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WIRELESS NOTICE BOARD USING RF

A mini project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Submitted by
S. ANUSHA (097G1A0452) A.MAMATHA (097G1A0401) I. MANASA (097G1A0422). M.KAVITHA (097G1A0434)

Under the guidance of Mr.R. ARUN KUMAR


(Asst.Prof)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIVEKANANDA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES FOR WOMEN


BOMMAKAL, KARIMNAGAR DIST-505 001 (Affiliated to JNTU HYD) (2012-2013)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that mini project entitled WIRELESS NOTICE BOARD USING RF is being submitted by S.ANUSHA, I.MANASA, A.MAMATHA, and M.KAVITHA. ROLL No: 097G1A0452, 097G1A0422, 097G1A0401, 097G1A0434, in the partial fulfillment for the award of degree of bachelor of technology in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING to JNTU is a record of bonafide work carried out by them. The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of any degree.

Mr. R.ARUN KUMAR Asst. Professor

Mrs. R. VANITHA RANI. HOD of ECE department

Internal examiner

External examiner

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I consider it as my privilege to express our gratitude and respect to all those who guided, inspired and helped us in completion of this project. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Mr.R.Arun kumar, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vivekananda institute of technology and sciences for women, Karimnagar, for his guidance and valuable suggestions while carrying out this project work. I also express thanks to Mrs. R.Vanitha Rani, HOD of ECE, Vivekananda institute of technology and sciences for women, Karimnagar for her support. I am highly indebted to Principal Mr. Somi Reddy garu for giving us the permission to carry out this project. I would like to thank the Teaching & Non-teaching staff of Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering for sharing their knowledge with us.

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the mini project entitled WIRLESS NOTICE BOARD USING RF is being submitted by us in the partial fulfilment for the award of degree of bachelor of technology in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING to JNTU is a record of bonafide work carried out by us. The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of any degree

S. Anusha

(097G1A0452)

CONTENTS

Abstract List of figures and tables

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction of embedded system Objective of the system Requirements 1.3.2 Software tools 1.4 1.5 Block diagram 1.4.1 Explanation Schematic diagram 1.5.1 Explanation 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 6

1.3.1 Hardware tools

CHAPTER 2: HARDWARE MODULES


2.1 Inputs 2.2 Outputs 2.3 Microcontroller 2.4 Encoder and Decoder 8 10 12 16

CHAPTER 3: SOFTWARE MODULES


3.1 Keil micro vision 3.2 PCB wizard 3.3 Micro C flash 20 28 29

CHAPTER 4:
4.1 Advantages 4.2 Applications 4.3 Enhancements 31 31 31 32 33

CONCLUSION REFERENCES

ABSTRACT

In Todays Electronic world wireless communication is playing a very important role. Using todays Communication technology the data transmission and reception from one place to another is easy and fast. ` In our project we have two sections, one is transmitter another one Receiver, transmitting section we have AT89S52 Microcontroller, PC and LCD. In Receiver section we have another AT89S52 Microcontroller and LCD. At the time when data will transfer from the transmitter a pre defined code will be added with every 8 bit data and when this data received by the Receiver this code will be decoded by the receiver and generate the exact data that will be displayed on LCD. In this project Wireless Encoding and decoding are using one of the techniques called cipher text technique. Encryption is any procedure to convert plaintext into Cipher text. Decryption is any procedure to convert cipher text into plaintext.

Hardware components:
AT 89C52 Micro controllers LCD RF Module. MAX 232 DB-9 Connector.

Software tools:
Kiel vision.

Advantages:
The data secure is more while transferring data Used in data communication.

Applications:
This system can be used for Military application for security. It can be used in Air craft applications.

