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Anatomy and Physiology II Blood Vessel Lab Prelab Questions for the Vessel Lab Name _______________________________________________ 1.

What circulation carries blood to the lungs to obtain oxygen, then returns it to the heart? 2. What circulation transports oxygenated blood throughout the body, and returns deoxygenated blood to the heart? 3. What arteries are colored blue on drawings and models? Why are they colored blue?

4. 5. 6. 7.

How many brachiocephalic arteries do we have? What layer of a vessel is composed mostly of smooth muscle? What name is given to the inner lining of a blood vessel? Name the main artery in the thigh.

8. What veins collect nutrient rich blood from the intestine and transport it to the liver? 9. 10. What fetal pulmonary bypass is a hole between the two atria? Name the vessel that supplies blood to the thumb side of the forearm and hand.

Blood Vessel Lab Exercises


The objective of this lab is to learn from: A. A short lecture on: 1. types of vessels and the structure of vessel walls 2. pulmonary, systemic, hepatic portal and fetal circulation. B. You must be able to identify the vessels from models, illustrations from your textbook and from ADAM Interactive. The Anatomy and Physiology Coloring Book may also be used, if you wish to purchase it. You must also know the origin of the vessels, and what part of the body the vessels serve. C. Use of microscope slides and a model of vessels to learn the histology of the artery and the vein. F. Taking of blood pressure. The number to the left of each vessel is used to identify it on drawings and the photographs in this guide. The best way to use this guide is to start with the text description of the vessel and then find the corresponding vessel on a drawing or photograph. Do not just look at the drawing or photograph and then try to find the vessel in the text of the guide; that can be more confusing. You are responsible for identifying vessels on models, drawings, photographs and A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. In addition, you must know the part or parts of the body that each vessel serves. Figure references refer to figures in your textbook. I. Pulmonary circulation - Figure 21.29, page 792 in your text Deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs, then oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium. 1. The pulmonary trunk is a large artery that carries deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle. The pulmonary (pulmonic) semilunar valve is at its base. It divides producing the two pulmonary arteries. 2. 3. The right and left pulmonary arteries are branches of the pulmonary trunk. Why are these arteries colored blue on drawings and models? The two right and two left pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Why are these veins colored red on drawings and models?

II.

Systemic Circulation Oxygenated blood flows from left ventricle to tissues, deoxygenated blood flows from tissues back to right atrium. Systemic Arteries - Figures 21.18 - 21.22, pages 760-776 in your text Why are these vessels colored red in drawings and on models? Arteries with and asterisk are pulse points. 4. The aorta is the largest artery, and its branches supply oxygenated blood to every part of the body. All of the following arteries receive their blood directly or indirectly from this large artery. It has the following sections: ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic descending aorta and the abdominal descending aorta.

A.

Branches of the aortic arch 5. The brachiocephalic trunk is the first branch of the aortic arch. Arising from it are the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. The left common carotid and the left subclavian arteries arise separately from the aortic arch. Therefore, there is no left brachiocephalic artery. 6. The common carotid arteries* have different origins; the right one arises from the brachiocephalic artery and the left one arises directly from the aortic arch. Its strong pulse can be located in the neck to either side of the windpipe. At about the level of the jaw, each common carotid artery divides to form an external carotid artery and an internal carotid artery. The external carotid artery supplies blood to the head, neck, esophagus, throat (pharynx), tongue, voice box (larynx) and mandible. You must know the three prominent branches of the external carotid artery listed below. 8. facial artery* 9. superficial temporal artery* 10. occipital artery

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11. The internal carotid artery enters the skull and helps supply blood to the brain. 12. The right subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery, and the left subclavian artery arises directly from the aortic arch. These vessels extend from their origins to the first rib. They supply blood to the arms, shoulders, chest wall, back, brain and spinal cord.

