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Technical Manual - PVC-U Pressure Piping System

PVC-U pressure pipes are manufactured from unplasticised polyvinyl chloride polymer which is a thermoplastic material using the extrusion process. PVC-U (sometimes referred as uPVC) pipes were introduced in Malaysia in the 1970's and are now widely accepted material for use in water supply, irrigation and sewerage. The high strength to weight ratio together with exceptional resistance to corrosion and chemical attack makes these pipes ideal for major infrastructure applications. Global experience has confirmed the long term durability and servicability of PVC-U pressure pipes. Paling PVC-U pressure piping systems meet the requirements of the relevant British and Malaysian Standards. The pipes and fittings are approved by SIRIIM, including various States Water Authority. Paling's PVC-U pressure pipes are suitable for the application of: potable water supply trunk and reticulation mains industrial process pipelines pipelines for pumped sewage and wastes irrigation systems

2. Product Properties
The typical properties of PVC-U are given in Table 1. Table 1. Properties of PVC-U Unit Typical Value Rockwell R 2 mg/cm MPa % MPa MPa 2 kJ/m C 0 J/kg/ C 0 mm/mm/ C 0 W/m/ C - cm kV/mm 0

Mechanical Specific Gravity Hardness Water Absorption Tensile Strength Elongation at Break Compressive Strength Modulus of Elasticity Izod Impact Strength Poissons Ratio Thermal Vicat Softening Point Specific Heat Coefficient of Linear Expansion Thermal Conductivity Flame Resistance Electrical Volume Resistance Dielectric Constant @106Hz Dielectric Strength Dielectric Power Factor @106Hz


1.42 120 0.04 0.06 > 45 > 80 66 2700 6 0.35 0.4 82 1047 -5 7 x 10 0.138 0.150 Self extinguishing > 1 x 10 3.0 3.3 > 40 0.02

Technical Manual PVC-U Pressure Piping System

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2.1 Effect of temperature on pressure rating: Paling PVC-U piping system is suitable for service temperatures between 0C and 50 C. For temperatures above 20 C a derating factor should be applied to the working pressure as stipulated in Table 2 Maximum Service Temperature ( C) 20 30 40 50 Table 2 Thermal derating factors Multiplication Factor For Pressure Derating 1.00 0.90 0.70 0.50

2.2 Chemical resistance PVC-U has exceptional resistance to attack from high concentrations of alkalis and acids, except for strong oxidising agents at maximum or near maximum concentrations. The material is not recommended for use with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones, esters and ethers. The resistance of PVC-U pipe materials to a wide range of chemicals is listed in Table 3 below. The information given is intended as a guide on the suitability of PVC-U Pipes and fittings for operation under various conditions, but it must be understood that no guarantee can be given that actual result obtained will, in every case, be exactly as shown. Palings technical personnel can be reached for consultation on the use of chemicals not listed in the table.
Chemical Acetic Acid Aceton Alcohol (40%) Aluminium Fuloride Aluminium Sulphate Ammonia 0,88,SG aq soln Ammonium arbonate Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Phosphate neutral Ammonium Sulphate Aniline Hydrocloride (40% a.q) Barium Carbonate Barium Hydrocloride Beer Benzene or Benzol 25C S U S S S S S S S 60C S U P S S S S S S U U Chemical Acetic Acid (80%) Alcohol (1005)

Table 3. PVC-U Chemical Resistance Chart

25C S S S S S S S 60C P P S S S S S Chemical Hydrochloric Acid (80%) Hydrogen Peroxide 50% Hypochlorous Acid Hypochlorous Acid Magnesium Carbonate Magnesium Hydroxde Mercury S S Milk Mixed Acid (dulute) Nickel Chloride Nickel Sulphate Nitric Acid 66% 25C S S S S S S S S S P S S P S S S S U S S S S

60C S S S S S S S S S U S S P S S S S U S S S S

Aluminium Chloride Aluminium Hydroxyde Ammonia Gas (dry) Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Hydroxyde Ammonium Phospate ammoniacal

Chemical Hydrofluoric Acid 50% Hydrogen Sulphide (wet aqueous sol.