LIST OF FIGURES
1.4 1.5.1 1.5.3 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1..3 2.2.1 2.3.1 2.4.1 2.4.2 3.1.2 Block diagram of wireless notice board RF Transmitter RF Receiver power supply circuit power supply circuit block diagram MAX232 LCD pin configuration HT12E Encoder HT12D Decoder PCB whizard in real time 2 4 6 8 9 9 11 13 16 18 29

LIST OF TABLES
2.4.1 2.4.2 HT12E Encoder pin description HT12D Decoder pin description 17 20

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CHAPTER 1
1. Introduction:
Now-a-days most of the electronic notice boards are designed using wire system, drawback of this type of the system is inflexible in turn of placement. The wireless electronic notice boards offer flexibility to user to control the information display within a specified distance. 1.1 Introduction to embedded systems The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analyze the database is known as the standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purposes and applications. You need to install the relevant software to get the required processing facility. So, these desktop computers can do many things. In contrast, embedded controllers carryout a specific work for which they are designed. Engineers design these embedded controllers with a specific goal in mind. So these controllers cannot be used in any other place. 1.2 objective of the system The main objective of the project is to develop a wireless notice board that will be used any where such as faculty, mosques, shops and any other places in order to display latest information. Now-a-days most of the electronic notice boards are designed using wired system, drawback of this type of design is the system is inflexible in term of placement. 1.3 Requirements 1.3.1 Hardware components: 1.3.2 Software tools: Kiel vision. PCB wizard Micro C flash AT 89C52 Micro controllers LCD RF Module. MAX 232

1 1.4 Block diagram

LCD

Regulated power supply PC Max 232

Embedded controller

Embedded controller

Regulate d Power Supply

RF Transmitte r module

RF Receiver module

TRANSMITTER

RECEIVER

Fig: 1.4 block diagram of wireless notice board

1.4.2 Block diagram explanation


Electronic notice board is a common device that is used to display information. The information or messages are displayed using pc. The wireless system for dot matrix display is a method using Radio Frequency as transmission medium. The system consists of two modules; transmitter and receiver. The transmitter module is used by a user to place a message through an input module such as pc. The information then transmitted using RF technology to the receiver. It then will be decoded and displayed on electronic notice board. Above figure is a simple block diagram of wireless notice board using RF. The system is divided into different modules. The modules are: Microcontroller Module Liquid Crystal Display Module Encoder and Decoder Module Transmitter and Receiver Module

1.5 Schematic
1.5.1 Transmitter

Fig: 1.5.1 Transmitter 1.5.2Explanation: The STT-433 is ideal for remote control applications where low cost and longer range is required. The transmitter operates from a1.5-12V supply, making it ideal for battery-powered applications. The transmitter employs a SAW-stabilized oscillator, ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance. Output power and harmonic emissions are easy to control, making FCC and ETSI compliance easy. The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STT-433 suitable for high volume applications.

Fig 1.5.2: RF Transmitter Transmitter is a device that is used to transmit signal to free space at certain frequency. The signal source is modulated by carrier into a modulated signal to ensure it is received by a receiver. The transmitter used in this project is FM-TX1 that operates at 433.92MHz. The transmitter is designed to work in pair with receiver FM-RX1. With additional simple antenna, the transmitter can be used to transmit data up to 200m range. The range depends on several factors. One of the elements that is antenna design. In theory, the 200m quote range is a reliable range over open ground using1 whip antenna at both end with 1.5m above ground. Smaller antenna, interference or building will reduce the reliable range to 25-30m range. Increase the size of the antenna and slower the data transfer will increase the reliable range.

5 1.5.3 Receiver

Fig:1.5.3 RF Receiver

1.5.4 Explanation: The STR-433 is ideal for short-range remote control applications where cost is a primary concern. The receiver module requires no external RF components except for the antenna. It generates virtually no emissions, making FCC and ETSI approvals easy. The super-regenerative design exhibits exceptional sensitivity at a very low cost. The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STR-433 suitable for high volume applications.

Fig 1.5.4: RF receiver The receiver is used to receive signal from free space through the antenna. The modulated signal is then demodulated to obtain the original signal. Demodulation process is important to separate between carrier signal and modulating signal. Like the transmitter, the frequency of receiver that used is 433.92MHz. The type of the receiver is FM-RX1. The characteristic of a receiver must be similar with transmitter. If the characteristic is not equal, the data cannot be transferred to the receiver. FM-RX1 can receive data from FM-TX1 in the range of 200m in open and 25-30m when there are obstacles. The range is also influenced by the size of the antenna and the environment. The larger antenna, the better receive

CHAPTER 2
2. Hardware modules 2.1 Inputs
2.1.1Power supply circuit:

Fig: 2.1.1 Power supply circuit A variable regulated power supply, also called a variable bench power supply, is one where you can continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements. Varying the output of the power supply is the recommended way to test a project after having double checked parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement guide. This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench power supply. Actually this is quite important because one of the first projects a hobbyist should undertake is the construction of a variable regulated power supply. While a dedicated supply is quite handy e.g. 5V or 12V, it's much handier to have a variable supply on hand, especially for testing.