13. Each vertebral artery arises from the subclavian artery, passes up the neck through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and enters the skull through the foramen magnum. Both vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain and spinal cord. Specifics on brain circulation are presented at the end of this list. Note: Vessels number 14 & 15 have been removed from the guide. 16. As each subclavian artery passes the first rib and enters the shoulder and armpit (axilla) it becomes the axillary artery. The axillary artery supplies blood to the shoulder and the head of the humerus. 17. Each axillary continues in the upper arm (brachium) as the brachial artery*. This artery supplies blood to the rest of the upper arm. You may see a prominent branch of the brachial artery called the deep brachial artery. You are not responsible for this vessel, but you will see it on some models. Each brachial artery divides at the elbow to form a radial artery and an ulnar artery. 18. The radial artery* is the branch of the brachial artery that passes down the thumb (lateral) side of the forearm to the wrist. 19. The ulnar artery is the branch of the brachial artery that passes down the little finger (medial) side of the forearm to the wrist. Both the radial and ulnar arteries supply blood to the forearm, and they unite to form the deep and superficial palmar arches in the hand. 20. The palmar arches are arterial loops, formed by the union of the radial and ulnar arteries. They are located at different levels within the hand (palm); the digital (finger) arteries arise from these arches. Branches of the abdominal aorta 21. The short, unpaired celiac trunk artery arises from the abdominal aorta just inferior to the diaphragm. It gives rise to three branches as follows: These branches are not clearly shown on any of the models; look for them on A.D.A.M Interactive Anatomy. 22. The common hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver, stomach, gall bladder and small intestine. It looks like a backward J. 23. A small left gastric artery supplies blood to the stomach and lower esophagus. 24. The prominent splenic artery supplies blood to the spleen, stomach and pancreas. 25. The large, unpaired superior mesenteric artery arises from the abdominal aorta about an inch below the celiac trunk. It supplies blood to the small intestine, pancreas and most of the large intestine.

26. The short, paired renal arteries emerge form the abdominal aorta just inferior to the superior mesenteric artery. They supply blood to each kidney. 27. The small, thread-like gonadal (testicular or ovarian) arteries arise from the abdominal aorta just below the renal arteries. They supply blood to either the ovaries or the testes. 28. The inferior mesenteric artery arises from the abdominal aorta below the gonadal arteries. It supplies blood to the last part of the colon and to the rectum. 29. Near the 4th lumbar vertebra, the aorta divides to form the two common iliac arteries. They supply blood to the pelvis and the lower extremities. They are called common iliacs because each one divides forming an internal and external iliac artery. 30. The internal iliac artery is the inner branch of the common iliac artery. It supplies blood to the pelvic organs and the medial side of the thigh. 31. The external iliac artery is the outer, larger branch of the common iliac artery, and it supplies blood to the lower extremities. After penetrating the lower abdominal wall, the external iliac becomes the femoral artery. 32. The femoral artery* is a large artery that supplies blood to the thigh, hence its name. 33. Vessel 33 has been removed from this guide. 34. Behind the knee, the femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery*. This artery then divides to form the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. 35. As its name indicates, posterior tibial artery passes down the posterior surface of the tibia. 36. The anterior tibial artery arises from the popliteal artery, then extends forward between the tibia and fibula and passes down the anterior surface of the tibia. 37. As it passes across the top of the ankle, the anterior tibial becomes the dorsalis pedis artery*. It supplies blood to the ankle and part of the foot. 38. The dorsalis pedis divides to form the dorsal arch. Small arteries branch off of this arch to supply blood to the toes and parts of the foot.

39. The posterior tibial divides at the ankle to form an arterial loop called the plantar arch. Small arteries from this loop supply the toes and parts of the foot. Arteries of the brain - Figure 21.19c, page 767 in your text 40. The basilar artery is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries along the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. Along with the vertebral arteries, it supplies blood to the spinal cord, medulla oblongata and the pons. It then divides to form the posterior cerebral arteries. 41. The posterior cerebral arteries supply blood to the posterior part of the cerebrum. 42. The small posterior communicating arteries extend forward to connect the posterior cerebral arteries to the internal carotid arteries. 43. The large middle cerebral artery extends laterally from the internal carotids to supply blood to most of the temporal and parietal lobes and part of the frontal lobes. 44. The small anterior cerebral arteries extend forward from the internal carotids and curve medially toward each other 45. A very short segment called the anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries. 46. The basilar artery and the two internal carotid arteries supply blood to a rotary of vessels around the pituitary gland called the Circle of Willis. The Circle consists of the posterior cerebral arteries, posterior communicating arteries, anterior cerebral arteries and the anterior communicating artery.