25C S S

60C U S

Magnesium Chloride Mercuric Chloride Methyl Chloride Mineral Oils Molasses Nickel Nitrate Nitric Acid 10% Nitric Acid 90% Oleum Oxygen





Barium Chloride Barium Sulphate Beet Sugar Liquors Bleach (12.5% Active Chloride)



Oils and Fats Animal Mineral Vegetable Petrol (depending upon type) Phosphoric Acid (50% and 85%) Potassium Bromate Potassium Dichromate Petroleum Products (crude)

Phosgene-gas Photographic Solutions Plating Solutions Potassium Chloride Potassium Hydroxide



Brine Butanol (Primary Butyl Alcohol)



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Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride Castor Oil Chloric Acid (20%) Chlorine gas (Wet) Chlorine (liquid) Chromic Acid 10% Chromic Acid 50% Cresylic Acid 50% Crude Oil Diesel Oil Derv Detergents (normal dilutions) Ethylene Glycol Fatty Acids Ferric Nitrate Ferrous Chloride Fish Solubles Formaldehyde 40% Fruit Juices, Pulp Gallic Acid Gas - natural



Calcium Chlorate Calcium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide (wet or dry) Chloroacetic Acid Chlorine gas (dry) Chlorine Water Chrome Slum.Sta.Soln Chromic Acid 30% Cottonseed Oil Cresylic Acid 100% Diesel Oil - Gas Disodium Phosphate Ferric Chloride Ferric Sulphate Ferric Sulphate Fluorine Gas b(wet) Formic Acid 50% Gas - manufactured



Silver Cyanide Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Spirits (Whisky, etc) Sulphur Dioxide (wet) Sulphuric Acid 75%-90% Sulphurous Acid Tri-Sodium Phosphate


S S S S S P S S S S S S S S U S S Water - Fresh Wetting Agents (Dil) Zinc Nitrate S S S S S S Silver Nitrate Sodium carbonate Sodium Dichromate Sodium Nitrate Sulphur Dioxide (dry) Sulphuric Acid 10% 75% Sulphiric Acid 90% Sulphur Tryoxide gas S S S S S S P S S S S S S S U S


Urine Vinegar Waret (acid mine water) Water (salt) White Liquor Xylene or Xylol Zinc Chloride Zinc Sulphate

Key: S Satisfactory

P Some Attack

U Unsuitable

3. Product Features and Benefits

Paling products are accurately designed and formulated to consistently and continuously exceed the performance aspects of standards, especially the hydrostatic pressure. With SIRIM and ISO 9001:2000 certifications, they undoubtedly provide an independent assurance to users or customers that Paling products are manufactured under an effective system of inspection, testing, supervision and control. 3.1 Pressure Fittings Wall thickness of fittings and materials are formulated to achieve strength that exceeds the performance of standards. High quality of finish with smooth internal and external surface. Provides low coefficient of flow friction. 3.2 Pressure Pipes Dimensions and performance meet the requirement of standards. High quality of finish with smooth internal and external surfaces. Provides low coefficient of flow friction.


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4. Pipeline design
4.1 Hydraulic design The capacity of flow in a pipeline can vary due to various factors, which include the roughness of pipe bore, influenced by the growth of slime, roughening due to abrasion and joint imperfections/fitting types and configurations. Flow capacity is calculated by using the Colebrook White Transition Equation and it is assumed pipes are flowing full. This equation takes into account, liquid viscosity and pipe roughness, and is recognised as being one of the most accurate in general use but requires an iterative solution. This equation also enables user to establish the relationship between friction loss, discharge and velocity. V = - 2 2gDS . log where; k 3.7D + 2.51 D2gDS

V = velocity in m/s S = hydraulic gradient in m/m D = pipe internal diameter in m 2 g = gravitational acceleration, taken as 9.81 m/s -6 2 0 = kinematic viscosity, taken as 1.01 x 10 m /s (at 20 C) -3 k = pipe wall roughness, taken as 3 x 10 m This value of the equivalent roughness coefficient "k" assumes the PVC-U pipeline is straight, clean and concentrically jointed without fittings. Possible values ranging between 0.003 to 0.015 mm. 4.1.1 Pressure class selection The nominal pressure rating of a PVC-U pressure pipe is indicated by the PN, followed by a 2 digit number 0 indicating the pressure capacity. For example, a PN12 pipe has a pressure capacity of 12bar at 20 C. This pressure should not be exceeded at any point of the pipeline by the maximum operating pressure including water hammer pressure surcharges. See also Section 4.1.2 and 4.2 respectively for fatigue and structural considerations. Combined air release and anti-vacuum valves must be installed at local high points in any section of a pipeline, so as to maintain full flow and prevent vacuum conditions from occurring. 4.1.2 Water hammer surges and cyclical effects Water hammer effects in PVC-U material is considerably low when compared with iron, steel and concrete due to the much lower modulus of elasticity. Where repeated pressure variations occur in PVC-U pipeline, say in the case of a pump switching on and off in a rising main it may be necessary to consider the effect of fatigue over the life of the pipeline. Design of pipeline should take into account the frequency of pressure fluctuations (cycles) during the life of the pipeline and the amplitude of the pressure change between the maximum and minimum steady state operating Page 4 of 15

