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Deploying MPLS Traffic Engineering

Daniel Therrien Eng. Systems Engineer


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Agenda
Prerequisites Introduction How MPLS-TE Works Fast ReRoute Design Demo J

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Prerequisites

Must know how to configure a router!


Preferably Cisco

Basic knowledge of MPLS forwarding


push, pop, swap, etc.

Some exposure to MPLS-TE helps


Not much time spent on basic configs

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Agenda
Prerequisites Introduction How MPLS-TE Works Fast ReRoute Design Demo J

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MPLS Is Key technology for delivery of L2 & L3 services


IP ATM IP ATM Services Services Services Services IP Optical IP Optical Services Services Services Services

IP IP PNNI PNNI MPLS MPLS O-UNI O-UNI

IP IP MPLS MPLS

IP+ATM IP+ATM Switch Switch

IP+Optical IP+Optical Switch Switch

IP+ATM Integration

Traffic Engineering: Optimization for Additional traffic =>$$

IP+Optical Integration
Frame Relay Frame Relay

MPLS VPNs : Scalable Network based VPNs

Protection solution Reduction in CAPEX & OPEX

ATM

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Layer 2 Integration for A single converged Network Infrastructure 5

Introduction
MPLS-TE was designed to move traffic along a path other than the IGP shortest path
Bring traffic engineering abilities to an IP network Bandwidth-aware connection setup

Fast ReRoute (FRR) is emerging as another application of MPLS-TE


1 (msec) of packet loss when a link goes down Replace expensive SONET gear with routers Can be used in conjunction with MPLS-TE for primary paths, can also be used standalone

Diffserv Aware Traffic Engineering


Delivering strict QOS guarantees through the integration of MPLSTE and advanced QOS techniques
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The Problem with Shortest-Path


Node Node Next-Hop Next-Hop Cost Cost B B 10 B B 10 C 10 C C 10 C D C 20 D C 20 E B 20 E B 20 F B 30 F B 30 G 30 G B 30 B

Some links are DS3, some are OC-3 Router A has 40Mb of traffic for Route F, 40Mb of traffic for Router G Massive (44%) packet loss at Router B->Router E!
Router B

Changing to A->C->D->E wont help


35M bD OC-3 rop Router E s! DS3
Router F

Router A

OC-3
ffic Tra b 80M

Router G

OC-3
Router C
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DS3 DS3
Router D

OC-3

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What MPLS-TE Address


Router A sees all links
Node Node Next-Hop Next-Hop Cost Cost B B 10 B B 10 C 10 C C 10 C D C 20 D C 20 E B 20 E B 20 F Tunnel 0 30 G Tunnel 1 30

Router A computes paths on properties other than just shortest cost No link oversubscribed!
Router B Router F

Router A

OC-3
b 40M

OC-3
Router E

DS3
40Mb

Router G

OC-3
Router C
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DS3
Router D

OC-3

DS3

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Fast ReRoute
FRR: A mechanism to minimize packet loss during a failure Pre-provision protection tunnels that carry traffic when a protected resource (link/node) goes down Use MPLS-TE to signal the FRR protection tunnels, taking advantage of the fact that MPLS-TE traffic doesnt have to follow the IGP shortest path Can protect MPLS traffic or IP traffic, depends on the type of protection See later slides on FRR
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Agenda
Prerequisites Introduction How MPLS-TE Works Fast ReRoute Design Demo J

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How MPLS-TE Works

Information distribution Path calculation Path setup Forwarding traffic down tunnels

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Information Distribution

Need to tell the network about per-link resources (bandwidth, metrics (IGP and TE)) This is done using extensions to IGP (OSPF, ISIS) EIGRP, RIP not supported for MPLS-TE
EIGRP, RIP will work for other MPLS applications (like VPNs!), just not for TE.

