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FT 25 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER

SPRINKLER HEADS
OBJECTIVE 1. To explain the types of the automatic sprinkler heads and their classifications.

REFERENCE 2. Manual of Fireman Ship Book 9.

CONTENTS 3. Introduction. Sprinkler heads are the key point of the system that extinguishes fire.

4. Sprinkler Head. There are many different designs of sprinkler head by them may be divided into two categories: a. b. Those in which the operating medium is fusible solder. Those in which a bulb is ruptured by the expansion a contained liquid.

5. Fusible Solder Type. A head of this type which is widely used is shown in Fig 5.1. The deflector (1) the purpose of which is to spread the water issuing from the orifice, is supported by the two arms of a yoke (2) which screws into the body of the sprinkler, the latter being itself screwed to the pipe. Held in place by the yoke is a flexible metal diaphragm (3) with a hole in the centre over which fits a valve (4) of glass or gun metal. Over the valve is fitted a metal cap (5) and this contains a notch into which the end of the strut (6) is inserted. The strut is supported by two other metal plated: the book (7), the curved end of which engages the deflector end of the yoke, and the key (8). These three parts are held rigidly together by a special fusible the solder and keep the valve cap in position against the pressure in the temperature surrounding the head raises to a level at which the solder is heated to its fusing point, the strut, hook and key fly apart owing to the strain under which they are held. The valve to the deflector.

Fig.5: A Fusible Solder Type Sprinkler Head 6. In another type (Fig.5.2) the metal parts holding the valve cap in place are constructed on the cantilever principle. Here two cantilever members pivoted on one another are connected by a fusible link places outside the arms of the yoke. The upper member (Fig 5.2) (1) is socket in the gun metal valve (2), and the lower member (3) in a slot 160

of the adjustable screw assembly in the deflector boss (4), which enables tension to be given to the cantilever members. When the fusible link (5) melts, the members are thrown clear of the head, additional trust being given by the pressure of water of air behind the disc (6) which is held in place over the orifice by the valve (2).

Fig.5.2: Another type of fusible solder sprinkler head which Operators on a cantilever principle 7. A third type of soldered sprinkler head is illustrated head is Fig 5.3. This shows how a soft metal gasket and valve, which from the watertight joint, are supported by a metal strut, which is retained in position so long as the hemispherical key remains held to the heat collector by the special solder used for this purpose. When a fire occurs, the temperature of the heat collector and key raises until the solder melts to release the key. The bock and key then spring outwards and, together with the strut, valve and gasket, are thrown clear to allow the discharge of water on to the deflector.

Fig.5.3: The Mather and Platt duraspeed soldered sprinkler head 8. Fusible metal type heads are supplied to operate at various temperatures, those commonly used being 72/c, 141C and 227C. The fusing temperature of a soldered sprinkler is stamped on the metal strut; since, however, sprinkler heads may become uncertain in their operation if the normal room temperature approaches too closely to the operating temperature, the recommended maximum room temperatures for heads of the above ratings are as shown in Table 5. 161

Table 5 Rating and Colors of Fusible Metal Sprinkler Heads. Rating of sprinkler 68 to 74C 93 to 100C 141C 182 C 227 C Colors of yoke arm The temperature rating chosen should Be as possible to, but not less than 30 C above the highest anticipated Temperature conditions

Uncolored. White Blue Yellow Red

9. To comply with the rules of the Fire Officers Committee, sprinkler heads installed in certain risks for example, buildings used in bleach, dye and textile print works alkali plants, organic fertilizer plants, foundries, pickle and vinegar works, electroplating and galvanizing works, paper mills and tanneries and in any premises or premises where corrosive vapors are prevalent, must have approved corrosion resistant coating (applied by the manufacturer), or must be coated twice with a good quality petroleum jelly. The first coat is to be applied before installation and the second after installation; thereafter the sprinkler heads must be re-coated at periodic intervals as necessary, but only after the removal of the old petroleum jelly and through cleaning. In the case of glass bulb type sprinklers, the anti-corrosion treatment is only applied to the body and yoke. 10. Bulb Type. IN the bulb type head (Fig 5.4) a small barrel or cylinder made of special glass is used to hold the water valve in place. This bulb is hermetically sealed and contains a quantity of liquid and small bubble. As the temperature rises, the liquid expands and the size of the bubble decreases until it disappears. A further rise shatters the bulb, breaking it into small pieces so that it cannot obstruct the water flow, and so opens the head. In spite of this ease of fracture, the strength of the bulb is such that it can withstand any pressure applied to the pipe. In a pressure destruction test, it is the metal part or the head that fall first.