Figure 1. Plaque Model Arteries

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Figure 2. Plaque Model Upper Body Arteries

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Figure 3. Plaque Model Arm Arteries

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Figure 4. Plaque Model - Lower Body Arteries

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Figure 5. Plaque Model - Leg Arteries

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Figure 6. Torso Model - Arteries

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B.

Systemic Veins - Figures 21.23-21.27, pages 777-790 in your text Why are these vessels colored blue in drawings and on models? 47. The large superior vena cava collects blood returning from the head and upper extremities into the right atrium of the heart. Branches of the Superior Vena Cava 48. The two, prominent brachiocephalic veins are formed by the forking (bifurcation) of the superior vena cava. They extend upward to the right and left and receive blood from the internal jugular veins and the subclavian veins. You will see that the left one is longer that the right one. 49. The internal jugular veins arise from each brachiocephalic vein and pass along side the internal carotid arteries as they collect blood from a group of dural sinuses in the cranium. 50. The subclavian veins branch from the brachiocephalic veins, and extend to the first rib. Each continues distally as an axillary vein. 51. The small vertebral veins descend through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae collecting blood from the cervical spinal cord and the back of the skull. They connect to the brachiocephalic veins. 52. The smaller, more superficial external jugular veins collect blood from the superficial veins of the head and pass it into the subclavian vein. They are external to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The only models that show them are the full length, muscular models, and they are only shown as stumps. 53. The prominent, unpaired azygos vein collects blood from the lower back (lumbar region) upward into the right thoracic cavity then into the superior vena cava. The hemiazygos vein collects blood form the left thorax and passes its blood into the azygos. 54. After passing the first rib, the subclavian vein becomes the axillary vein. Each axillary vein receives blood from the cephalic vein, the basilic vein and the brachial vein. 55. The superficial cephalic veins passes up the lateral (radial) side of each arm from the superficial palmar arch to the axillary vein. 56. The superficial basilic veins ascend along the medial (ulnar) side of the arm from the superficial palmar arch directly into the axillary vein. 57. Each brachial vein receives blood from the radial and ulnar veins and then connects to the axillary vein. Not well represented on models

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58. The radial vein passes along the radial (lateral) side of the arm and connects to the brachial vein just proximal to the elbow. It receives blood from the deep palmar arch. Not on models 59. The ulnar vein passes along the ulnar (medial) side of the arm and connect to the brachial vein just proximal to the elbow. It receives blood from the deep palmar arch. Not on models 61. The large inferior vena cava collects most of the blood, from below the diaphragm that drains into the right atrium of the heart. Veins that drain into the inferior vena cava 62. The hepatic veins collect blood form the liver and pass it into the inferior vena cava. 63. The renal veins collect blood from the kidneys. 64. The small gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins collect blood from the gonads (ovaries or testes). The right one collects the blood and passes it directly into the inferior vena cava. Where does the left one connect? The only model that shows them is the Somso torso. 65. Near the 5th lumbar vertebra, the inferior vena cava divides to form the common iliac veins. Each the common iliac vein divides in turn to form an external and internal iliac vein. 66. The inner, smaller branch of the common iliac vein is the internal iliac vein. It collects blood from the pelvic organs. 67. The outer, larger branch of the common iliac vein is the external iliac vein. It collects blood from the lower extremities. After penetrating the lower abdominal wall, the external iliac vein becomes the femoral vein. 68. The large femoral vein collects blood from the thigh, hence its name. 69. Vessel 69 has been removed from this guide. 70. Behind the knee, the femoral vein becomes the popliteal vein. This vein then divides to form the anterior and posterior tibial veins. 71. The posterior tibial vein passes up the posterior surface of the tibia and collects blood from the lower leg and foot (plantar arch). 72. The anterior tibial vein passes up the anterior surface of the tibia, and also collects blood from the lower leg and foot (plantar arch).

