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AIC LSU Studcnt Rcsourccs

VRITING &
REFERENCING
LAV ASSIGNMENTS

Vriting Iaw assignmcnts:

- Law casc studics

- Law cssays


Rcfcrcncing Iaw assignmcnts:

- Thc basics of footnoting

- Footnotcs in thc assignmcnt body

- Footnotcs in thc assignmcnt footcr

- Footnoting diffcrcnt sourccs in thc assignmcnt
footcr





DISCLAIMER

Much o ihc inormaiion coniaincd in ihis documcni has bccn iakcn dirccily or adapicd rom ihc
ollowing guidclincs.
Ccniral Quccnsland Unicrsiiy, Iaculiy o Busincss e Inormaiics :ooo, Gu:u Jo .uun., oih
cdn, Ccniral Quccnsland Unicrsiiy, Rockhampion, QLD.
(aailablc onlinc ai. hiip.//bus.cqu.cdu.au/CSiudcni/Guidc/dcauli.him )
1hc Diision o 1caching e Lcarning Scriccs Ccniral Quccnsland Unicrsiiy :ooo, Tn
Hu.uu (uuno-uu) RJnc:n Gu:u Junuuy .ooc Unicrsiiy Iublishing Unii CQU,
Rockhampion
(aailablc onlinc ai. hiip.//www.cqu.cdu.au/rccrcncing/rc_siylc/harard_guidc.pd )

1his documcni is noi a subsiiiuic or ihc rcsourccs mcniioncd aboc.

This LSU suppIcmcnt shouId bc rcad in conjunction with thc guidcIincs mcntioncd abovc in
addition to thc spccific coursc profiIcs.



CQU CRICOS Providcr Codcs:
VIC cice4D; QLD cceioC: NSV cisiaF

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Law assignmcnis arc cry dicrcni rom non-law assignmcnis. 1hcrc arc ihrcc iypcs
o law assignmcnis. casc siudics, cssays and qucsiion and answcr siylc assignmcnis.
1hc siruciurc and conicni o ihcsc iwo iypcs will bc cxamincd in Iaris A and B.
Iollowing ihis, Iari C will dcscribc ihc rccrcncing ihai is uscd in law assignmcnis.
ooinoic rccrcncing, also known as lcgal ciiaiion.

In law assignmcnis, you nccd io.

dirccily answcr ihc qucsiion,

usc kcywords rom ihc qucsiion in your answcr,

hac a good undcrsianding o ihc spcciic arca o law bcorc analysing and
wriiing aboui ii,

wriic or a rcadcr who has somc amiliariiy wiih law,

usc ihc appropriaic lcgal icrminology rclcani io ihc arca o discussion,

i dcaling wiih cascs you musi undcrsiand ihc kcywords.
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PART A: LAV CASE STUDIES


A law casc siudy is a probIcm qucstion on a spcciic arca o law. Viih casc siudics,
siudcnis hac ihc opporiuniiy io praciicc ihc law by applying ii io a pariicular
problcm or issuc. You arc uliimaicly soling a lcgal problcm or issuc.

A law casc siudy answcr is madc up o many paragraphs. A good way io siruciurc
your answcr is by diiding ii inio ihc ollowing our scciions.

Issucs
Rclcani Laws
Applicaiion o ihcsc Laws
Conclusion

1his is known as ihc IRAC sysicm.

Bclow is a : sicp guidc io wriiing a law casc siudy answcr.


STEP i: EXAMINE THE QUESTION

Idcntify thc topic and instruction words in thc qucstion

In ihc cxamplc law casc siudy qucsiion bclow, ihc iopic words or kcywords arc in
boId and ihc insiruciion (dircciic) words arc boxcd .


Suc borrowcd a lawnmowcr rom hcr ncighbour Larry. 1hc mowcr is old
and docs noi hac a saciy guard on ii. Larry warns Suc shc should wcar
saciy glasscs io proicci hcr cycs bccausc, wiihoui ihc guard, ihc bladcs may
ihrow back sioncs. Suc orgcis ihis and is siruck in ihc cyc by a sionc.
Idcniiy all ihc rclcani IcgaI issucs and dcicrminc ihc rcsoIution.

Notc: a diciionary or ihcsaurus can bc uscd io hclp undcrsiand ihc
assignmcni qucsiion.





Note: Dividing the question into its parts ensures all parts
of the question are answered. This also helps to define the
tasks that have to be achieved by the end of the assignment.
Note: The five steps are:

1. Examine the question
2. Research the question
3. Write the law case
study answer (using
the IRAC system)
4. Edit and proofread
5. Write a bibliography

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Dividc thc qucstion and dcfinc your tasks

Ior cxamplc.

Dividc thc qucstion into its parts Dcfinc your tasks

Idcniiy all ihc rclcani IcgaI issucs.



Lisi all ihc rclcani IcgaI issucs ihai
arisc rom ihc acis o ihc casc.




Notc: Examinc ihcsc issucs in ordcr o
ihcir rclaiionship io cach oihcr. 1hink
aboui which issuc happcncd irsi and
ihcn whai issuc ollowcd ncxi, pcrhaps
as a rcsuli o ihc irsi.


Dcicrminc ihc rcsoIution.


Apply ihc rclcani laws io ihcsc IcgaI
issucs io dcicrminc ihc rcsoIution o
ihc problcm.








STEP e: RESEARCH THE QUESTION

In law assignmcnis, much o ihc cidcncc uscd will comc rom lcgal principlcs
(principlcs o law) and any rclcani policics. A !u! p:nc:p! is a clcar, commonly
rccogniscd rulc in a sociciy (cg. ihc principlc o buycr bcwarc`). A po!:cy is a sci o
rulcs, agrccd io by gocrnmcni, aboui whai io do in a spcciic siiuaiion (cg. ihc
gocrnmcni policy on Vorkcrs Compcnsaiion insurancc).

Scarch for currcnt, rcIcvant information

:) Usc coursc matcriaIs, such as ihc Study Guidc. Also, usc rcfcrcnccs in ihc
coursc maicrials bcorc using wcbsiics (scc poini ).

:) Usc ihc rcquircd tctbook. 1hcrc is usually a similar casc in ihis icxibook io
ihc qucsiion askcd.