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Information Distribution
OSPF
Uses type 10 (opaque arealocal) LSAs See draft-katz-yeung-ospf-traffic

router ospf 1 mpls traffic -eng area <x> mpls traffic -eng router-id Loopback0

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Information Distribution
IS-IS
Uses Type 22 TLVs See draft-ietf-isis-traffic

router isis foo mpls traffic -eng level-1|level-2 mpls traffic -eng router-id Loopback0 metric-style wide

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Path Calculation

Modified Dijkstra at tunnel head-end


Only one destination: The tunnel end (not each and every prefix in the network) More metrics: bandwidth, Link attributes and of course, Administrative weight (use IGP or TE)

Often referred to as CSPF


Constrained SPF

or PCALC (path calculation)

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Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF
RtrF RtrE RtrG

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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RtrD
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Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrA

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Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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RtrD
19

Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA RtrE

RtrC
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RtrD
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Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF
RtrF RtrE RtrG

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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RtrD
21

Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF
RtrF RtrE RtrG

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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RtrD
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Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF
RtrF RtrE RtrG

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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RtrD
23

Path Calculation SFP only.


Normal SPFFind shortest path across all links See Perlman (2nd ed), Moy, etc. for explanation of SPF
RtrF RtrE RtrG

Whats the Shortest Path to All Routers?

RtrB RtrA

RtrC
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RtrD
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Path Calculation C-SFP now


Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3 DS3 RtrG OC3 RtrC
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Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!
RtrF RtrE OC3

DS3 DS3 RtrD

OC3

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?

Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!

RtrA

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3

Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!

OC3 RtrC
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3

Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!

OC3 RtrC
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DS3

RtrD
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3 DS3 OC3 RtrC
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Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!

RtrE

DS3

RtrD
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3 DS3 RtrG OC3 RtrC
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Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!
RtrF RtrE OC3

OC3 DS3 RtrD


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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3 DS3 RtrG OC3 RtrC
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Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!
RtrF RtrE OC3

OC3 DS3 RtrD


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2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router F with 40Mb Available?
RtrB RtrA OC3 DS3 RtrE OC3

Constrained SPF Find shortest path to a specific node Consider more than just link cost!
RtrF

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Path Calculation

But wait! Theres nothing different between the two SPF results! but

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?
RtrB 115MB RtrA 5MB RtrG OC3 RtrC
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What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!


RtrF RtrE115MB

DS3 DS3 RtrD

OC3

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

RtrA

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?
RtrB 115MB RtrA

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

OC3 RtrC
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?
RtrB 115MB RtrA

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

OC3 RtrC
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DS3

RtrD
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?
RtrB 115MB RtrA 5MB OC3 RtrC
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What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

RtrE

DS3

RtrD
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?
RtrB 115MB RtrA 5MB OC3 RtrC
RST-251 5465_05_2002_c1

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

RtrE

DS3

RtrD
39

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?
RtrB 115MB RtrA

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

OC3 RtrC
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DS3

RtrD
40

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

RtrA

OC3 RtrC
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DS3

RtrD
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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

RtrA

RtrE

OC3 RtrC
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DS3 DS3 RtrD


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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!


RtrF

RtrA

RtrE115MB RtrG

OC3 RtrC
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DS3 DS3 RtrD

OC3

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Path Calculation
Whats the Shortest Path to Router G with 40Mb Available?

What about the 2nd path? Available bandwidth has changed!

RtrA

RtrE RtrG

OC3 RtrC
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DS3 DS3 RtrD

OC3

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Path Calculation
Node B C D E F G Next-Hop B C C B Tunnel0 Tunnel1 Cost 10 10 20 20 30 30

End result:
Bandwidth used efficiently!

RtrB RtrA OC3 DS3 RtrE OC3

RtrF

RtrG OC3 RtrC


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DS3 DS3 RtrD

OC3

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Path Calculation
What if theres more than one path that meets the minimum requirements (bandwidth, etc.)? PCALC algorithm:
Find all paths with the lowest IGP cost Then pick the path with the highest minimum bandwidth along the path Then pick the path with the lowest hop count (not IGP cost, but hop count) Then just pick one path at random (take the top path on the TENT list)
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Path Calculation
{cost,available BW} {10,100M} Path Has Cost of 25, Not the Lowest Cost!

Whats the Best Path from A to Z with BW of 20M?

{8,80M} RtrA {4,90M} RtrZ

{8,90M}

All Left-side Links Are {10,100M}


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{8,90M}

All Right-side Links Are {5,150M}


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Path Calculation
{cost,available BW} Path Min BW Is Lower than the Other Paths!