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73. The great saphenous vein is a superficial vein that passes up along the medial side of the leg and connects to the femoral vein near the hip. It begins on the medial side of the foot where it collects blood from the dorsal venous arch. A small saphenous vein collects blood from this arch on the lateral side of the foot.

Figure 7. Large Plaque Model - Veins 15

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Figure 8. Veins Plaque Model, Upper Body

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Figure 9. Plaque Model - Arm Veins 17

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Figure 10. Plaque Model Lower Body Veins

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Figure 11. Torso Model - Veins

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III. Hepatic portal circulation - Figure 21.28, page 791 in your text and ADAM Interactive Anatomy Blood is collected from abdominal organs (especially digestive organs) and is passed to the liver, hence the hepatic part of the name. This system of veins is called portal because there are two groups of capillary beds along the route, one group in the abdominal organ and another group in the liver. This is not the case with systemic circulation. 74. The large portal vein receives blood from all of the veins of the hepatic portal system and passes it into the liver. 75. The prominent superior mesenteric vein collects nutrient rich blood from the stomach, small intestine and most of the large intestine and passes it into the portal vein. 76. The splenic vein collects blood from the spleen and passes it into the portal vein 77. The small inferior mesenteric vein collects blood from the lower parts of the colon and the rectum and passes it into the splenic vein.

Figure 6. Hepatic Portal System color the labeled veins 20

IV. Fetal circulation - Figure 21.30, page 794 in your text Fetal circulation (circulation of the unborn) is different than circulation after birth. The fetus does not use its lung to breathe; it depends on its mother for oxygenation of its blood. The fetus is connected to its mothers circulation by an umbilical cord that extends from its belly button (umbilicus) to a structure called the placenta. The placenta is a membranous connection between the fetus and mother where fetal and maternal blood come in close contact. Here, the baby gets oxygen and food from its mom and gets rid of waste products. A pair of umbilical arteries passes through the umbilical cord from baby to placenta and a single umbilical vein carries blood back to the baby through the cord. Because the fetus does not use its lungs to breathe, fetal bypasses route a lot of the blood away from the lungs. One of these bypasses, called the foramen ovale, is a hole in the inter-atrial septum where blood flows directly from the right atrium to left atrium. The other bypass is a short vessel called the ductus arteriosus where blood flows directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta. Both of these bypasses route most of the oxygenated blood returning form the placenta away from the lungs. Identify the above bold printed structures on figure 21-35.

V.

A.D.A.M. Interactive Blood Vessels

Arteries
Aorta and its Branches Open Dissectible Anatomy Anterior View 1. Select layer # 173. Center the image over thorax. Although you may use the scroll bars to center the image, there is an easier way. Point to the icon of the small person in the upper right corner of the image screen. A representation of the entire image will appear with a small gray rectangle. Point inside the rectangle, hold down the left mouse button and drag the rectangle over the part of the representative image that needs to be centered. When you release the mouse button, the image should be centered to the new location. If this procedure does not work, see your instructor. Find the ascending aorta and the arch of the aorta. 2. Select layer #246. a. Name the three main branches of the aortic arch 1) 2) 3) b. Name the two prominent branches of the brachiocephalic artery. 1) 2) 21