pressures plus water hammer effects. This value when divided by the derating factor given in Table 4 should not exceed the nominal pressure rating of the pipeline components. In practice the pressure changes in water reticulation systems are seldom of sufficient amplitude and frequency for fatigue to affect pipe class selection, but they can be an important consideration for pumping systems. Table 4. Fatigue derating factors Total cycles 100,000 500,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 5,000,000 Fatigue derating factor, f 1.00 0.62 0.50 0.50 0.31

Note: A cycle is defined as one combined pump stop and start operation unless an allowance is considered necessary to allow for attenuation of the surge wave. In this case the cycle count should be twice the number of start/stop operations.

Examples: 1) A main trunk is operating at the pressure of 6bar. At the start and stop of pump, the pressure fluctuates between 4bar and 10bar. The pump start/stop at 3 times and hour and the design life is 50 years. Therefore; The pressure amplitude = 10 4 = 6bar The whole life cycle = 3 x 24 x 365 x 50 = 1,314,000 From Table 4, the derating factor = 0.5 The minimum pressure rating (P) of the pipeline components (pipes, fittings, valve & etc) is; P = 6/0.5 = 12bar. Hence, a PN12 rated component is required even at the operating pressure of 6bar. PVC-U fittings present a problem worthy of special consideration. Complex stress patterns in fittings can 'amplify' the apparent stress cycle. An apparently harmless pressure cycle can thus produce a damaging stress cycle leading to a relatively short fatigue life. This factor is particularly severe in the case of branch fittings such as tees, where amplification factors up four times have been noted. The condition can be aggravated further by the existence of stress cycling from other sources, for example bending stresses induced flexing under hydraulic thrust in improperly supported systems. Prudence therefore dictates that a suitable factor of safety be applied to fittings in assessing class requirements. It is recommended that the following factors be applied to the design dynamic pressure cycle for fittings:
Tees SafetyFactor Bends SafetyFactor Reducers SafetyFactor equal 4 90short 3 Dx3/4D 1.5 Dx3/4D 3 45short 2 Dx1/2D 2 Dx1/2D 2 90long 2 Dx1/4D 2.5 Dx1/4D 1.5 45long 1.5

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A PVC-U golf course watering scheme is designed to operate at 0.70 MPa. Balanced loading will ensure no pump cycling during routine watering. However, the system is to be maintained on standby with a jockey pump for hand watering purposes and this will cut in and out at 0.35 and 0.75 MPa. With normal usage and leakage this may occur every half hour on average for twelve hours a day. A twenty-five year life is required. The total dynamic cycle is 0.4 MPa. The total life cycles predicted is 24 x 365 x 25 = 219,000. Referring to the chart, load factor is 0.8. Therefore, P = 0.4/0.8 = 0.5 MPa (In this case, PN9 pipe is suitable) For fittings ; Equal Tee; P = 0.4/0.8 = 0.5 MPa x Safety Factor = 0.5 x 4 = 2 Mpa Elbow; P = 0.4/0.8 = 0.5 MPa x Safety Factor = 0.5 x 3 = 1.5 Mpa A PN15 equal tee may not have an acceptable life in this system, only PN15 elbow is suitable. Solution: Reduce the dynamic range or reduce the frequency or the periods on standby. 4.2 Structural Design Paling range of PVC-U pipes are classified as "flexible" pipes, which means they have the ability to deform or deflect diametrically within specified limits without structural damage or impairing the performance of the pipes. The external soil and live loadings imposed on flexible pipes may cause a decrease in the vertical diameter and an increase in the horizontal diameter of the pipe. The horizontal movement of the pipe walls in the soil material at the sides develops a passive resistance within the soil to support the external load. Hence, the pipeline performance is influenced by the soil type and density. The higher the effective soil modules at pipe depth, the less the pipe will deflect. Allowable initial defIection is up to 5 and will not affect the pressure rating of the pipe. A complete design approach is covered in BS EN 1295-1. 4.2.1 Minimum Cover Height A minimum cover height of 450mm to the top of the pipe should be adopted for areas without traffic loading. Under paved roadways the minimum cover height is 600mm or 750mm in unsealed roadways, and pipe embedment material should have a minimum compaction Density Index of 65%. After pipes are laid and centred in the trench, the embedment material should be compacted in 80-100mm layers to the specified density. The embedment should continue above the pipe to provide protection from the back fill. That is a height above the pipe of 80-150mm may be required. 4.2.2 Thrust block for fittings Where a pressurized pipeline system utilizes rubber ring joints, (or non end load bearing type), thrust will develop at changes of size or direction of the pipeline such as at tees, elbows, reducers, valves and closed ends. In buried installations, fittings are usually restrained by concrete blocks casted at site. These thrust blocks should be formed and sized to effectively transfer the resultant thrust at the fitting to the adjacent soil. The soil type and depth will influence the efficiency of the thrust transfer.


