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EXPERIMENT 1 DETERMINATION OF THE DENSITY OF AN UNKNOWN LIQUID Objective : To determine the density of a liquid using the pycnometer method

Introduction: Density is defined as the ratio of the mass of a body to its volume. Its experimental determination requires the measurements of these two quantities for the selected piece of material. Let M represent the mass of the empty pycnometer, and Mw be the mass of the pycnometer filled with water at toC. The value of (Mw M) is the mass of water contained in the pycnometer at this temperature. Thus if d is the density of water at toC , the volume V of the pycnometer at this temperature is then: V = (Mw M) d Eq. 1

Let ML be the mass of the pycnometer when filled with the liquid whose density is to be determined. The mass of this liquid is (ML M). If this mass is determined at the temperature of toC, the density of liquid is the ratio of this mass to its volume as given by equation 1. That is: dL = (ML M) V = d(ML M) (Mw M)

Eq. 2

Table 1: Density of pure water at different temperatures Temp 18oC 20oC 22oC 24oC Materials: Distilled water Unknown liquid Apparatus: Pycnometer Weighing balance Procedure: 1. Weigh the pycnometer when dry and empty. Note down the weigh of the dry pycnometer. 2. Filled up the pycnometer with distilled water and allow air bubbles to rise to the top before inserting the stopper. 3. Leave the filled pycnometer at toC for about 5 minutes. (t = selected room temperature at the day of the experiment being carried out) 4. To avoid the expansion of the pycnometer due to the heat of the hand, pick it up by the neck with one or two layers of papers between the fingers. 5. Dry the outside of the pycnometer, and weigh it again when filled with distilled water. 6. Find out the volume of the pycnometer, V. 7. Repeat steps 2-6 with the unknown liquid. NOTE: Density using a pycnometer. Here are some things to keep in mind when using your pycnometer. The pycnometer is delicate and expensive; exercise care when handling it. The bulb and stopper of the pycnometer are both engraved with the same number. Be sure that you do not inadvertently switch stoppers with someone else; check the number occasionally. The pycnometer must be clean and DRY before the initial weighing To fill the pycnometer with liquid, use a medicine dropper to fill the bulb to about halfway up the neck (there is usually a white mark). Then slowly insert the capillary stopper. When full, there should be NO air bubbles in the bulb or capillary of the pycnometer, and no air space at the top of the capillary. Before weighing the full pycnometer, the outside should be perfectly dry. Clean-up. When you have finished all of your work: Density (gcm-3) 0.99862 0.99823 0.99780 0.99732

Clean all glassware, shake off excess water, and place in the drying oven. Clean the pycnometer with distilled water, and dry by aspiration. Return all borrowed equipment to the instructor before leaving lab. Clean up your work area before leaving lab. Treatment of Data: 1. Calculate the density of the unknown liquid. 2. Identify the unknown liquid. Given the density of some liquids as follows: Liquid Ethanol Methanol Chloroform Benzene Question: Briefly describe the technique of using a pycnometer in determining the density of a solid sample. Is the type of pycnometer used in this experiment suitable for density determination of a solid sample? Density(gcm-3) 0.789 0.791 1.490 0.877