8 2.1.2 power supply circuit block diagram

2.1.2 Regulated power supply block diagram 2.1.3 MAX 232 Serial RS-232 (V.24) communication works with voltages (-15V ... -3V for high [sic]) and +3V ... +15V for low [sic]) which are not compatible with normal computer logic voltages. On the other hand, classic TTL computer logic operates between 0V ... +5V (roughly 0V ... +0.8V for low, +2V ... +5V for high). Modern low-power logic operates in the range of 0V ... +3.3V or even lower.

Fig: 2.1.3 MAX 232

9 When a processor communicates with the outside world, it provides data in byte sized chunks. Computers transfer data in two ways: parallel and serial. In parallel data transfers, often more lines are used to transfer data to a device and 8 bit data path is expensive. The serial communication transfer uses only a single data line instead of the 8 bit data line of parallel communication which makes the data transfer not only cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over telephone. To allow the compatibility among data communication equipment made by various manufacturers, and interfacing standard called RS232 was set by the Electronics industries Association in 1960. Today RS232 is the most widely used I/O interfacing standard. This standard is used in PCs and numerous types of equipment. However, since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. In RS232, a 1 bit is represented by -3 to -25V, while a 0 bit is represented +3 to +25 V, making -3 to +3 undefined. For this reason, to connect any RS232 to a microcontroller system we must use voltage converters such as MAX232 to connect the TTL logic levels to RS232 voltage levels and vice versa. MAX232 ICs are commonly referred to as line drivers.

2.2 outputs
2.2.1 Liquid crystal display Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have materials which combine the properties of both liquids and crystals. Rather than having a melting point, they have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal. The LCDs used exclusively in watches, calculators and measuring instruments are the simple seven-segment displays, having a limited amount of numeric data.

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Fig 2.2.1 LCD


2.2.2 LCD operation In recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED s (seven-segment LED s or other multi-segment LED s).This is due to the following reasons: 1. The declining prices of LCDs. 2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LED which is limited to numbers and a few characters. 3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, there by relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In the case of LED s, they must be refreshed by the CPU to keep on displaying the data. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics

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2.3 MICROCONTROLLER AT89S52:


The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8k bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non volatile memory pro- grammar. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con- tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset

Features
32 programmable i/o lines 8KB in system programmable flash memory 256 X 8 bit internal RAM Three 16 bit timer/counters 4.0 to 5.5V operating range 8 interrupt sources

12 2.3.1 Pin configuration

Fig 2.3.1 pin configuration

2.3.2 Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode,

P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. 13 Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown

in the following table. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

14 RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives High for 96 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH... PSEN: Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external pro-gram memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external pro- gram memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. XTAL1:

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. 15

2.4 Encoder and Decoder


2.4.1 HT12E Encoder The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. Each address/ data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. The HT12A additionally provides a 38kHz carrier for infrared systems.

Fig: 2.4.1 HT12E Encoder

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Fig: 2.4.1 HT12E Encoder pin description

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2.4.2 HT12D Decoder The decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are paired with Holtek_s series of encoders (refer to the encoder/ decoder cross reference table). For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 212 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. The series of decoders are capable of decoding information that consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. Of this series, the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits, and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information.

Fig: 2.4.2 HT12D Decoder

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Table:2.4.2 HT12D Decoder pin description Encoder and decoder are used in the project to ensure only the intended receiver receives the signal. This is due to the fact that the signal is broadcasted using radio wave. Thus, it allows the signal to be received by any receiver with the same frequency. The devices also play a role to convert data from parallel to serial and conversely. The type of encoder and decoder that will be used is this project is HT12E and HT12D. Both of these devices have 255 possible addresses. Data transmitted use 4 bits while address uses 8 bits. Only the receiver with the same address as the transmitter will receive the signal

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CHAPTER 3
3.1 Software modules
Pcb wizard for schematic Keil micro vision for writing source code Micro c flash for dumping the code

3.1.1 keil micro vision Steps for source code creation::

1. 2.

