Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

FT 21 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER
OBJECTIVE 1. To explain the principal of the automatic sprinkler systems and their hazard classifications. REFERENCE 2. Manual of Fireman ship Book 9.

CONTENTS 3. Introduction. A sprinkler system complete system where it is so called an automatic detection, alarm and suppression system. 4. History. The sprinkler system was invented as early as 1906 in England but is only late 1874 that automatic sprinkler invented by an American Henry Parmelee was commercially exploited, Since then, thousands of buildings throughout the world has been fitted with automatic sprinkler protection system. 5. Principle of Design. Sprinkler systems are invariable designed in accordance with: a. British Standard Code Practice CP-402-201 (1952). b. The Rules of the Fire Officers Committee for Automatic Sprinkler Installation (F.O.C). 6. The code of practice makes general recommendation on design of component parts, materials used, inspection and maintenance. The CP and FOC Rules ensure that a sprinkler system is installed to a high standard and a failure seldom occurs. 7. Basically an automatic sprinkler installation comprises a system of pipes erected at or near ceiling of each floor of a building and connected through controlling valves to one or more water supplies. At intervals in the pipe work, at varying distances according to the classification of the premises, are sealed outlets called sprinklers or sprinkler heads. These contain a device whereby a rise in temperature to a predetermined limit causes the sprinkler to open and water to be discharge in the form of a spray over an area of the floor below the sprinkler. The sprinklers are so spaces that, in the event of two or more heads operating simultaneously, the area spray by each sprinkler overlaps that sprayed by its neighbor, thus leaving no part of the floor unprotected. 8. The operation of the head leads to the opening of a valve and causes an alarm bell to ting (and in some installation a direct call to the fire brigade), so drawing attention to the outbreak. The layout of a typical sprinkler system is shown in Fig 1.1.

136

Fig 1. Laying out of typical Sprinkler Installation 9. Risk Categories. The Fire Officers Committee arranges occupancies into risk categories, each having an accepted abbreviation. These are shown in Table 1. Table 1 Fire Officers; Committee Risk Categories. Category Extra light hazard Ordinary hazard: Group 1 Ordinary hazard: Group 2 Ordinary hazard: Group 3 Ordinary hazard: Group 3 Special Extra high hazard Abbreviation XLH OH1 OH2 OH3 OH3 (S) XHH

10. Pipe work for two or more different type of hazard system may be connected to a common set of control valves provided the total number of sprinklers does not exceed the permitted maximum. Each of these systems has been designed to give an appropriates density of discharge over an assumed maximum area of operation the highest and most hydraulically remote parts of a protected building. 11. The of discharge and the assumed maximum area of operation for the three classes are as follows:

137

a. Extra Light Hazard System. Density of discharge: 2.25 mm/min. Assumed maximum area of operation: 84m2. For certain areas of extra light hazard occupancies, such as attics, basements, boiler rooms, kitchens, laundries, storage areas and work-rooms, the density of discharge may be increased to 5 mm/min. b. Ordinary Hazard System. Density of discharge: 5 mm/min. Ordinary hazard systems have been graded into four groups on the basis of the assumed maximum area operation: (1) (2) (3) (4) c. Group 1 (light ordinary hazard OH1): 72 m Group 2 (medium ordinary hazard OH2): 144 m Group 3 (high ordinary hazard OH3): 216 m Group 3 Special (OH3(S)): 360 m

Extra High Hazard System Process risks. Density of discharge: 7.5 to 12.5 mm/min. (1) High Piled Storage Risks. Density of discharge 7.5 to 30 mm/min. Assumed maximum area of operation: 260 to 300 m.

138