Arteries of the Head and Neck Lateral View 1. Center the image over neck and head. 2. Select layer #49. a. Identify the common carotid artery. b. Identify the following branches of the common carotid artery. 1) external carotid artery 2) internal carotid artery c. Identify the following branches of the external carotid artery: 1) occipital artery 2) Superficial temporal artery 3) facial artery Arteries of the Upper Limbs Anterior View 1. Center the image over upper thorax. 2. Select layer #246. a. Follow the right subclavian artery as it branches off of the brachiocephalic artery. What vessel gives rise to the left subclavian artery? b. Identify the branch of the subclavian artery called the vertebral artery 3. Select layer # 88. a. Identify the axillary artery. At what point does the subclavian become the axillary artery? Hint: Check a part of the axial skeleton. b. Find the right brachial artery and use the right and bottom scroll bars to position the image so that you get a full view of the artery. It will disappear at the elbow (antecubital area). 4. Select layer #103. Center the image over the forearm and identify the right radial artery. Which side of the arm does it supply? 5. Select layer #123 and identify the right ulnar artery. Which side of the arm does it supply with blood?

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Branches of the Abdominal Aorta Anterior View 1. Center the image over the upper abdomen. 2. Select layer #240 and find the following branches of the abdominal aorta: a. Celiac trunk b. Superior mesenteric artery c. Left and right renal arteries d. Left and right testicular or ovarian arteries e. Inferior mesenteric artery 3. Select layer #216. a. Find the following branches of the celiac trunk: 1) Splenic artery 2) Left gastric artery 3) Common hepatic and proper hepatic arteries b. Find the superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries in this view. 4. Select layer #224 and find the left and right testicular (male gonadal) arteries and the inferior mesenteric artery in this layer. 5. Select layer #240. a. Identify the two large arteries that are formed by the division (bifurcation) of the abdominal aorta? The left and right _________________________________________________ b. Name the arteries that are formed by the division of the above arteries. 1) _____________________________________________________________ 2) _____________________________________________________________ c. What does the more lateral of the above vessels become in the thigh? __________________________________________________ Arteries of the Lower Extremities Posterior View Select layer #132, center the image over back of knee and find the popliteal artery. What artery gives rise to this vessel?

Lateral View Select layer #265, center the image over the knee and find the popliteal, anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries in this view.

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Medial View Select layer #32, center the image over lower leg and find the posterior tibial artery in this view. Anterior View Select layer #296. Center the image over the foot. Find the anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries. Arteries of the Brain This is optional, depending on your instructor. 1. Exit Dissectible Anatomy 2. Click on folder icon and click on content. 3. Click on the Atlas Anatomy tab. 4. Click on System radio button. 5. Select Cardiovascular System. 6. Select Cerebral arterial circle (inf.) 7. Identify the following: a. vertebral artery (paired) b. basilar artery (unpaired) c. posterior cerebral artery (paired) d. posterior communicating artery (paired) e. middle cerebral artery (paired) f. anterior cerebral artery (paired) g. anterior communicating artery (unpaired) The posterior cerebral arteries, posterior communicating arteries, anterior cerebral arteries and the anterior communicating artery form the "Circle of Willis".

Veins
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exit Atlas Anatomy Click on folder icon Click on content Click on Dissectible Anatomy Click on open

Branches of the Superior Vena Cava 1. Select layer #176. Center the image over the upper thorax. a. Identify the superior vena cava. What heart chamber does it empty into? b. Name the two large branches of the superior vena cava. Left and right ________________________________________.

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2. Select layer #82. Notice that the veins are nearly the same on the right and left sides, but we will examine only the right side. a. Locate the right brachiocephalic vein just superior and slightly lateral to the manubrium of the sternum. b. Name the two branches of the brachiocephalic vein. 1) __________________________________________________ 2) __________________________________________________ c. Center the image over the shoulder and upper arm and find the right axillary vein. d. Locate the stub of the right cephalic vein as it branches off of the axillary just distal to the subclavian vein. e. Locate the small brachial vein. It branches laterally off of the axillary vein at the level of the third rib. f. Locate the prominent basilic vein. It connects to the axillary vein on the medial side of the arm. 3. Select layer #5. Center the image over the elbow. Zoom out (reduce image size) if necessary. a. Note how the basilic vein emerges from the deep layer of superficial fascia as it passes along the medial part of the arm. b. What prominent vein courses along the lateral side of the arm? You located its stub branching off of the axillary vein just distal to the subclavian vein. 4. Select layer #271. Center the image over thorax and find the azygos (azygous) vein as it passes along the posterior wall of the thoracic cavity. Lateral view 5. Select layer #168. Center the image over thorax and see the azygos vein and arch of the azygos vein in this view. What larger vein does it drain into? 6. Select Posterior View 7. Select layer #3. Center the image over the left forearm. a. Follow the cephalic and basilic veins as they pass down the forearm. b. Notice all of the venous anastomoses in the hand.