Whats the Best Path from A to Z with BW of 20M?

{8,80M} RtrA {4,90M} RtrZ

{8,90M}

All Left-side Links Are {10,100M}


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{8,90M}

All Right-side Links Are {5,150M}


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Path Calculation
{cost,available BW} Hop Count Is 5, Other Paths Are 4!

Whats the Best Path from A to Z with BW of 20M?

RtrA {4,90M}

RtrZ

{8,90M}

All Left-side Links Are {10,100M}


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{8,90M}

All Right-side Links Are {5,150M}


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Path Calculation
{cost,available BW} Pick a Path at Random!

Whats the Best Path from A to Z with BW of 20M?

RtrA

RtrZ

{8,90M}

All Left-side Links Are {10,100M}


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{8,90M}

All Right-side Links Are {5,150M}


50

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Path Calculation
{cost,available BW}

Whats the Best Path from A to Z with BW of 20M?

RtrA

RtrZ

{8,90M}

All Left-side Links Are {10,100M}


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All Right-side Links Are {5,150M}


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Once path is calculatedPath Setup

Cisco MPLS-TE uses RSVP RFC2205 (base RSVP), RFC 3209 (TE extensions for RSVP) CR-LDP is dead as per RFC 3468 Once the path is calculated, it is handed to RSVP RSVP uses PATH and RESV messages to request an LSP along the calculated path

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Path Setup
PATH message: Can I have 40Mb along this path? RESV message: Yes, and heres the label to use LFIB is set up along each hop
= PATH Messages = RESV Messages
Router B Router A Router E Router G Router F

Router C
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Router D
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Path Setup
PATH message: Can I have 40Mb along this path? RESV message: Yes, and heres the label to use LFIB is set up along each hop
= PATH Messages = RESV Messages
Router B Router A Router E Router G
IMP L NU ICIT LL

Router F

15

23

Router C
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Router D
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Path Setup

Errors along the way will trigger RSVP errors May also trigger re-flooding of TE information if appropriate

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Forwarding Traffic Down a Tunnel


There are four ways traffic can be forwarded down a TE tunnel
Static routes Policy routing Auto-route Forwarding-adjacency

With all but PBR, MPLS-TE gets you unequal cost load balancing
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Static Routing

RtrA(config)#ip route H.H.H.H 255.255.255.255 Tunnel1


Router B Router A Router E

Router F

Router H

Tunnel1

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router 1
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Static Routing
Node Node Next-Hop Next-Hop Cost Cost B B 10 B B 10 C 10 C C 10 C D C 20 D C 20 E B 20 E B 20 B F B 30 F 30 G B 30 G B 30 H Tunnel 40 H Tunnel 1 1 40 II 40 B 40 B

Router H is known via the tunnel Router G is not routed to over the tunnel, even though its the tunnel tail!
Router F Router E Router H

Router B Router A

Tunnel1

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router 1
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Policy Routing
RtrA(config-if)#ip policy route-map set-tunnel RtrA(config)#route-map set-tunnel RtrA(config-route-map)#match ip address 101 RtrA(config-route-map)#set interface Tunnel1

Router B Router A Router E

Router F

Router H

Tunnel1

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router 1
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Policy Routing
Node Node Next-Hop Next-Hop Cost Cost B B 10 B B 10 C 10 C C 10 C D C 20 D C 20 E B 20 E B 20 B F B 30 F 30 G B 30 G B 30 40 H B 40 H B II 40 B 40 B

Routing table isnt affected by policy routing Need (12.0(16)ST or 12.2T) or higher for set interface tunnel to work
Router B Router F Router E

Router H

Router A

Tunnel1

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router 1
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Auto-Route
Auto-route = Use the tunnel as a directly connected link for SPF purposes Said otherwise: Add a route in the routing table of the headend that corresponds to the tunnel
Tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce command

This is not the CSPF (for path determination), but the regular IGP SPF (route determination) Behavior is intuitive, operation can be confusing

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Auto-Route

This Is the Physical Topology

Router B Router A Router E

Router F

Router H

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router I
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Auto-Route

This is Router As logical topology By default, other routers dont see the tunnel!
Router B Router A Router E Router F Router H