Click on the Keil uVision Icon on Desktop The following fig will appear

3. 4.

Click on the Project menu from the title bar Then Click on New Project

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5.

Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\

6. 7. 8.

Then Click on save button above. Select the component for u r project. i.e. Atmel Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel

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9.

Select AT89C51 as shown below

10. 11.

Then Click on OK The Following fig will appear

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12. 13. 14.

Then Click either YES or NOmostly NO Now your project is ready to USE Now double click on the Target1, you would get another option Source group 1 as shown in next page.

15.

Click on the file option from menu bar and select new

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16.

The next screen will be as shown in next page, and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder.

17. 18.

Now start writing program in either in C or ASM For a program written in Assembly, then save it with extension . asm and for C based program save it with extension .C

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19.

Now right click on Source group 1 and click on Add files to Group Source

20.

Now you will get another window, on which by default C files will appear.

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21. 22. 23.

Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file Click only one time on option ADD Now Press function key F7 to compile. Any error will appear if so happen.

24. 25.

If the file contains no error, then press Control+F5 simultaneously. The new window is as follows

26

26. 27.

Then Click OK Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar, and check your required port as shown in fig below

28.

Drag the port a side and click in the program file.

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29. 30.

Now keep Pressing function key F11 slowly and observe. You are running your program successfully.

3.1.2 PCB whizard PCB Wizard 3 is a highly innovative package for designing single-sided and double sided printed circuit boards. It provides a comprehensive range of tools covering all the traditional steps in PCB production, including schematic drawing, schematic capture, component placement, automatic routing, and bill of materials reporting and files generation for manufacturing

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Fig 3.1.2: PCB whizard in real time

3.1.3 Micro C flash Programming language used in this project is C. C is a general purpose structured programming language that is powerful, efficient and compact. It has emerged as the language of choice for most applications due to speed, portability and compactness of code. The C compiler combines the capabilities of an assembler language with the features of high level language. C is highly portable. This means that C programs written for one computer can be on another with little or no modification. Portability is important if we plan to use a new computer with a different operating system.

29 C language is well suited for structured programming thus requiring the user to think of a problem in terms of function modules and blocks. A proper collection of these modules make a complete program. This modular structure makes program debugging, testing and maintenance easier. Another important feature of C is its ability to extend itself. A C program is basically a collection of functions that are supported by the C library. We can continuously add our own functions to the C library. With the availability of a large number of functions, the programming task becomes simple.

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CHAPTER 4
4.1Advantages

The data secure is more while transferring data Used in data communication

4.2 Applications
Used in hospitals Used in banks Used for traffic control Used for advertisements Used in Educational sector Used for information purpose Used in stock exchanges

4.3 Enhancements
This technology can be used for broader applications with the help of further enhancements It can be used to cover wide range by the use of effective RF Even we can increase the size of LCD so that it will be more practical and advanced with its various features like wireless communication, remote control Lets take an example of combination of micro controller and mobile technology, where we can deploy the feature of sms to the mobile along with LCD display. This adds to one of the major further enhancement.

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CONCLUSION

The system is constructed with simple circuits The information is modified without taking much time It reduces the work load and requires less time to display the information and gives accurate results It eliminates the use of a printer

The project WIRELSS NOTICE BOARD USING RF has been successfully designed and tested. Integrating features of all the hardware components used have developed it. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly advanced ICs and with the help of growing technology the project has been successfully implemented.

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REFERENCES
1. "The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming & Applications"

By Kenneth J Ayala. 2. "The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems" by Mohammed Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi 3. "Power Electronics by M D Singh and K B Khanchandan 4. "Linear Integrated Circuits by D Roy Choudary & Shail Jain 5. "Electrical Machines by S K Bhattacharya 6. "Electrical Machines II by B L Thereja 7. www.8051freeprojectsinfo.com

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