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Thrust blocks must be of certain dimensions and shaped to distribute the force to a plane surface of the undisturbed soil, normally perpendicular to the imposed load. The interface area should be determined and the following equation can be used: A = T/b x f 2 Where; A = area perpendicular to force (m ) T = hydrostatic thrust (kN) developed by the pipeline pressure on fittings b = soil bearing capacity (kPa) f = factor of safety 4.3 Above ground Installation Paling PVC-U Piping system is suitable to be installed above ground or exposed. The following measures however, are required to ensure the serviceability of the system; 4.3.1. Protection against ultra violet PVC-U-U pressure pipes can be used above ground where protection from long term exposure to ultra violet radiation is provided. This is achieved by applying acrylic paint over the pipes. 4.3.2. Expansion & Contraction The expansion and contraction of plastic pipe is a function of the change in average temperature of the pipe wall. This temperature depends on internal and external environmental temperatures and whether the environments are gaseous (air) or liquid. The most common case is a pipe conveying liquid surrounded by air. The following simple equations may be used for calculation of expansion or contraction under these conditions: T L T A T L k L = Maximum temperature change in pipe contents = Maximum temperature change of external air = Change in average temperature of pipe mid-wall = Change in length of pipework section under consideration 5 = Coefficient of linear expansion of pipe material, for PVC-U = 7 x 10 mm/mm/ C = Original length of pipe

To calculate pipe wall temperature change, use the equation T = 0.65 TL + 0.10 TA Using value of T calculated, then calculate expansion using the equation L = T L . k

4.3.3. Pipe movement To accommodate the expansion and contraction without stressing the pipe, expansion loop may be constructed with suitable length of unrestrained pipe (free leg length) as shown in the graph below:

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Example: Determine the free leg length required to accommodate a change in length of 20 metres of 90mm diameter pipework caused by an increase in contents temperature from 20 C to 40 C, with the external air temperature also increasing from 5 C to 25 C. 1. To calculate pipe mid wall temperature change (T) apply the equation: T= 0.65 TL + 0.10 TA Therefore T = 0.65 (4020) + 0.10 (255) i.e. T = 0.65 20 + 0.10 20 = 15
Note: The common error when calculating T is to use extremes of temperature, in this case 5 C for air and 40 C for contents. 35 C would then be used for T in the next calculation instead of the correct 15 C which would give more than double the true value.

2. To calculate expansion (L) L = T L k therefore 5 L = 15 20 7 x 10 mm/mm/ C = 0.0210m = 21mm

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3. To calculate free leg length Using the value of L/2, draw a horizontal line on the graph from the vertical scale to meet the 3in or 90mm pipe gradient line. Drop a perpendicular from the intersection point to the horizontal scale. The figure obtained is the free leg length of loop required, which in this case is 1.03m. As a rule of thumb, Paling PVC-U-U pipes will expand or contract by 0.7mm/metre for every 10 C change in pipe wall temperature. 4.3.4. Pipe support Support should not restrain the longitudinal movement of pipes. Where unyielding material like steel is used to support pipes, a suitable compressible material (ie. rubber), with a thickness of 3mm is used between the pipe and the clamp. The recommended distance between supports, vertical and horizontal, is tabulated below: Table 5. Distance of Pipe Support Distance between support for various water temperature size horizontal pipes (mm) vertical (mm) 0 0 0 0 0 0 (mm) 20 C 30 C 40 C 50 C 20 C to 50 C 15 850 700 500 400 900 20 900 750 550 500 1000 25 1000 850 650 570 1200 32 1100 1000 800 700 1400 40 1250 1150 950 820 1600 50 1400 1300 1100 970 1800 65 1500 1400 1200 1070 2000 80 1650 1550 1350 1200 2200 100 1850 1750 1550 1370 2400 155 2250 2150 2000 1850 2500