) Usc kcywords io scarch in IcgaI dictionarics, tctbooks, wcbsitcs and
journaI articIcs or dciniiions and gcncral inormaiion. Also, i using gcncral
wcbsiics likc Googlc, Vikipcdia or Aboui.com, only usc ihcsc wcbsiics io gci
an ocricw o ihc iopic, noi io answcr ihc qucsiion.

Note: After carefully examining the question (in Step 1), less
reading is required to find relevant information as you should
have a much clearer idea of the type of information you need.
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+) Usc databascs io ind statutcs and cascs rom which io ind rclcani lcgal
principlcs and policics (spcciic inormaiion). 1hc bcsi lcgal daiabascs arc
Ausilii (hiip.//www.ausilii.cdu.au) and LcxusNcxusAu (acccsscd ihough ihc
CQU library wcbsiic). Ausilii is morc uscr-ricndly.

:) Usc AustraIian IcgisIation (ihis lcgislaiion usually has an .au` ai ihc cnd o ii).
Aoid using US or UK lcgislaiion unlcss ii is an inicrnaiional qucsiion.


Usc this information

Skim inormaiion or rclcancc,

Group inormaiion inio qucsiion paris and makc noics
(Makc surc io rccord ooinoic rccrcncing dciails whcn making noics scc Iari
C. 1his will sac you much iimc whcn you comc io wriiing your answcr),

Dccidc on your main poinis/argumcnis,

Considcr using a iimclinc io ordcr your inormaiion,

Rcad ihc inormaiion again or dciail,

Improc your main poinis/argumcnis.


STEP s: VRITE A LAV CASE STUDY ANSVER

Siruciurc your answcr by discussing cach issuc ihai ariscs rom ihc acis o ihc casc in
ihc mosi logical ordcr. 1his ordcr is dcicrmincd by ihc rclaiionship bciwccn onc issuc
and anoihcr (U1S :ooo).

A law casc siudy qucsiion may only hac onc gcncral issuc, bui is morc likcly io hac
sccral issucs. Each issuc ollows rom ihc prcious, do noi siari a ncw pagc or a ncw
issuc. 1hus, your answcr could look likc.











Issucs

Idcniiy ihc issucs or problcms ihai arisc rom ihc acis o ihc casc,

Siaic ihcsc issucs (ihcsc arc ihc issucs you hac io addrcss in your answcr).
(Main
introduction)

Issue 1

Relevant Law

Application of
these Laws

Conclusion

Issue 2

Relevant Law

Application of
these Laws

Conclusion
Issue 3

Relevant Law

Application of
these Laws

Conclusion

(Main
conclusion)
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Bclow is an cxamplc o an Issucs` scciion rom a law casc siudy answcr.


Issucs

(:) Vhcihcr Larry, ihc owncr o ihc lawnmowcr, is n!:n or lcnding
his
lawnmowcr io Suc.

(:) Vhcihcr Larry, ihc owncr o ihc lawnmowcr, is .pon.:|! or Suc`s
cyc in[ury.






RcIcvant Iaws

Idcniiy ihc spcciic arca o law,

Narrow down/limii ihis spcciic arca o law,

Idcniiy ihc lcgal principlcs ihai arc rclcani io ihc acis o ihc casc,

Siaic ihcsc lcgal principlcs,

Discuss any arcas o conirocrsy (grcy arcas) wiihin ihc law.
Facts to think about:
Sue borrowed a lawnmower which was old and did not have a safety guard
(the safety guard may have been lost or the lawn mower may never have had
one);
Sue was warned to wear safety glasses because stray stones might fly into her
eyes;
Sue forgot to wear safety glasses and was hit in the eye by a stone.
Note: Do not make very basic or
introductory statements. Avoid
giving long, in-depth definitions
(eg. the definition of a contract) or
general overviews (eg. the history of
a law). Students only get marks
when they start to answer the
question.
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Bclow is an cxamplc o a Rclcani Laws` scciion rom a law casc siudy answcr.


RcIcvant Laws

In ihis casc, ihc rclcani law is bailmcni, or morc spcciically, graiuiious
bailmcni or bailmcni or non-rcward. Ii is graiuiious bailmcni bccausc
Larry is noi cxpcciing any paymcni or lciiing Suc usc his lawnmowcr.

In ihc casc o bailmcni, boih graiuiious bailmcni and bailmcni or rcward,
ihc bailor (Larry) has a duiy io warn ihc bailcc (Suc) o any possiblc
dangcrs associaicd wiih ihc goods o which ihc bailor is awarc. P:.o.uoJJ .
Cnnu|uJJ :s :: SASR :.

Notc: Vhcrc ooinoic numbcrs appcar in ihc assignmcni body, ihcrc would
bc a corrcsponding ooinoic in ihc pagc ooicr (scc Iari C).





AppIication of thcsc Laws

Usc kcywords and namcs o characicrs rom ihc qucsiion,

Explain how ihcsc lcgal principlcs apply io ihc acis o ihc casc.

Bclow is an cxamplc o an Applicaiion o ihcsc Laws` scciion rom a law casc siudy
answcr.


AppIication of thcsc Laws

Larry has warncd Suc o ihc lawnmowcr`s habii o picking up sioncs and
ihrowing ihcm back ai ihc uscr. Hc has also adiscd Suc io wcar saciy
glasscs whilsi mowing.

Suc has dccidcd io usc ihc lawnmowcr and ignorc Larry`s warning and
adicc io wcar saciy glasscs whcn mowing. 1his ihcn rcsulis in an cyc
in[ury and ihc issuc o liabiliiy ariscs.

Notc: Vhcrc ooinoic numbcrs appcar in ihc assignmcni body, ihcrc would
bc a corrcsponding ooinoic in ihc pagc ooicr (scc Iari C).