Tunnel1

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router I
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Auto-Route
Node Node Next-Hop Next-Hop Cost Cost B B 10 B B 10 C 10 C C 10 C D C 20 D C 20 E B 20 E B 20 B F B 30 F 30 G Tunnel 1 30 G Tunnel 1 30 H Tunnel 40 H Tunnel 1 1 40 II Tunnel 40 Tunnel 1 1 40

Router As routing table, built via auto-route Everything behind the tunnel is routed via the tunnel
Router B Router F Router E Router H

Router A

Tunnel1

Router G

Router C
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Router D

Router I
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Auto-Route

How does autoroute avoid loops?


Process SPF with physical links, replacing next hop with tunnel for all tails neighbors in TENT list

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Forwarding Adjacency
Autoroute metric change is purely local to the headend This makes MPLS TE different from TE with ATM
In ATM TE, the TE link (PVC) has its cost and neighbor advertised into the network In MPLS TE, no such thing is doneUntil FA

Forwarding Adjacency advertises the tunnel into IGP not only at the headend

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ATM Model

H I

A C B D

Cost of ATM links (blue) is unknown to routers A sees two links in IGPE->H and B->D A can load-share between B and E
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Before FA
E F G H I

All links have cost of 10 As shortest path to I is A->B->C->D->I A doesnt see TE tunnels on {E,B}, alternate path never gets use d! Changing link costs is undesirable, can have strange adverse effects
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F-A Advertises TE Tunnels in the IGP


E F G H I

With forwarding-adjacency, A can see the TE tunnels as links A can then send traffic across both paths This is desirable in some topologies (looks just like ATM did, same methodologies can be applied)
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F-A heads up
In order for A to use F-A links, they need to be the best cost IGP path
Otherwise the physical topo gets used So make sure that the tunnels metric is better than the physical topology J

F-A configured with


tunnel mpls traffic-eng forwarding-adjacency isis metric <x> level-<y>

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F-A heads up

Only ISIS supports F-A


OSPF support coming

F-A must be bidirectional F-A cost should probably be lower than lowest possible IGP path from head to tail, otherwise it might not always get used ( Yes I write this twice just to be sure I remember it myself. J )

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Unequal Cost Load Balancing

IP routing has equal-cost load balancing, but not unequal cost* Unequal cost load balancing difficult to do while guaranteeing a loop-free topology

*EIGRP Has Variance, but Thats Not as Flexible


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Unequal Cost Load Balancing

Since MPLS doesnt forward based on IP header, permanent IGP routing loops dont happen with unequal cost
Only one routing decision made, many forwarding, not many routing!!!

16 hash buckets for next-hop, shared in rough proportion to configured tunnel bandwidth or load-share value

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Unequal Cost: Example 1


Router F Router A
40MB 20MB gsr1#show ip route 192.168.1.8 Routing entry for 192.168.1.8/32 Known via "isis", distance 115, metric 83, type level-2 Redistributing via isis Last update from 192.168.1.8 on Tunnel0, 00:00:21 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 192.168.1.8, from 192.168.1.8, via Tunnel0 Route metric is 83, traffic share count is 2 192.168.1.8, from 192.168.1.8, via Tunnel1 Route metric is 83, traffic share count is 1
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Router E Router G

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Unequal Cost: Example 1


Router F Router A
40MB 20MB
gsr1#sh ip cef 192.168.1.8 internal Load distribution: 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 (refcount 1) Hash OK Interface Address Packets T ags imposed 1 Y Tunnel0 point2point 0 {23} 2 Y Tunnel1 point2point 0 {34}

Router E Router G

Note That the Load Distribution Is 11:5Very Close to 2:1, but Not Quite!
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Unequal Cost: Example 2


Router F Router A
100MB 10MB 1MB

Router E Router G

gsr1#sh ip rou 192.168.1.8 Routing entry for 192.168.1.8/32 Known via "isis", distance 115, metric 83, type level -2 Redistributing via isis Last update from 192.168.1.8 on Tunnel2, 00:00:08 ago Routing Descriptor Blocks: * 192.168.1.8, from 192.168.1.8, via Tunnel0 Route metric is 83, traffic share count is 100 192.168.1.8, from 192.168.1.8, via Tunnel1 Route metric is 83, traffic share count is 10 192.168.1.8, from 192.168.1.8, via Tunnel2 Route metric is 83, traffic share count is 1

Q: How Does 100:10:1 Fit into a 16-Deep Hash?