5. Installation
5.1 Handling and Storage PVC-U pipes are light (about 1/5 of the weight of steel pipe) and easy to handle. Nevertheless, careless handling may cause unnecessary damage. Pipes and fittings should not be dropped or thrown onto hard surfaces or allowed to come into contact with sharp objects which could inflict deep scratches. PVC-U pipes should not be allowed to slide across sharp edges. During construction storage areas should be selected which are free from surface irregularities such as stones, branches or other sharp projections. PVC-U pipes may distort under high loads. Therefore stack heights should be kept to a minimum for long term storage. At elevated temperatures pipes may bow due to uneven heating of individual pipe lengths. Where this may be a problem during installation they should be protected from direct sunlight immediately prior to use. Socketed pipes should be stacked in layers with sockets placed at alternative ends of the rack, and protruding, to avoid uneven stacks and distortion. The sockets should not be allowed to carry loads. If mechanical handling equipment such as fork lifts or cranes are to be used on bundles, adequate spreader and lifting bars should be provided. Wire slings must be kept clear of the pipes. When unloading alongside excavated trenches, it is recommended that pipes be placed on the opposite side of the trench from excavated material.

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Rubber rings, jointing fluid, solvent cement and priming fluid should be stored under cover until pipe laying commences. 5.2 Trench Construction Trenches should be constructed in accordance with the authority requirements. They may be as narrow as possible at the spring line of the pipe. The detail design of trench can be obtained from BS EN 1295-1. Adequate width of trench should be provided for compaction of the embedment material in the side support zone. Table 6 outlines the dimensions of trench according the figure below.

Table 6. Embedment dimensions Size Ib B Ic Io 80 75 280 100 100 100 75 300 100 100 155 75 350 100 100 200 100 500 150 150 250 100 550 150 150 300 100 600 200 150


lc lo B

lb 5.3 Embedment foundation

The embedment material quality, its compaction, as well as the type of natural soil of the trench wall, are important considerations in determining the ultimate performance of PVC-U pipes once installed. The trench bottom should be as smooth as possible and to grade. Embedment material such as bedding, side support and overlay material should be of non-cohesive granular material. Pipes should not be buried in contact with soil particle sizes larger than 5% of diameter, with 20mm as maximum. Soil clods must be excluded from the pipe embedment zone and under no circumstances should temporary supports such as bricks or timber be left under or in contact with pipes. If the excavated material is not granular or friable, or does not comply with the project specification, then suitable embedment must be imported. Jointing or "clearance holes" should be excavated in the bedding for pipe sockets to ensure the pipes are evenly supported along the full length. In the absence of any specification and if the pipe Classes are PN 6 or PN9, it is important that only non-cohesive or granular embedment be used. Careful attention to the placement of embedment material to the specified relative compaction with an absence of voids is important.

5.4 Solvent Cement Jointing To achieve a strong and leak free joints in a pressure pipework, the correct type of solvent cement must be used. Paling strongly recommends COLOURSolve, a coloured solvent cement with a controlled amount of resin and solvents. This colour will provide means of checking as to whether the application of solvent cement is correctly executed. It must be emphasized that this is not a gluing process, instead an adhesion mechanism achieved through the molecular bonding of resin solidification as the solvents evaporate.

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COLOURsolve comes in two types: COLOURsolveTM Fast Dry (Green) Recommended for jointing pipes of 15-80 mm diameters. COLOURsolveTM Slow Dry (Blue) Recommended for jointing pipes of 80-300 mm diameters.

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5.4.1 Solvent weld jointing instructions Make a square cut using a mitre box and fine-toothed panel saw. Remove all burrs and swarf. Slightly chamfer the external pipe edge.

Clean the pipe and matching socket, using priming fluid to the manufacturer's pipe recommendations. Keep the cleaned surfaces free of dirt and grease. Failure to do so could lead to inadequate bonding and will result in joint failure.

(NOTE: This is a very important step: the priming fluid not only cleanses the surface but also prepares for a durable and long lasting joint.)

Draw a line on the spigot to show the depth of socket. Apply an even coating of approved solvent cement to the inside of the socket and spigot, over an area corresponding to the socket depth.

While the surface is still wet, push the spigot home into the socket with a slight twisting motion. Hold the cemented joints for 30 seconds without movement.