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Veins of the Head Anterior View 1. Select layer #76. Center the image over neck and follow the large internal jugular vein as it courses up the neck. What prominent arteries are just medial to these veins? 2. Select layer #11 and find the two smaller external jugular veins. Lateral View 3. Select layer # 19 4. Center the image over the head and find the external jugular vein in this view. 5. Select layer #47 and find the internal jugular vein. Note that it is larger than the external jugular vein. Veins that Drain into the Inferior Vena Cava Anterior View 1. Select layer #175. Center the image over thorax. a. Identify the four pulmonary veins passing through the pericardium. Why are these veins colored red? b. Identify the superior and inferior vena cavae 2. Select #238. Center the image over abdomen. a. Identify the entire length of the inferior vena cava. b. Name the three veins (shown as stubs) that enter the inferior vena cava just inferior to the two inferior phrenic veins. _______________________________ c. Find the prominent renal veins. 3. Select layer #222 and identify the two testicular (mail gonadal) veins. Which one does not drain directly into the inferior vena cava? What does it drain into? 4. Select layer #241. Center the image over lower abdomen. a. Find the left and right common iliac veins. b. Name the two branches of the common iliac vein. 1) Larger and more lateral branch is _________________________________ 2) Smaller and more medial branch is ________________________________ c. The more lateral (external) of the two veins above become the ____________________ vein in the thigh. 26

d. Name the vein in this layer that presents as a medially directed stub branching off of the above vein (vein in "c."). ________________________________________________ vein 5. Select layer #330. Center the image over the thigh and find the femoral vein passing posterior to the femoral artery. Posterior View 6. Select layer #124. Center the image over the knee and find the popliteal vein behind the knee. What more proximal vein gives rise to it? 7. Select layer # 140. Center the image over lower leg. a. Find the anterior tibial vein as it disappears medial to the head of the fibula to drain the anterior part of the lower leg. It is difficult to see so investigate the area thoroughly. b. Follow the posterior tibial vein as it forms just distal to the circumflex fibular vein. Note that it divides into two parts more distally. Hepatic Portal System Anterior View 1. Select layer #217. Center the image over the upper abdomen and locate the following parts of the hepatic portal system: a. The portal vein is the largest of these veins; it enters the liver. b. The superior mesenteric vein is the second largest of these veins. It extends straight downward and runs anterior to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). What artery does it pass beside? c. The splenic vein passes from the spleen to the portal vein. d. The inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein from below.

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VI. Taking Blood Pressure You will use a simple sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope, and follow the instructions below, to learn how to take blood pressure. 1. Wrap and secure the BP cuff around the upper arm making sure that it is positioned properly over the brachial artery. There is usually an arrow on the cuff to help with positioning. 2. Become comfortable using the valve knob on the cuff. Use the thumb and index finger to work it. 3. Close the valve by turning it clockwise, but not too tight; you need to be able to easily release it. 4. Attach the sphygmomanometer (the pressure gauge) to the front edge of the cuff. 5. Place the stethoscope over the brachial artery, slightly to the medial side of the bend of the elbow. 6. Inflate the cuff until the reading on the sphygmomanometer is a well above what you think the systolic pressure might be. 7. While listening through the stethoscope, gently begin to release the cuff valve by carefully turning it counterclockwise. 8. As the pressure begins to drop, there will be a point where you will hear a tapping sound (Korotkoff sound). Immediately read the sphygmomanometer; this is the systolic pressure or high number. 9. As the pressure continues to fall, the tapping will either disappear or become muted. Read the manometer again; this reading is the diastolic pressure or low number. 10. Trade off taking each others BP. Take the BP sitting and standing, and have someone walk briskly up and down the stairs four times, then take the pressure. Compare their resting pressure with their pressure after exertion.