ConcIusion

Bricly rcpcai main poinis,

Siaic whcihcr ihc acis saiisy ihc lcgal principlcs,

Note: The law may not provide an immediate, complete
answer. You may have to develop an argument based on
the facts of the case and how the existing laws might apply
to them. This argument is called a proposition.
Note: Think about what is the
most likely outcome. Do not
talk about all possible
outcomes. Students will still
get marks for coming up with a
conclusion, even if it is not the
best conclusion.
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Siaic ihc likcly rcsuli/ouicomc io ihc pcoplc or pariics inolcd i ihc lcgal
principlcs or laws arc applicd as you suggcsicd. 1his rcsuli dcmonsiraics whai
is currcnily happcning in ihc law,

Makc somc biggcr commcnis aboui ihc currcni siiuaiion or any widcr, lcgal
implicaiions or ihc uiurc.

Bclow is an cxamplc o a Conclusion` scciion rom a law casc siudy answcr.


ConcIusion

As in P:.o.uoJJ . Cnnu|uJJ :s :: SASR :, ii would appcar ihai
Larry has dischargcd his duiy by warning Suc o ihc dangcr whcn using
ihc lawnmowcr and adising hcr io wcar saciy glasscs. Ii is ihcrcorc
unlikcly ihai Larry would bc hcld rcsponsiblc or liablc or Suc`s cyc in[ury.

Notc: Vhcrc ooinoic numbcrs appcar in ihc assignmcni body, ihcrc
would bc a corrcsponding ooinoic in ihc pagc ooicr (scc Iari C).


STEP 4: EDIT AND PROOFREAD

Chcck ihc ollowing.

All paris o ihc qucsiion arc answcrcd,

1hcrc is a logical ordcr io your main poinis/argumcnis,

1hcrc is a broad cocragc o ihc iopic,

Mosi paragraphs hac ai lcasi onc ooinoic rccrcncc.


STEP a: VRITE A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Scc Iari C.
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PART B: LAV ESSAYS


Likc a non-law cssay, a law cssay has an iniroduciion, body and conclusion. Icrhaps
ihc hardcsi pari o wriiing an cssay, cspccially a law cssay, is organising ihc siruciurc
o ihc body in a logical way. A good siruciurc will incrcasc ihc rcadcr`s undcrsianding
o your inormaiion and may incrcasc ihc marks you rcccic or your assignmcni.

Bclow is a : sicp guidc io wriiing a law cssay. Ior gcncral inormaiion on how io
wriic an cssay, rccr io ihc Essay Vriiing guidc.



STEP i: EXAMINE THE QUESTION

Idcntify thc topic and instruction words in thc qucstion

In ihc cxamplc law cssay qucsiion bclow, ihc iopic words or kcywords arc in boId and
ihc insiruciion (dircciic) words arc boxcd .


Vhai arc ihc supposcd purposcs o judiciaI rcvicw o administrativc
action and how ar docs ii aciually scrc ihcm' Suppori your answcr
wiih rccrcncc io spcciic arcas o administrativc Iaw.

Notc: a diciionary or ihcsaurus can bc uscd io hclp undcrsiand ihc assignmcni
qucsiion.




Dividc thc qucstion and dcfinc your tasks

Ior cxamplc.

Dividc thc qucstion up into its parts Dcfinc your tasks

Vhai arc ihc supposcd purposcs o
judiciaI rcvicw o administrativc
action'








Dcinc and cxplain judiciaI rcvicw.

Dcinc and cxplain administrativc
action.

1hink aboui whai is mcani by
supposcd purposcs. Docs ihis mcan
ihcorciical purposcs` ihai arc pcrhaps
noi bcing achiccd in praciicc'

How many supposcd purposcs arc
ihcrc' I may hac io addrcss a numbcr
o purposcs.

Note: Dividing the question into its parts
ensures all parts of the question are
answered. This also helps to define the
tasks that have to be achieved by the end
of the assignment.
Note: The five steps are:

1. Examine the question
2. Research the question
3. Write the essay
4. Edit and proofread
5. Write a bibliography
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How ar docs ii aciually scrc ihcsc
purposcs'





1o whai cxicni docs ihc judiciaI
rcvicw o administrativc action
aciually mcci ihcsc purposcs' Arc
ihcsc purposcs noi achiccd, parily
achiccd or ully achiccd' 1hc word
supposcd` suggcsis ihcsc purposcs arc
noi usually achiccd.


Suppori your answcr wiih rccrcncc io
spcciic arcas o administrativc Iaw.

Suppori usc rcscarch/cidcncc io
back up your argumcnis.

Vhai paris o administrativc Iaw
should I rccr io' Vhich paris will
hclp mc io gic ihc bcsi rcsponsc io ihc
qucsiion'





STEP e: RESEARCH THE QUESTION

Scarch for currcnt, rcIcvant information

In law assignmcnis, much o ihc cidcncc uscd will comc rom lcgal principlcs
(principlcs o law) and any rclcani policics. A !u! p:nc:p! is a clcar, commonly
rccogniscd rulc in a sociciy (cg. ihc principlc o buycr bcwarc`). A po!:cy is a sci o
rulcs, agrccd io by gocrnmcni, aboui whai io do in a spcciic siiuaiion (cg. ihc
gocrnmcni policy on Vorkcrs Compcnsaiion insurancc).

:) Usc coursc matcriaIs, such as ihc Study Guidc. Also, usc rcfcrcnccs in ihc
coursc maicrials bcorc using wcbsiics (scc poini ).

:) Usc ihc rcquircd tctbook. 1hcrc is usually a similar casc in ihis icxibook io
ihc qucsiion askcd.

) Usc kcywords io scarch in IcgaI dictionarics, tctbooks, wcbsitcs and
journaI articIcs or dciniiions and gcncral inormaiion. Also, i using gcncral
wcbsiics likc Googlc, Vikipcdia or Aboui.com, only usc ihcsc wcbsiics io gci
an ocricw o ihc iopic, noi io answcr ihc qucsiion.

+) Usc databascs io ind statutcs and cascs rom which io ind rclcani lcgal
principlcs and policics (spcciic inormaiion). 1hc bcsi lcgal daiabascs arc
Ausilii (hiip.//www.ausilii.cdu.au) and LcxusNcxusAu (acccsscd ihough ihc
CQU library wcbsiic). Ausilii is morc uscr-ricndly.