Clean the excess of solvent cement with a clean cloth. The pipe may be handled, but not unduly strained for1 hour. Wait 24 hours before testing or use.

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5.5 Jointing using rubber ring joints Paling PVC-U pipes are supplied with rubber ring of dual hardness or type that that employs retaining ring. Both types are readily installed in the socket groove to facilitate jointing and avoid using the wrong rubber ring profile. Lubricant should be used when jointing pipes to ease the insertion of spigot and is supplied together with pipes. 5.5.1 Rubber Ring Jointing Instructions

The rubber ring joint should be assembled as recommended by the pipe manufacturer. The elastomeric rings may be supplied separately in cartons or pre-positioned in the socketed joint or the coupling at the factory. When the rings are colour coded, be sure to consult the pipe manufacturer or his literature for the significance. In all cases, clean the ring, the socket or the coupling interior, especially the groove area (except when the ring is permanently installed) and the spigot area with a rag, brush or paper towel to remove any dirt or foreign material before assembling. Inspect the ring, pipe spigot chamber, ring groove and sealing surfaces for damages or deformation. Use only rings which are designed for and supplied with the pipe. Insert them as recommended by the manufacturer. Lubricant should be applied as specified by the pipe manufacturer. Bacterial growth, damage to gaskets or the pipe, may result from the use of non-approved lubricants. Use only the lubricant supplied by the pipe manufacturer. 4

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5.6 Expansion and Contraction Distortion can occur when laying pipes in direct sunlight. When one side of the pipe is hotter than the other, it may develop a slightly bent shape which may make jointing difficult. Plastic pipe will contract as it cools, after laying in hot weather. A 6 metre length of PVC-U will expand or contract approximately 5mm for each 10 C rise or fall in temperature. The following precautions should be taken to ensure that the joints do not pull apart: for solvent cement pipelines, the lines should be free to move until a strong bond has developed for rubber ring jointed pipelines backfill each length, at least partially, as laying proceeds. Refer Section 4.3.2 and 4.3.3. Rubber rings allow some movement of the pipeline during and after completion of the laying operation. 5.7 Installing on Curved Alignments Rubber ring joint of Paling PVC-U pipe allows up to 2 of angular deflection. Joints should always be made with the two pipes straight. Deflection away from a straight alignment should be made only after the joint is made. Minor changes in direction can be achieved by jointing and then deflecting a succession of shorter pipes. Pipes of smaller sizes are flexible enough to be easily curved. The pipe should be curved evenly along its length so that strain is not taken by the joint. The pipes should always be joined directly in line before the curve is made. Radius of bending should not exceed 200 times the diameter of pipe. Local Water Authorities should be consulted on whether or not curved PVC-U pipes be allowed to be drilled or fitted with tapping bands. 5.8 Concrete Encasement Paling PVC-U pipes may be encased in concrete. Where the concrete face cannot be located on a socket, compressible material approximately 3mm thick and for a distance of about 100mm from the face into the concrete should be used around pipes. By encircling the pipes at the entry and exit points, any potential sharp edges will be prevented from bearing against the pipe wall. The pipeline should not be pressurized with water until the concrete has developed sufficient strength to resist tensile stresses.

5.9 Backfilling Mechanical joints, especially flanged joints, should be left exposed if possible until the line is tested. Pipes should not be left uncovered where there is a possibility of the trench filling with water due to rain, etc. as flotation of the empty pipeline will occur unless it is backfilled to a height of at least one and a half diameters above the pipe. The method of placing the remainder of the trench backfill will depend on whether the pipeline is located in an area with no traffic loading or under a roadway. In a roadway it is normal practice to continue backfilling and compacting with good quality embedment material up to pavement level. Heavy compaction of backfill should not commence without at least 300mm of material covering the pipeline. 5.10 Site Testing The site testing requirements should be carried out according to the local Water Authorities. It is recommended that the test is carried out at the pressure of 1.5 times the lowest rated component of the pipeline. The test should not last for more than one hour. Water in the pipeline may require replenishment depending on the pipe wall temperature due to expansion. Solvent cement joints should be allowed to cure for at least 24 hours from the time of the last joint made. All concrete works should be fully cured before carrying out pressure test. Page 14 of 15

Responsibility lies solely with the user to ensure the currency and validity of information or advice contained herein in the context of his circumstances. It is recommended that advice be obtained from a Registered Consultant. No warranty is expressed or implied as to the content of the information or results obtained by use thereof, and Paling Industries Sdn Bhd will not be held liable for any costs, direct or indirect, that may arise therefrom.

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