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Unequal Cost: Example 2


Router F Router A
100MB 10MB 1MB

Router E Router G

gsr1#sh ip cef 192.168.1.8 internal Load distribution: 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (refcount 1) Hash 1 2 OK Y Y Interface Tunnel0 Tunnel1 Address point2point point2point Packets 0 0 T ags imposed {36} {37}

A: Any Way It Wants to! 15:1, 14:2, 13:2:1, It Depends on the Order the Tunnels Come Up
Deployment Guideline: Dont Use Tunnel Metrics That Dont Reduce to 16 Buckets!
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Forwarding Traffic down a Tunnel

You can use any combination of auto-route, forwarding-adjacency, static routes, or PBR but simple is better unless you have a good reason Recommendation: autoroute, forwardingadjacency, or static indecreasinr order, depending on your needs

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Agenda
Prerequisites Introduction How MPLS-TE Works Fast ReRoute Design Demo J

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Fast ReRoute
FRR: A mechanism to minimize packet loss during a failure Pre-provision protection tunnels that carry traffic when a protected resource (link/node) goes down Use MPLS-TE to signal the FRR protection tunnels, taking advantage of the fact that MPLS-TE traffic doesnt have to follow the IGP shortest path Can protect MPLS traffic or IP traffic, depends on the type of protection
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Fast Reroute
In an IP network, a link failure causes several seconds of outage
Thing
Link Failure Detection Information Propagation Route Recalculation

Dependency
Media- and Platform-specific IGP Timers, Network Size, Collective Router Load LSDB Size, CPU Load

Time
~ secs (POS + APS) ~530 sec ~13 sec

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Fast Reroute
In an MPLS network, theres more work to be done, so a (slightly) longer outage happens
Thing
Link Failure Detection Information Propagation Route Recalculation New LSP Setup

Dependency
Media- and Platform-specific IGP Timers, Network Size, Collective Router Load LSDB Size, CPU Load Network Size, CPU Load

Time
~Usecs (POS + APS) ~530 sec ~13 sec ~510 sec

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Three Kinds of Fast Reroute

Link protection
Implemented today

Node protection
Implemented today

Path protection
On development radar

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Link Protection

TE Tunnel A -> B -> D -> E


10 34 POP

Router A

Router B

Router D

Router E

Router C
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Link Protection
B has a pre-provisioned backup tunnel to the other end of the protected link (Router D) B relies on the fact that D is using global label space
10 34 POP

Router A

Router B
Protected Link 27 NHOP Backup Tunnel

Router D

Router E

PLR

MP NHOP POP

Point of Local Repair Merge Point

Router C
85

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Link Protection
B -> D link fails, A -> E tunnel is encapsulated in B -> D tunnel Backup tunnel is used until A can re-compute tunnel path as A > B -> C -> D -> E (1030 seconds or so) not for longer.
10 POP

Router A

Router B

Router D

Router E

27, 34

34

Router C
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Link Protection
On tunnel head-end:
tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Router A

Router B

Router D

Router E

On protected link:
mpls traffic-eng backup-path <backup-tunnel>
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Node Protection
Router A has a tunnel A -> B -> D -> E -> F Router B has a protect tunnel B -> C -> E -> D
Router A Router B Router E

Router D

Router F

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Node Protection
Link protection is OK if the B -> D link goes down What if Router D goes away?
Router A Router B Router E

Router D

Router F

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Node Protection
Solution: Protect tunnel to the hop past the protected link
10 34 Protected Node 22 POP

Router A

Router B

Router D

Router E

Router F

PLR 27 NNHOP Backup Tunnel

NHOP POP

MP NNHOP

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Node Protection

Node protection still has the same convergence properties as link protection Deciding where to place your backup tunnels is a much harder to problem to solve large-scale For small-scale protection, link may be better Cisco has developed tools to solve these hard problems for you (Tunnel Builder Pro)