:) Usc AustraIian IcgisIation (ihis lcgislaiion usually has an .au` ai ihc cnd o ii).
Aoid using US or UK lcgislaiion unlcss ii is an inicrnaiional qucsiion.
Note: After carefully examining the question (in Step 1), less
reading is required to find relevant information. You should then
have a much clearer idea of the type of information you need.
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Usc this information

Skim inormaiion or rclcancc,

Group inormaiion inio qucsiion paris and makc noics
(Makc surc io rccord ooinoic rccrcncing dciails whcn making noics scc Iari
C. 1his will sac you much iimc whcn you comc io wriiing your answcr),

Makc an cssay ouilinc by dcciding on your main poinis/argumcnis,

Considcr using a iimclinc io ordcr your inormaiion,

Rcad ihc inormaiion again or dciail,

Improc your cssay ouilinc and main poinis/argumcnis.


STEP s: VRITE THE ESSAY

A law cssay should noi [usi u.c:| and rp!u:n ihc law, bui crcaic argumcnis by
u:.:n and u:.cu..:n pariicular issucs in ihc law. Siudcnis should dcclop an cducaicd,
inormcd lcgal opinion which is ihc bcsi answcr io ihc qucsiion (1hc Unicrsiiy o
Mclbournc :ooo).





Vritc an introduction

An iniroduciion should coniain ihc ollowing inormaiion.

Gcncral siaicmcnis on broad iopic,

Dciniiion o kcy icrms,

Siaicmcni o ccniral argumcni,

Lisi ihc main poinis/argumcnis ihai will bc cocrcd,

Mcniion any limiis io your discussion,

Considcr highlighiing ihc signiicancc o your qucsiion in rclaiion io broadcr
issucs (Monash Unicrsiiy :ooo).
Note: Even though the introduction of an essay appears
before the body, the introduction should not be written
until the body has been drafted or completed.
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Bclow is an cxamplc o an iniroduciion scciion rom a law cssay answcr.


In common law counirics, ihc docirinc o ihc scparaiion o powcrs diidcs
ihc poliiical sysicm bciwccn a lcgislaiurc, an cxccuiic and a [udiciary. Iis
purposc is io chcck and balancc powcr and io cnsurc ihai ihcrc is no
ircspassing or abdicaiing o powcr io anoihcr arm. 1his sysicm, howccr,
also proidcs a blucprini or icnsions bciwccn ihc ihrcc arms o
gocrnmcni and such icnsions arc clcarly isiblc in ihc icld o
adminisiraiic law,
:
mosi noiably in [udicial rcicw, which by iriuc o iis
supcrisory rolc inolcs a indicaiion o ihc lcgaliiy o ihc adminisiraiic
dccision-making proccss`.
:
Hcncc, gicn ihai ihc dum:n:.u:. dppu!.
(Juu:c:u! R.:u) dc 1::: Cn (or dDJR dc 1:::) was inicndcd io
simpliy acccss io adminisiraiic [usiicc, ii is quiic ironic ihai ii has bccomc
sub[cci io so much conirocrsy and liiigaiion.



Notc: Vhcrc ooinoic numbcrs appcar in ihc assignmcni body, ihcrc
would bc a corrcsponding ooinoic in ihc pagc ooicr (scc Iari C).

Vritc thc body

In ihc irsi paragraph o ihc body, considcr giing a bric background o ihc issucs,

Gcncrally, ihc cssay body should bc a numbcr o paragraphs wiih ihc ollowing
inormaiion.

o Discuss ihc acis in ihc ordcr ihai ihcy occurrcd,

o Dirccily answcr ihc qucsiion paris by using a numbcr o main
poinis/argumcnis,






o Each main poini/argumcni should bc placcd in a scparaic paragraph,

o Gic supporiing argumcnis and also opposing/counicr argumcnis. Boih sidcs
o an argumcni should bc prcscnicd as pari o a balanccd approach io wriiing
an cssay. 1hc sircngihs and wcakncsscs o cach argumcni should bc prcscnicd.

Discuss supporiing argumcnis.

- Inicrprci ihc law (lcgal principlcs or policics) io scc i ii
supporis/docs noi suppori your argumcni (bc carcul io
coc!y inicrprci whai ihc law is saying),





Note: By following a time
sequence of events, the body can
be organised in a logical way.
Note: A paragraph is the best place for an argument
because each paragraph should contain one main point
that is expressed through a group of sentence where the
sentences flow and link to each other (UTS 2006).
Note: Finding evidence that supports your main
points/arguments can be tricky as it involves
interpreting the law and applying the law.
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- Apply ihc law io cxplain your argumcnis,

- Apply ihc law io a ncw siiuaiion (show ihai onc law applying
in onc siiuaiion also applics/docs noi apply in your pariicular
siiuaiion),

- Ealuaic ihc law or policy (ihink aboui whcihcr ihc law or
policy should bc changcd).

Discuss opposing argumcnis.

- Show why ihcsc argumcnis arc noi as conincing as your
supporiing argumcnis.

1owards ihc cnd o ihc body, considcr haing a cw paragraphs whcrc you
caluaic ihc ocrall sircngihs and wcakncsscs o ihcsc argumcnis.

Bclow is an cxamplc o onc paragraph in ihc body scciion o a law cssay answcr.

Chccks on adminisiraiic dccisions which hac poliiical conscqucnccs arc o
spccial conccrn io mcmbcrs o ihc Exccuiic, as [udicial rcicw can impaci
on poliiical imagc.
+
In :, or cxamplc, ihc High Couri was criiiciscd or
iis dccision in P:i Pop!. . Qun.!unu and mcmbcrs o ihc Exccuiic madc
ii clcar ihai ihcy bcliccd ihc couri had gonc bcyond iolcrablc limiis`.
:
No
doubi ihc docirinc o scparaiion o powcrs gcncraics conlici bciwccn ihc
arms o gocrnmcni, bui i icnsion pcrsisis and i ihc Exccuiic coniinucs
io consianily criiicisc ihc Judiciary, public inicrcsi will bc damagcd and ihc
auihoriiy o ihc couris will bc undcrmincd. Alihough ii may appcar
[usiiiablc io disrcgard a dccision which is iruly in conlici wiih anoihcr
dccision ihai appcars io bc corrcci, such a rcusal is problcmaiic. 1his is
bccausc [udicial dccisions arc noi proisional rulings, uniil conirmcd by ihc
uliimaic appcllaic couri in ihc sysicm, bui rcprcscni ihc law.

