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Survey Operations

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

GR-SRV-433

Prepared by: Approved by:


1.0
Ver.

P. Bennion PJ Jansen
Issue for Use
Reason for Issue

Surveyor Chief Surveyor


Jan.17.02
Issue Date Prepared by Approved by

Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

Page 2 of 9

This is an electronically generated document, which has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the Acergy Management System. An audit trail of review and approval is available within the electronic system. The screen version of this document is the CONTROLLED COPY at all times. When printed it is considered a FOR INFORMATION ONLY copy, and it is the holders responsibility that he / she holds the latest valid version. , Acergy or a subsidiary thereof, Copyright 2006 and design right reserved. Copying and/or disclosure of the confidential information contained herein is prohibited without written permission of the proprietor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SCOPE.................................................................................................................3 2. OBJECTIVE..........................................................................................................3 3. REFERENCES.......................................................................................................3 4. DEFINITIONS......................................................................................................3 5. RESPONSIBILITIES.............................................................................................3 6. PROCEDURES......................................................................................................3 6.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION..................................................................................3 6.1.1 GENERAL..........................................................................................3 6.1.2 OPERATING FREQUENCY AND BEAM WIDTH.........................................4 6.1.3 SYSTEM RESOLUTION AND ACCURACY.................................................4 6.1.4 DEPTH RANGE AND TRANSIT POWER...................................................4 6.1.5 DISPLAY AND CONTROL PARAMETERS.................................................5 6.1.6 INPUT / OUTPUT................................................................................5 6.1.7 ECHO SOUNDER MODELS...................................................................5 6.2 SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND OPERATION........................................................6 6.2.1 MOBILISATION..................................................................................6 6.2.2 CALIBRATION....................................................................................7 6.2.3 OPERATION.......................................................................................8 6.2.4 DATA PROCESSING............................................................................8

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Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

Page 3 of 9

1.

SCOPE This Work Instruction covers the description and operation of single beam echosounders currently available for bathymetric survey operations.

2.

OBJECTIVE The objective of this work instruction is to enable suitably qualified personnel to operate single beam echo sounders in the various bathymetric survey applications, such as route and site surveys, pre-lay surveys, lay barge support, As-Built surveys and pipeline inspection surveys.

3.

REFERENCES GR-SRV-311 GR-SRV-313 GR-SRV-412 GR-SRV-431 GR-SRV-442 Single Beam Echosounder Practice Tidal Prediction Practice Motion Reference Unit Work Instruction Velocity Probe Work Instruction Tide Gauge Recording Work Instruction

4.

DEFINITIONS CTD MRU : : Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Motion Reference Unit

5.

RESPONSIBILITIES It is the responsibility of the Senior Surveyor to ensure that echosounder equipment, spares and consumables mobilised are checked off the packing list. The Senior Surveyor is also responsible that any damage or loss is reported to the Project Surveyor at the earliest opportunity. It is the responsibility of the Senior Surveyor to ensure that the echosounder is installed, tested and fully operational in accordance with the mobilisation procedures. It is the responsibility of all survey personnel involved in the operation of single beam echo sounders to comply with this Work Instruction and provide any comments on improvements to the Project Surveyor.

6.
6.1
6.1.1

PROCEDURES
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
General

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Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

Page 4 of 9

There are numerous single beam echosounder systems currently available on the offshore and hydrographic survey market, the major manufacturers being Atlas, Simrad, Knudsen and Odom. The differences between the various echosounders available are primarily the frequency(s) of operation, depth range, resolution, type of display, digitising option and interface capability. Other features such as the variety of user controls, durability, reliability, portability and cost are also significant in the design from use in small open boats to the largest of ocean going vessels, for hydrographic survey and marine navigation. Most echosounders have operate on 24 V dc with option of 110 / 220 V AC. The type of echosounder used in bathymetric survey operations will depend on the specific requirements detailed in the contract document, but essentially the choice will be dictated by the anticipated water depth and the nature of the seabed sediments. The design of echosounder systems are based on the following parameters:
6.1.2 Operating Frequency and Beam Width