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Path Protection
Path protection: Multiple tunnels from TE head to tail, across diverse paths
Router A Router B Router D Router E Router F

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Path Protection

Path protection: Least scalable, most resource-consuming, slowest convergence of all 3 protection schemes Path protection is useful in two places:
1. When you have more links than tunnels 2. When you need to protect links not using global label space

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Path vs. Local Protection


Local (Link/Node) Protection
Thing
Link Link Failure Failure Detection Detection Local Local Switch Switch-over -over to to Protect Protect Tunnel Tunnel

Dependency
MediaMedia- and and Platform-specific Platform-specific RP-> RP-> Communication Communication Time Time

Time
~Usecs ~Usecs (POS (POS + + APS) APS) ~Few ~Few msec msec or or Less Less

Path Protection
Thing
Link Link Failure Failure Detection Detection Information Information Propagation Propagation Head Head-end -end Switch Switch-over -over to to Protect Protect LSP LSP
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Dependency
MediaMedia- and and Platform-specific Platform-specific IGP IGP Timers, Timers, Network Network Size, Size, Collective Collective Router Router Load Load Network Network Size, Size, CPU CPU Load Load

Time
~Usecs ~Usecs (POS (POS + + APS) APS) ~530+ ~530+ sec sec

~Msec ~Msec

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Local Protection vs. APS Protection


Local (Link/Node) Protection
Thing
Link Link Failure Failure Detection Detection Local Local Switch Switch-over -over to to Protect Protect Tunnel Tunnel

Dependency
MediaMedia- and and Platform-specific Platform-specific RP-> RP-> Communication Communication Time Time

Time
~Usecs ~Usecs (POS (POS + + APS) APS) ~Few ~Few msec msec or or Less Less

APS Protection
Thing
Link Link Failure Failure Detection Detection APS/MSP APS/MSP Cutover Cutover IGP IGP Reconverges Reconverges on on New New Link Link
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Dependency
Media-and Media-and Platform-specific Platform-specific Generally Generally a a Fixed Fixed Time Time IGP IGP Timers, Timers, IGP IGP Size, Size, CPU CPU Load, Load, Etc. Etc.

Time
~Usecs ~Usecs (POS (POS + + APS) APS) <50ms, <50ms, per per spec spec

Seconds Seconds or or Less Less

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Agenda
Prerequisites Introduction How MPLS-TE Works Fast ReRoute Design Demo J

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Design
Two ways to deploy MPLS-TE
As needed to clear up congestionTactical Full mesh between a set of routersStrategic

Strategic can be online or offline path calculation Both methods are valid, both have their pros and cons
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Tactical
Case Study: A Large US ISP
Router A

Router B

Router C

All links are OC12 A has consistent 700MB to send to C ~100MB constantly dropped!

Router D

Router E

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Tactical
Solution: Multiple tunnels, unequal cost load sharing!
Router A Router B Tunnels with bandwidth in 3:1 (12:4) ratio 25% of traffic sent the long way 75% sent the short way No out-of-order packet issues CEFs normal per-flow hashing is used! Router E Router C

Router D

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Tactical
From Router As perspective, topology is:
Router A

Router B

Router C

Router D

Router E

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Tactical
As neededEasy, quick, but hard to track over time Easy to forget why a tunnel is in place Inter-node BW requirements may change, tunnels may be working around issues that no longer exist Link protection pretty straightforward, node protection harder to track
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Strategic
Put a full mesh of TE tunnels between routers Initially deploy tunnels with 0 bandwidth Watch tunnel interface statistics, see how much bandwidth you are using between router pairs
Tunnels are interfacesUse IF-MIB! Make sure that tunnel <= network BW
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Strategic

Some folks deploy full mesh just to get router-to-router (pop-to-pop) traffic matrix Largest TE network ~80 routers full mesh (~6400 tunnels) As tunnel bandwidth is changed, tunnels will find the best path across your network

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Strategic
Physical topology is:
Router A

Router B

Router C

Router D

Router E

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Strategic
Logical topology is*
*Each link is actually 2 unidirectional tunnels