Notc: Vhcrc ooinoic numbcrs appcar in ihc assignmcni body, ihcrc
would bc a corrcsponding ooinoic in ihc pagc ooicr (scc Iari C).

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Vritc a concIusion

Bricly rcpcai ihc main poinis/argumcnis and ccniral argumcni,

Makc somc biggcr commcnis aboui ihc currcni siiuaiion or any widcr, lcgal
implicaiions or ihc uiurc.

Bclow is an cxamplc o a conclusion scciion rom a law cssay answcr.


Vhilsi on ihc onc hand ihc [udicial bcnch should noi hac coniinucd io
rcicw ihc mcriis
:+
bui adhcrcd io rcicwing only ihc lcgaliiy o
adminisiraiic dccisions, and should also hac moniiorcd ihc abusc o ihc
sysicm morc closcly, i ihc rulc o law is io rcmain ihc basis o dcmocracy,
ihc couris can, in iurn, noi bc mocd by ihc poliiical conscqucnccs o ihcir
dccisions bui musi mainiain an apoliiical siancc.
::
1hc principal aim o ihc
Exccuiic is io adminisicr laws ihrough ihc crcaiion o consisicni, cicicni
and cconomical policy whilsi [udicial dccisions arc noi so consirucicd.
Judgcs musi gic ccci io ihc will o ihc lcgislaiurc, ccn i ii conlicis wiih
ihc policics o ihc Exccuiic gocrnmcni. 1hcrcorc, ihc pcrspcciic o ihc
couris is ncccssarily dicrcni rom ihai o ihc Exccuiic gocrnmcni, as
rclccicd in ihc ma[oriiy [udgmcni in C!un:.-Ro.. . Tn Commonuu!n.
:o

Howccr, a changc in pcrspcciic by ihc Exccuiic gocrnmcni is unlikcly,
as ihc icw rom ihc cxccuiic bcnch dicrs subsianiially rom ihai rom
ihc [udicial bcnch.
:


Notc: Vhcrc ooinoic numbcrs appcar in ihc assignmcni body, ihcrc would bc
a corrcsponding
ooinoic in ihc pagc ooicr (scc Iari C).


STEP 4: EDIT AND PROOFREAD

Chcck ihc ollowing.

All paris o ihc cssay qucsiion arc answcrcd,

1hcrc is a logical ordcr io your main poinis/argumcnis,

1hcrc is a broad cocragc o ihc iopic,

Mosi paragraphs in ihc cssay body hac ai lcasi onc ooinoic rccrcncc.


STEP a: VRITE A BIBLIOGRAPHY

Scc Iari C.
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PART C: FOOTNOTE REFERENCING


Iooinoic rccrcncing is only rcquircd or law assignmcnis (non-law assignmcnis usc
Harard Rccrcncing). Iari C is bascd on ihc :oo: du.u!:un Gu:u o 1u! C:u:on
publishcd by ihc Mclbournc Unicrsiiy Law Rcicw Associaiion Inc. Ior morc
inormaiion, go io.
hiip.//mulr.law.unimclb.cdu.au/IDIs/aglc_dl.pd


(a) THE BASICS OF FOOTNOTING

Vhcn to footnotc

Usc ooinoic rccrcncing in all iypcs o law assignmcnis. Iooinoics appcar ai ihc
ooi` or boiiom o ihc pagc. In ihc body o ihc assignmcni, inscri a numbcr io indicaic
ihai ihcrc is a ooinoic :mmu:u!y uJ cach.

Quotation io acknowlcdgc a dircci quoic,
Paraphrasc io acknowlcdgc a sourcc ihai has coniribuicd io your argumcni,
A scction of tct io proidc ru inormaiion ihai is noi csscniial in ihc
body o your assignmcni.

Crcating a footnotc in Microsoft Vord
)


Oncc you hac iypcd ihc quoiaiion, paraphrasc or scciion o icxi and nccd io inscri a
ooinoic rccrcncc.

1. Usc your mousc io click :mmu:u!y uJ ihc quoiaiion, paraphrasc or scciion o
icxi and iis punciuaiion (comma or ull siop),
2. Click on Inscri in ihc grcy ioolbar mcnu, ihcn Rccrcncc , Iooinoic and
Inscri ,
3. 1hc cursor will ihcn appcar ai ihc boiiom o ihc pagc. Enicr ihc ooinoic
dciails.
a. Ior ihc J:. rccrcncc io a sourcc, proidc Ju!! rccrcncing dciails,
b. Ior a .conu o !u rccrcncc io ihc samc sourcc, usc subscqucni/
ollowing rccrcncc` dciails (scc pagc :s),
c. Ai ihc cnd o all ooinoic rccrcnccs, pui a ull siop.

Ior cxamplc.










Exemplary damages are imposed alongside general damages to punish the
wilful and malicious misconduct of another party. These damages are not
awarded in contract cases, as in the case of Addis v Gramophone Co Ltd.
1

However, exemplary damages are available in tort cases.
2





1
[1909] AC 488 493.
2
See, eg, XL Petroleum (NSW) Pty Ltd v Caltex Oil (Australia) Pty Ltd (1985) 155 CLR 448.
Obviously, the exclusion of contract greatly reduces the ambit of operation of exemplary
damages.

Footnote numbers in
the assignment body
Footnotes at the bottom
of the page
A footnote that provides
extra information
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(b) FOOTNOTES IN THE ASSIGNMENT BODY

Short quotations ( lincs or lcss)

Shori quoiaiions should bc in singlc quoiaiion marks (ic. `).






Long quotations (+ lincs or morc)

Long quoiaiions should bc.

Indcnicd rom ihc lci margin,
In a smallcr oni sizc. I you arc using ::pi, usc ::pi or ihc long quoiaiion.










Lcgislaiic cxiracis, o lincs or lcss, can also bc wriiicn in ihc samc ormai as long
quoiaiions.