Fig.5.4: Bulb Type Sprinkler Head 11. The gasket (2) is held in position by the bulb (1) which rests at one end upon a hallow in the valve cap (3) which in turn is held in place by a valve assembly (4) and a spring (5) in order that it will throw the parts clear. At the other end the bulb held in a conical metal cup (6). 12. By adjusting the composition of the liquid and to some extend the size of the bubble, the bulb type head can be to operated at any desired temperature. Those most commonly employed are shown in Table 6.

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Table 6 Standard Bulb Filling Colors for Various Ratings Of Bulb Type Sprinkler Head. Sprinkler Rating 57C 68C 79C 93C 141C 182C 204 to 260C Colors of Bulbs Orange Red Yellow Green Blue Mauve Black

13 For normal occupancy situations in temperate countries the recommended rating is 68 C. The temperature rating is marked on the deflector of the sprinkler and the liquid filling of the bulb is colored, a specific color is used for each operating is non-temperature, as shown in Table 6. The liquid employed is non-freezing and the bulb itself is not subject to corrosion. 14. Sprinkler Orifice Sizes. Sprinklers are normally manufactured with nominal orifice sizes for the respective hazard class, and these are shown in Table 7. Different pipe threads are also used on the sprinkler and pipe-work to avoid the possibility of inadvertent interchange between sprinklers of different orifice sizes. The 10mm and 20mm sprinklers are also marked in the body or deflector with the orifice size or the letters XLH or EHH as appropriate. Table 7 Standard Bulb Filling Colors for Various Ratings of Bulb Type Sprinkler Head. Nominal Size or orifice 10 mm 15 mm 20 mm Pipe Threads 10 mm 15 mm 20 mm Hazard Class Extra light only Ordinary and extra high only Extra high only

Note: See Preface regarding above metric sizes. 15. Types of Sprinkler. Sprinklers must be of approved types and makes. They must not be altered or modified in any way nor has any ornamentation or coatings applied after leaving the manufacturer except corrosion-resisting coatings of petroleum jelly. The following types of sprinkler are acceptable for general use. 16. Conventional Pattern. These produce a spherical type of discharge with a proportion of the water thrown upwards to the ceiling. They may be installed upright or pendent. 17. Spray Pattern. A hemispherical discharge below the plane of the deflector is produced by this type with little or no water being discharged upwards to the ceiling. An upright version use also available.

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18. Ceiling Flush Pattern. This type (Fig.5.5(1)) is for use with plate or base flush to the ceiling and with the heat-sensitive element below the ceiling line. The following types of sprinkler are designed for use in the relevant circumstances. 19. Sidewall Pattern. This type (Fig.5.5 (2)) is installed along the walls of a room close to the ceiling and produces a discharge pattern resembling one quarter as a sphere with a proportion discharging on the wall behind the sprinkler. It can be used in positions where condensation dripping from atmospheric pressure or for reasons of access where sprinklers at the ceiling. 20. Dry Upright Pattern. These (Fig.5.5(4)) are nominally the same as pendent pattern sprinklers. See Fig 5.5 (3). 21. Life Of Sprinkler Heads. The life of a sprinkler head may as much as fifty years if it is uncorroded and has not been subjected to rough treatment or abnormal temperature. It is, however, advisable to have sample heads removed and tested when installation is twenty years old or earlier if the type of head is no longer made or has proved unsatisfactory in any way.

Fig.5.5: Types of sprinkler (1) Ceiling Flush Pattern (2) Sidewall Pattern (3) Pendent Type (4) Dry Upright Type 22. Sprinkler Guards. In situations where sprinklers are liable to accidental or mechanical damage, or where otherwise specified by the Fire Insurers, sprinklers must be protected by approved metal guards, although guards must not be used in conjunction with ceiling type sprinkler.

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