+

y

F

i

+

z

G

i

)

G

i

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

i

+

y

F

i

+

z

G

i

)

E

v

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

v

+

y

F

v

+

z

G

v

)

F

v

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

v

+

y

F

v

+

z

G

v

)

G

v

=

1

J

x

(

x

E

v

+

y

F

v

+

z

G

v

)

(3.49)

In eq. 3.49,

Q is the vector containing the primitive variables and

E

i

,

F

i

and

G

i

are the vectors

containing the inviscid uxes in the , and directions respectively, and are given by

49

CHAPTER 3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS

Q =

1

J

x

_

_

0

u

v

w

_

_

,

E

i

=

1

J

x

_

_

U

uU + p

x

vU + p

y

wU + p

z

_

_

,

F

i

=

1

J

x

_

_

V

uV + p

x

vV + p

y

wV + p

z

_

_

,

G

i

=

1

J

x

_

_

W

uW + p

x

vW + p

y

wW + p

z

_

_

(3.50)

where U, V and W are the contravariant velocities

U = u

x

+ v

y

+ w

z

, V = u

x

+ v

y

+ w

z

, W = u

x

+ v

y

+ w

z

The shear stresses given by eq. 3.47 expressed in the computational space C are as follow

xx

=

2

Re

L

(

x

u

+

x

u

+

x

u

yy

=

2

Re

L

(

y

v

+

y

v

+

y

v

zz

=

2

Re

L

(

z

w

+

z

w

+

z

w

xy

=

1

Re

L

(

y

u

+

y

u

+

y

u

+

x

v

+

x

v

+

x

v

xz

=

1

Re

L

(

z

u

+

z

u

+

z

u

+

x

w

+

x

w

+

x

w

yz

=

1

Re

L

(

y

w

+

y

w

+

y

w

+

z

v

+

z

v

+

z

v

yx

=

xy

zx

=

xz

zy

=

yz

(3.51)

Substituting the expressions for the shear stresses given by eq. 3.51 into the viscous ux vectors

E

v

,

F

v

and

G

v

(given by eq. 3.49) in the , and directions respectively, we obtain the following

equations

50

3.4. SIMPLIFICATION OF THE NAVIER-STOKES SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS:

INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW CASE

E

v

=

1

J

x

Re

L

_

_

0

a

1

u

+ b

1

u

c

1

v

+ c

2

w

+ b

2

u

d

1

v

+ d

2

w

a

1

v

+ c

1

u

+ b

1

v

c

3

w

+ d

1

u

+ b

2

v

d

3

w

a

1

w

c

2

u

+ c

3

v

+ b

1

w

d

2

u

+ d

3

v

+ b

2

w

F

v

=

1

J

x

Re

L

_

_

0

a

2

u

+ b

1

u

+ c

1

v

c

2

w

+ b

2

u

e

1

v

+ e

2

w

a

2

v

c

1

u

+ b

1

v

+ c

3

w

+ e

1

u

+ b

3

v

e

3

w

a

2

w

+ c

2

u

c

3

v

+ b

1

w

e

2

u

+ e

3

v

+ b

3

w

G

v

=

1

J

x

Re

L

_

_

0

a

3

u

+ b

2

u

+ d

1

v

d

2

w

+ b

3

u

+ e

1

v

e

2

w

a

3

v

c

4

u

+ b

2

v

+ d

3

w

e

1

u

+ b

3

v

+ e

3

w

a

3

w

+ d

2

u

d

3

v

+ b

2

w

+ c

8

u

e

3

v

+ b

3

w

_

(3.52)

where

a

1

=

2

x

+

2

y

+

2

z

, a

2

=

2

x

+

2

y

+

2

z

, a

3

=

2

x

+

2

y

+

2

z

,

b

1

=

x

x

+

y

y

+

z

z

, b

2

=

x

x

+

y

y

+

z

z

,

b

3

=

x

x

+

y

y

+

z

z

,

c

1

=

x

y

, c

2

=

x

z

, c

3

=

y

z

,

d

1

=

x

y

, d

2

=

x

z

, d

3

=

y

z

,

e

1

=

x

y

, e

2

=

x

z

, e

3

=

y

z

(3.53)

equations eq. 3.52 and eq. 3.53 written in a more compact way, can be expressed as

E

v

=

1

J

x

Re

L

_

_

0

( ) u

+ ( ) u

+ ( ) u

( ) v

+ ( ) v

+ ( ) v

( ) w

+ ( ) w

+ ( ) w

F

v

=

1

J

x

Re

L

_

_

0

( ) u

+ ( ) u

+ ( ) u

( ) v

+ ( ) v

+ ( ) v

( ) w

+ ( ) w

+ ( ) w

G

v

=

1

J

x

Re

L

_

_

0

( ) u

+ ( ) u

+ ( ) u

( ) v

+ ( ) v

+ ( ) v

( ) w

+ ( ) w

+ ( ) w

_

(3.54)

Equation eq. 3.48, together with eq. 3.49, eq. 3.50 and eq. 3.54, are the governing equations of an

incompressible viscous ow written in strong conservation form in the transformed computational

space C. Hence, we look for an approximate solution of this set of equations in a given domain

D with prescribed boundary conditions D and given initial conditions D

presented the governing equations; in the following chapters the grid generation method as well

as the numerical scheme for solving the governing equations will be explained.

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