Namcs of Authors

You may includc an auihor`s irsi namc or iniiials, and iiilcs likc Ms`, Mr`,
Dr`, Irocssor` and 1hc Hon`, as ihcy appcar on ihc iiilc pagc o ihc sourcc,
Ior iwo or ihrcc auihors, usc and` (noi e`) io scparaic ihc lasi iwo auihors.








Ior our or morc auihors, usc ihc namc o ihc irsi auihor lisicd and ihcn ci al`.






The Federal Government intends to restrict access to judicial review in visa-
related matters to all but exceptional circumstances.
3


His Honour said:

In this respect it should be emphasised that the directors of a company must take
account of the interest of its shareholders and its creditors. Any failure by the
directors to take into account the interests of creditors will have adverse
consequences for the company.
4


Dr Richard Kreindler et al argue that as cross-border transactions become more
common, purchase price adjustments will become more complex and difficult to
resolve.
6


6
Richard Kreindler et al, Cross-Border Purchase Price Adjustment Provisions (2005) 8 The
Journal of Private Equity 82, 83.
Charles Sampford, Rodney Smith and A J Brown believe corruption can be
reduced by the institutionalisation of integrity.
5


5
Charles Sampford, Rodney Smith and A J Brown, From Greek Temple to Bird's Nest (2005)
64 Australian Journal of Public Administration 96, 96.

Note: In the footnote, format names of
authors as you do in the body, but exclude
titles, such as Dr, Mr, Mrs and Ms.
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(c) FOOTNOTES IN THE ASSIGNMENT FOOTER

Starting Pagc

1hc siariing pagc is ihc irsi pagc o a sourcc. Ii is includcd in ihc ooinoics only or
!ournaI ArticIcs and Cascs.

Ior a [ournal ariiclc, ihc siariing pagc should appcar aicr ihc iiilc o ihc
[ournal. In ihc cxamplc bclow, ihc siariing pagc is :: (:: is ihc pinpoini
rccrcncc).





Ior a casc, ihc siariing pagc o a casc should appcar aicr ihc abbrciaicd orm
o ihc rcpori scrics (hcrc CLR). In ihc cxamplc bclow, ihc siariing pagc is
:o+.






Pinpoint Rcfcrcncc

1hc pinpoini rccrcncc is ihc pagc numbcr or scction o a sourcc ihai is bcing
rccrrcd io. Ii is includcd in ihc ooinoics or all sourccs.

Vhcn ihc pinpoini rccrcncc is also ihc siariing pagc o a journaI articIc or
casc, ihc numbcr should bc rcpcaicd.





I ihcrc is a scrics o pinpoini rccrcnccs, ihcy should bc scparaicd by commas.





Rcfcrcncing morc than onc sourcc

I morc ihan onc sourcc is rccrcnccd io in ihc samc ooinoic, a scmi-colon (,) should
scparaic ihc sourccs.





7
See, eg, Addis v Gramophone Co Ltd [1909] AC 488; Butler v Fairclough (1917) 23
CLR 78, 89.
18
Theophanus v Herald & Weekly Times Ltd (1994) 182 CLR 104, 113.

17
James Liddle et al, The Role of Lawyers in Domestic Violence Cases (2001) 45
Melbourne Law Review 123, 135.

19
Friedrich Juenger, Tort Choice of Law in a Federal System (1997) 19 Sydney Law
Review 529, 529.

20
Cubillo v Commonwealth (2000) 174 ALR 97, 267, 449, 452.

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Subscqucnt/foIIowing rcfcrcnccs in thc footnotcs

1hc Ibid` and aboc n` rulcs arc uscd or ollowing/subscqucni rccrcnccs in ihc
ooinoic.


Ibid

Ibid` can bc uscd io rccr io a sourcc (bui noi lcgislaiion, which should always bc ciicd
:n Ju!! in all ooinoics) in a ollowing ooinoic.

I ihc immcdiaicly prcious ooinoic is ihc .um sourcc and ihc on!y sourcc
rccrcnccd. 1hc ormai or ibid is.

I
Ibid.





Also, i a u:JJn pu num| is rccrrcd io in ihc sccond ooinoic io ihc samc
sourcc, ibid` should bc ollowcd by ihai pinpoini rccrcncc. 1hc ormai or
ihis is.

I
Ibid Iinpoini Rccrcncc .





Abovc n

1hc ormai or abovc n is as ollows.

I
Aui hor`s Surnamc , aboc n Iooinoic Numbcr , Iinpoini Rccrcncc .

Aboc n` should bc uscd whcn a sourcc (bui noi a casc, a ircaiy or lcgislaiion) has
bccn ciicd ciihcr.

In a prcious ooinoic on nun n on immcdiaicly aboc,






Or, in ihc ooinoic immcdiaicly aboc, i ihc ooinoic rccrs io mo nun on
sourcc.



15
Matthew Collins, Democratic Issues (1983) 3 American Politics 245; Victor
Thuronyi (ed), Tax Law Design and Drafting (1998) vol 2, 495.
16
Thuronyi, above n 15, 496.
10
Matthew Collins, Democratic Issues (1983) 3 American Politics 245.
11
Ibid 246.
8
Michael Coper and George Williams (eds) Power, Parliament and the People (1997)
91.
9
Ibid.

12
Olaf Sanders, An Explanation of Political Theory (1972) 32.
13
International Narcotics Control Board, Annual Report 1999 (1999) [176].
14
Sanders, above n 12, 37.

Note: This is the number of the
footnote you are referring to.
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(d) FOOTNOTING DIFFERENT SOURCES IN THE ASSIGNMENT FOOTER

1hcrc arc many dicrcni iypcs o sourccs uscd in law assignmcnis. 1hc ooinoic
dciails and ormai or cach o ihcsc dicrcni sourccs is dcscribcd bclow.


i. ArticIcs/Books/Rcports


ArticIcs (!ournaI ArticIcs)

1hc ooinoic ormai or journaI articIcs is as ollows.

I
Auihor`s Gicn Namc/Iniiials + Surnamc , 1iilc o Ariiclc in Singlc Quoiaiion

Marks` (Ycar) Volumc Numbcr T:! oJ Jounu! :n 1u!:c. Siariing Iagc o

Ariiclc , Iinpoini Rccrcncc .