The standard frequency of operation is 210 kHz and most dual frequency systems facilitate the use of alternative transducers of 12, 15, 33, 40, 200 and 710 kHz. There are also systems on the market that provide optional frequencies of up to 1 MHz. There are some systems available that provide the option of multichannel transducers to handle up to 192 transducers. The beamwidth of the transducers for general use varies from 3 to 20.
6.1.3 System Resolution and Accuracy

The resolution of the majority of echosounders are in the order of 0.01 metres. The accuracy to which depths can be measured varies on the frequency of transmission. The theoretical values (corrected for sound velocity) are summarised as follows:
6.1.4

15 kHz 33 kHz 210 kHz

20 cm 5 cm 1 cm

0.1% depth 0.1% depth 0.1% depth

Depth Range and Transit Power

The depth range of the echosounder varies between 0.0 to 15000 metres, but this is dependent on the type of transducer. The lower the frequency, the greater the range, typically as follows: 210 kHz 200 m 100 kHz 400 m 33 kHz 1700 3000 m

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Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

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12 kHz 10000 m

The available transmit power will vary depending on the type of transducer and depth range specification. The majority of echosounders have between 35 Watts and 10 kW available for low to high power requirements.
6.1.5 Display and Control Parameters

There are essentially two types of display: the standard thermal print and the LCD / TFT display (monochrome or colour). There are also options of an internal digital read-out / push button display for entering various control parameters as well as displaying depth measurement. There will be options of displaying scale lines, fix mark, digitised depth, heave, compensated depth trace. In the absence of a digital display echosounders have the facility of entering parameter settings with conventional knobs and switches. Typical parameters would include the following:
6.1.6

Chart Speed Auto Ranging Bottom Tracking Single / Dual / Multi Frequency Automatic / Manual - Phase and Receiver Gain Bandwidth Pulse rate and Pulse Length Alarm Filter

Input / Output

The majority of echosounder provide facility to input Fix Annotation, Position and Heave from a motion sensor. More standard inputs such as Transducer Draft, Speed of Sound and Tide are available on all systems through the control panel. Echosounder provide a variety of options for output. Digitised Depths, Corrected Depths and Heave are fairly standard; facility to output Position and Digital Image Data is only available on a limited number of echosounder models. The format for data output are generally standard and user selectable. Typical formats include NMEA and Deso ** as either RS232 or RS422.
6.1.7 Echo Sounder Models

Atlas Deso

Simrad

Kaijo

BioSonics

InnerSpace

E-Sea Sound

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Acergy

Survey Operations

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GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

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10 14 15 17/17 DS 22 25/25 SLS 300 DS-2 MS-2

EA 400 EA 500 EA 501/501 P EA 502 EK 500 EY 500 EQ 42/60 EQ 32/40/50 EK 60 ES 60 Raytheon

KFC 500 KFC 1000 KFC 2000 KFC 3000 KFC 5000

DE 4000 DE 5000 DE 6000 DT 4000 DT 5000 DT 6000

455 456 447 448 449/449 DF

206 / 206C

Knudsen

Odom HydroTrac Echotrac DF 3200 MkII/R

Elac HydroStar 4300 LAZ 4700/4721 LAZ 5000 LAZ 4420

320 B/BP/BR DE719D MkII 320 M/MP

6.2
6.2.1

SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND OPERATION


Mobilisation

During mobilisation the echo sounder should be inspected to ensure it has not suffered any damage. Any loss, omission or damage should be reported to the Project Surveyor at the earliest opportunity to arrange replacement. Any repairs that can be undertaken on board should be carried out before commencement of the survey. Adequate spares should be available to replace faulty or damaged parts during fieldwork, and sufficient consumables, such as paper rolls and labels, should be provided to cater for the anticipated workscope. If the vessel echosounder is not suitable or, indeed is absent, a temporary site should be located. Ideally the transducer should be mounted at the foot of an over-the-side mount or pole that can be secured and rotated to the vessel. The fabrication of the mount should be carried out in advance so long as prior knowledge of the vessel used is available. The position of the pole, and hence the transducer, should be as close to the centre of the vessel as possible, remote from sources of interference and aeration, such as thrusters. The depth of the transducer should also counter for the degree of anticipated vessel movement. Moreover, the depth of the transducer should also take into account the anticipated wave motion along the hull. The transducer cable should be thread through the pole to avoid unnecessary damage and secured to the deck and railings to avoid trip hazards.