Total of 20 tunnels in this network


Router A

Router B

Router C

Router D

Router E

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Strategic
Things to remember with full mesh
N routers, N*(N-1) tunnels Routing protocols not run over TE tunnels Unlike an ATM/FR full mesh! Tunnels are unidirectionalThis is a good thing Can have different bandwidth reservations in two different directions

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Strategic

Best practices for full mesh:


Periodically re-optimize tunnels based on need (just like an ATM network) TE was designed to be a combination of online (router-based) and offline (NMS) calculation Node protection more practical in a full-mesh, offline-generate TE topography

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Scalability
How Many Tunnels on a Router?
Number of Head-End Tunnels 600 Number of Mid-Points 10,000 Number of Tunnel Tails 5,000

Code 12.0ST

Tests were done on a GSR RSP4, RSP8, VXR300, VXR400 will be similar 10,000 tunnels come up in 3-5 minutes
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Scalability

Largest TE network today = 80 routers, ~6400 tunnels full mesh 12.0ST600 head-ends, 360,000 tunnels full mesh with 10,000 tunnels per midpoint Bottom line: MPLS-TE is not a gating factor in scaling most networks!

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Scalability
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/pro duct/software/ios120/120newft/120limit/120st /120st14/scalable.htm

Or just search CCO for Scalability Enhancements for MPLS Traffic Engineering

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Demo

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Network & BW reservable

Name: PE2 Telnet Port:1112 Process :104

Name: Core1 Telnet Port:1101

BW= 5 S2 .2

Process :102

E0 .2

BW= 2
Address : 10.1.1.0/24 Ethernet

E1 .1

Name: Core2 Telnet Port:1102 Process :101

BW= 5

Name: PE1 Telnet Port:1111 Process :100

Address : 130.1.4.0/24 Serial

Address : 200.1.2.0/24 Ethernet

S3 .1

S3 .1

S2 .1

BW= 3

BW= 3

S3 .1

E0 .1

Address : 200.1.1.0/24 Serial

E0 .2

Address : 130.1.0.0/24 Serial Name: Core5 Telnet Port:1105 Process :103 Name: PAGEN2 Telnet Port:1121 Process :111 Name: PAGEN1 Telnet Port:1120 Process :110

Bandwidth in Mbps

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Tunnel created with 1.5Mbpsping


Tunnel
Name: PE2 Telnet Port:1112 Process :104 Name: Core1 Telnet Port:1101

BW= 5 S2 .2

Process :102

E0 .2

BW= 2
Address : 10.1.1.0/24 Ethernet

E1 .1

Name: Core2 Telnet Port:1102 Process :101

BW= 5

Name: PE1 Telnet Port:1111 Process :100

Address : 130.1.4.0/24 Serial

Address : 200.1.2.0/24 Ethernet

S3 .1

S3 .1

S2 .1

BW= 3

BW= 3

S3 .1

E0 .1

Address : 200.1.1.0/24 Serial

E0 .2

Address : 130.1.0.0/24 Serial Name: Core5 Telnet Port:1105 Process :103 Name: PAGEN2 Telnet Port:1121 Process :111 Name: PAGEN1 Telnet Port:1120 Process :110

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Tunnel changed to 2.1 Mbp: no packet loss J

Name: PE2 Telnet Port:1112 Process :104

Name: Core1 Telnet Port:1101

BW= 5 S2 .2

Process :102

E0 .2

BW= 2
Address : 10.1.1.0/24 Ethernet

E1 .1

Name: Core2 Telnet Port:1102 Process :101

BW= 5

Name: PE1 Telnet Port:1111 Process :100

Address : 130.1.4.0/24 Serial

Address : 200.1.2.0/24 Ethernet

S3 .1

S3 .1

S2 .1

BW= 3

BW= 3

S3 .1

E0 .1

Address : 200.1.1.0/24 Serial

E0 .2

Address : 130.1.0.0/24 Serial Name: Core5 Telnet Port:1105 Process :103 Name: PAGEN2 Telnet Port:1121 Process :111 Name: PAGEN1 Telnet Port:1120 Process :110

Tunnel

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Recommended Reading

Traffic Engineering with MPLS


ISBN: 1-58705-031-5

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