Books

I ihc book has an cdiior, pui (cd)` aicr ihc namc or (cds)` i ihcrc is morc ihan
onc cdiior,
I appropriaic, indicaic ihc Ediiion Numbcr and (cd)` bcorc ihc Iublicaiion
Ycar.

1hc ooinoic ormai or books is as ollows.

I
Auihor`s Gicn Namc/Iniiials + Surnamc , T:! oJ Booi :n 1u!:c.

(Ediiion Numbcr, Iublicaiion Ycar) Iinpoini Rccrcncc .





21
Friedrich Juenger, Tort Choice of Law in a Federal System (1997) 19 Sydney Law
Review 529, 540.
22
A S Lynton, B Green and L S Myalls, Contemporary Issues in Tort Liability (1998)
43 Current Legal Problems 320, 323.

23
P L Karcher, International Law Cases (2
nd
ed, 1999) 23.
24
Peter Birks (ed), Wrongs and Remedies in the Twenty-First Century (1996) 93.

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e. Casc Law (Cascs)

1hc ooinoic ormai or cascs is as ollows.

I
Cu. Aum :n 1u!:c. (Ycar) Volumc Numbcr Rcpori Scrics

Siariing Iagc o Casc , Iinpoini Rccrcncc .




Casc Namc in ItaIics

I ihc casc namc is rccrrcd io in ihc body o ihc assignmcni, ihc casc namc should noi
appcar again in ihc ooinoic.








Partics` Namcs uscd in Casc Namcs

1hc pariics` namcs should bc in iialics as ihcy appcar on ihc irsi pagc o ihc law
rcpori.
Howccr.

Vhcn ihc pariics arc indiiduals, ihcn gicn namcs and iniiials should bc
omiiicd,
Only ihc irsi plainii and irsi dccndani should bc ciicd, wiih a .` in bciwccn
ihcm,
Vhcrc ihc casc inolcs morc ihan onc aciion, only ihc irsi aciion should bc
ciicd.




Namcs of Corporations and Firms uscd in Casc Namcs

Scc pagc :: or abbrciaiions o corporaiions or irms.

Ycar

Ior law rcporis organiscd by olumc numbcr, ihc ycar o ihc dccision should
appcar in round brackcis ( ),
Ior law rcporis organiscd by ycar, ihc ycar o ihc dccision should appcar in
squarc brackcis .

s. LcgisIation

27
Koop v Bebb (1951) 84 CLR 629, 685.

30
General Newspapers Pty Ltd v Telstra Corporation (1993) 45 FCR 164, 172.
31
Federal Commissioner of Taxation v Vogt [1975] 1 NSWLR 194, 216.

In News Corporation v Lenfast Communications Inc,
26
the Supreme Court of New
South Wales had to consider the effect of foreign pending proceedings.


26
(1966) 21 ACSR 553, 557.
The assignment body The footnote
(without case name)
25
R v Hughes (2000) 202 CLR 535, 548.
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1hc ooinoic ormai or statutcs and dcIcgatcd IcgisIation is as ollows.

I
Sno T:! oJ dcD!uu 1:.!u:on :n 1u!:c. 1u :n 1u!:c.

(Abbrciaicd Iorm o Jurisdiciion) Iinpoini Rccrcncc .








4. IntcrnationaI MatcriaIs

Ior a ull lisi o Inicrnaiional Maicrials (as wcll as Europcan Maicrials and
Inicrnaiional Economic Maicrials) and how io rccrcncc ihcm, plcasc rccr io ihc
du.u!:un Gu:u o 1u! C:u:on aailablc ai.
hiip.//mulr.law.unimclb.cdu.au/IDIs/aglc_dl.pd.

Trcatics

1hc ooinoic ormai or trcatics is as ollows.

I
Tuy Aum :n 1u!:c. , Du :n 1u!:c. 1rcaiy Scrics Ciiaiion Iinpoini

Rccrcncc Daic o Eniry inio Iorcc .







a. Othcr Sourccs

Ior a ull lisi o Oihcr Sourccs, likc Iarliamcniary Dcbaics, Royal Commission
Rcporis, Concrcncc Iapcrs and how io rccrcncc ihcm, plcasc rccr io ihc du.u!:un
Gu:u o 1u! C:u:on, aailablc ai.
hiip.//mulr.law.unimclb.cdu.au/IDIs/aglc_dl.pd

Intcrnct MatcriaIs (Vcbsiics/Vcbpagcs)

1hc ooinoic ormai or intcrnct matcriaIs is as ollows.

I
Auihor`s Gicn Namc/Iniiials + Surnamc , Documn T:! :n 1u!:c. , (Ycar)

Vcbsiic Namc <URL> ai Daic o Rcirical .

Ncwspapcr ArticIcs
39
Jason Lau, International Law and Human Rights (2001) Centre for Law Research
<http://www.clr.edu.au/pubs/InternatLaw.html> at 11 January 2003.

32
Trustee Act 1962 (WA) s 90.
33
Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) ss 20, 43.
34
Aboriginal Land Rights Regulations 1996 (NSW) reg 23 (a).
35
Australian Constitution s 51(xxix).

36
The Antarctic Treaty, opened for signature 1 December 1959, 402 UNTS 71, art 7(2)
(entered into force 23 June 1961).
37
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, opened for signature 10 December
1982, 1833 UNTS 3 (entered into force 16 November 1994).


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Ncwspapcr ArticIcs

1hc ooinoic ormai or ncwspapcr articIcs is as ollows.

Auihor`s Gicn Namc/Iniiials + Surnamc , 1iilc o Ariiclc` , Aum oJ Au.pup

(Ilacc o Iublicaiion) , Iull Daic , Iinpoini Rccrcncc .

Ior ncwspapcrs publishcd in Ausiralia, usc ciiy o publicaiion (cg. Sydncy).
Ior ncwspapcrs publishcd ocrscas, usc ciiy and couniry (cg. Dclhi, India).








































40
Ellen Connolly, Strapped for Cash: Man Gets $2.5m for a 1984 Caning, Sydney
Morning Herald (Sydney), 15 February 2001, 1.