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Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

Page 7 of 9

The offsets distances from the echosounder transducer and the Common Reference Point (CRP) should be measured and entered in the navigation software. The echosounder itself should be installed in the survey room. The unit should be tested operational with the transducer deployed. A variety of transmit and receiver gain settings should be used, at both low and high frequency, to ensure that the echosounder is functioning correctly. A heave compensator should also be installed if part of the contract specifications and should be mounted as close to the transducer as possible to remove any offset effects. Heave should be directly interfaced with the echo sounder to provide a heave compensated trace. The On-line Surveyor should check the interface with the navigation computer to ensure that communications to and from the echosounder are being received. Prior to commencement of bathymetric operations the Senior Surveyor should review the full workscope. The requirements and specifications should be addressed and approved by the Client Representative onboard. The position and length of all survey lines should also be confirmed. A list of the proposed locations and accompanying chart should be given to the on-line surveyor. If there is a requirement for a tide gauge this should be deployed in close proximity to the survey area. If a radio tide gauge is being utilised the communications with the navigation computer should be tested to ensure that tidal data is being received and logged. The deployment of tide gauge equipment is explained in Document Reference GR-SRV-442 Tide Gauge Recording Work Instruction.
6.2.2 Calibration Speed of Sound Determination

As part of the echo sounder calibration procedure the speed of sound in water should be determined using a CTD probe. This self-recording instrument is usually deployed to the seabed using a rope to log Conductivity, Temperature and Depth measurements at regular depth interval in the water column. From the readings obtained a velocity profile can be determined and an average velocity value calculated. The instructions for operating the CTD probe are detailed in Document Reference GR-SRV-431 Velocity Probe Work Instruction.
Transducer Draft

The transducer draft should be determined by measuring the length of the transducer pole and subtracting the distance of the top of the pole to the water surface. An alternative method would involve measuring to a reference, freeboard level. The choice of calculation will depend on practicality.

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Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

Page 8 of 9

Bar Check

Once the speed of sound and transducer draft have been established the values are entered into the echosounder. To verify these figures a standard Bar Check should be carried out. The steps of this procedure are given below: Preparations: Obtain rigid bar or scaffold pole comparable in width of the vessel. Cover bar with sponge rubber, foam plastic or bubble wrap to improve reflectivity Attached steel rope and shackle to each end of the bar. Mark steel rope with coloured tape at set 1 / 5 metre intervals Set the transmission line to zero. Input transducer draft. Input speed of sound.

Procedure: Lower bar over the vessel bow and position 1 metre directly under the transducer ensuring that the depth of both ends of the bar are the same. Confirm first return is received and adjust speed of sound until display reads 1 m. Lower the bar to a position 5 metre below the transducer and confirm first return now reads 5 metre on display. Adjust sound velocity if required. Repeat procedure at 5 / 10 metre intervals to a depth of 30 metres. Repeat procedure to the surface to confirm sound velocity.
6.2.3 Operation

It is unlikely that a single velocity of sound will be representative of a complete survey area. The Senior Surveyor should ensure that repeated profile measurements are undertaken periodically throughout the survey. The transducer draft will also change depending on weight of fuel and water on board, which is likely to decrease significantly when surveying for long periods. The Senior Surveyor should ensure the transducer draft is determined at regular intervals during the survey. The Senior Surveyor should ensure that the heave compensator is operating correctly and that the heave is (or can be) displayed at the echosounder. The Senior Surveyor should check that digitised data is received and logged at the navigation computer.
6.2.4 Data Processing

The Senior Surveyor should ensure that the echosounder coverage is per client specification by reviewing both line files and provisional charts. Re-runs should be carried out if there are gaps in the digitised data.

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Acergy

Survey Operations

Jan.17.02

GR-SRV-433 Ver. 1.0

Single Beam Echosounder Work Instruction

Page 9 of 9

If post-processing facilities are available on board each data file (or runline) should be edited in turn to remove spurious or anomalous records. If tidal information is available, predicted or observed, the depth data can be reduced to the required Chart Datum. The Senior Surveyor should review tidal corrected bathymetric charts to determine whether significant errors which may have been overlooked. Details The reduction tidal data is detailed in Document Reference GRSRV-313 Tidal Prediction Practice.

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