General Formatting Tips for Law Assignments

Words within the assignment may be italicised for added emphasis;
Case names, statute titles and titles of material (such as journal articles)
should be italicised;
Use neutral, non sexist words (instead of chairman, use chairperson);
Use third person singular to refer to a person (he, she, he or she);
Use third person plural to refer to a number of people (eg. they, their
or them).

Abbreviations for Law Assignments

When a party is a corporation or a firm, the following abbreviations should
be used:
& for and, Co for Company, Ltd for Limited, Pty for
Proprietary, Inc for Incorporated and (in liq) instead of (in
liquidation).




If the pinpoint reference is to a statute (not a page number), the reference
should be appropriately abbreviated:
art = article, para = paragraph, paras = paragraphs, reg = regulation,
s = section, ss = sections, sub-s = subsection, sub-ss = subsections,
sch = schedule, schs = schedules.

Abbreviate the form of jurisdiction for Legislation:
Cth Commonwealth, NSW New South Wales, Vic Victoria,
ACT Australian Capital Territory, QLD Queensland, SA South
Australia, WA Western Australia, NT Northern Territory,
Tas Tasmania.

29
James Hardie & Co Pty Ltd v Hall (1998) 43 NSWLR 554, 558.

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(c) BIBLIOGRAPHY

All sourccs uscd in your assignmcni should appcar in ihc BibIiography,
including ihosc not rccrrcd io in ihc body o your assignmcni or ihc ooinoics,

1hc Bibliography should bc diidcd inio ihc ollowing scciions.
:. Ariiclcs/Books/Rcporis
:. Casc Law
. Lcgislaiion
+. 1rcaiics
:. Oihcr Sourccs (cg. Vcbsiics, Vcbpagcs and Ncwspapcr Ariiclcs)

In cach scciion, sourccs should bc lisicd in alphabciical ordcr by surnamc,

I you do noi hac any sourccs or a pariicular scciion, do noi includc ihai
scciion. Usc ihai scciion numbcr or ihc ncxi scciion,

All sourccs lisicd in ihc Bibliography ollow ihc samc rccrcncing ormai as in
ihc ooinoics, wiih onc cxccpiion. In ihc Bibliography, ihc auihor`s surnamc is
lisicd first (raihcr ihan sccond), ollowcd by a comma and ihc auihor`s irsi
namc or iniiials. 1his is ollowcd by a comma and ihc rcsi o ihc rccrcncing
dciails.




























Bibliography

1. Articles/Books/Reports

Marlowe, T, Parliamentary Debates on the Australian Constitution (2001) 3 Federal
Law Review 231

Pride, Frank, Human Rights and Foreign Policy (3
rd
ed, 2003)

2. Case Law

Commissioner of Tasmania v Vogt [1975] 1 NSWLR 194

Coober v Pedder (1999) 72 CLR 398

3. Legislation

Australian Constitution

Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth)

4. Treaties

Convention on the Rights of the Child, opened for signature 20 November 1989, 1588
UNTS 530 (entered into force 16 January 1991)

5. Other Sources

Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 17 August 2000

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(f) A SAMPLE PAGE FROM A LAV ESSAY VITH FOOTNOTES



















































assignment body


The court judicially reviews the unlawfulness of a decision of an administrative nature
made under an enactment.
1
Judicial review happens when the repository of public
power has breached the limits placed upon the grant of that power.
2
The practical need
for precise categorisation of the common law grounds for judicial review remain
unclear. Not only are there nine overlapping categories, but also further identification
is diminished by the fact that most challenges to the exercise of federal administrative
power are made on both ADJR Act and common law grounds.
3


In recent decades, the courts have significantly extended the scope of judicial review
and have made marked changes to the rules of natural justice (or procedural fairness),
as well as to the extension of judicial review to pure administrative decisions and not
merely quasi-judicial decisions. According to Justice Sackville,
4
the courts have
extended judicial review because they believe that they need to fill a gap created by
the failure of political forms of accountability to provide redress to individuals
adversely affected by government decisions.


a footnote number

The increased willingness of the courts to intervene in administrative matters, even
where policy factors predominate, and the judiciarys reputation of undermining
Executive power and interfering with policy decisions beyond their scope have led to
tensions between the Executive and Judiciary. These tensions have escalated to the
extent that Federal and State agencies do not always follow judicial or quasi-judicial
rulings and have, on occasions, even openly undermined decisions, as seen in Taxation
Ruling IT2612.
5


The judicial bench should not have continued to review the merits
6
but adhered to
reviewing only the legality of administrative decisions, and should also have monitored
the abuse of the system more closely, if the rule of law is to remain the basis of
democracy, the courts can, in turn, not be moved by the political consequences of their
decisions but must maintain an apolitical stance.
7



footnotes

_____________________________
1
Ian Ellis-Jones, Essential Administrative Law, (1997) 110. The word decision is not in itself
defined in the Act...however the interpretation of making a decision or a deemed decision are
addressed in 3(2) and 3(8).
2
Aronson and Dyer, Judicial Review of Administrative Action (2
nd
ed, 2000), 3. Australian
courts, for the most part continue to classify the review in fairly classical terms, viz, procedural
fairness (or natural justice), ultra vires and jurisdictional error.
3
The ADJR sits side by side with the CL. At a state level the ADJR is a Commonwealth Act
and so only applies to the exercise of power pursuant to a Commonwealth Act. To challenge an
act pursuant to a State Act must rely on the common law (no NSW equivalent to ADJR).
4
Sackville, The Limits of Judicial Review of Executive Action Some Comparisons between
Australia and the United States (2000) 28 Federal Law Review 315, 317.
5
Pearce, Executive Versus Judiciary (1991) 2 Public Law Review 179, 190.
6
Shergold v Tanner [2002] HCA 19.
7
Hon Justice McHugh AC, Tensions between the Executive and the Judiciary, Paper presented
at the Australian Bar Association Conference, Paris, 10 July 2002. Judges cannot base their
decisions on, or be affected by potential political implications and media pressuresbut must
base their decisions on the law.

AIC:LSU Student Resource: Writing & Referencing Law Assignments This document is uncontrolled when printed
Last Updated: 22 January, 2007
Last printed: 2/1/2007 5:28 PM Page 25 of 25


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