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VII. Vessels Focus Questions


I. Identify structures from the following descriptions 1. 2. 3. Name the circulation to and from the lungs. ______________________________ Name the circulation to and from the myocardium. ______________________ Name and describe the two pulmonary fetal bypasses. a. ________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________

4. The three divisions of the aorta are the ______________________________, the ____________________________ and the descending divisions. The two subdivisions of the descending aorta are the _______________________________ and ______________________________________. 5. Name the two main branches of the brachiocephalic artery. ________________________ and _____________________________ 6. Name the two branches of the common carotid. ____________________________ and _______________________________ 7. After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the ______________________________ artery. 8. Name the upper arm artery. __________________________________

9. Name the artery in thumb side (lateral) part of forearm. ______________________________ 10. This branch of the subclavian artery goes deep into the neck and passes through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae. ______________________________ 11. Name the arteries that form the Circle of Willis. ______________________________, _________________________________, _________________________________ and ______________________________ 12. Name the arteries that supply blood to the Circle of Willis. _____________________________ and __________________________________ 13. Name the first unpaired artery inferior to the diaphragm. __________________________________ 14. Name the three major branches of the artery in question 13. _____________________________, ________________________ and the ____________________________________

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15.

Name the next unpaired artery. ______________________________________

16. Name the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. _________________________________ 17. Name the arteries that supply blood to the testes or ovaries _________________________________________ 18. Name the lower counterpart to the vessel in question 15. __________________________________________ 19. The abdominal descending aorta divides to form these arteries in the pelvis. ______________________________________ 20. Arteries named in question 19 divide to form these. ____________________________ and __________________________________ 21. One of the Arteries in question 20 forms this major artery as it passes the body wall and enters the thigh. ____________________________________ 22. At the knee, the artery in question 21 becomes the ________________________________________. 23. Name the more anterior branch of the artery in question 22. ___________________________________ 24. Name the more posterior branch of the artery in question 22. __________________________________ 25. Name the artery across top of foot. ______________________________________ 26. This artery supplies blood to the small intestine, pancreas and most of the large intestine. _______________________________________ 27. This artery divides to form the common hepatic, splenic and left gastric arteries. _____________________________

28. Name the vein that collects blood from head and upper extremities into the right atrium. __________________________________ 29. Name the vein that passes blood into the right atrium from below heart. ___________________________________ 30. Name the veins produced by the forking (bifurcation) of the vein in question 28. ____________________________________________________________________

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31. Name the major branches of each of the vessels in question 30; one passes up the neck, the other heads toward the shoulder. _____________________________ and _______________________________________ 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Name the armpit vein. ________________________________ Name the vein on lateral side of arm. ______________________________ Name the vein on medial most side of arm. ______________________________ Name the veins that collect blood from the liver. __________________________ Name the veins that collect blood from the kidneys. ____________________

37. Name the veins that collect blood from the gonads. The right one connects to the vessel in question 29, the left one connects to the _____________________________. 38. In the pelvis, the inferior vena cava forks (bifurcates) to form these two veins. ____________________________________________ 39. The vein in question 38 divides, in turn, to form theses two veins. ______________________________ and _________________________________ 40. The larger and more lateral of the above branches continues past the lower abdominal wall to form the big vein of the thigh called the __________________________________. 41. At the knee, the vein in question 40 becomes the __________________________________. 42. The vein in question 41 divides to form the anterior, and posterior ___________________________________. 43. Name the prominent superficial vein that extends along the medial side of the leg from the dorsal venous arch to the femoral artery near the hip. ___________________________________________________________
VIII. Tracing blood Tracing blood is a good exercise to help you learn these vessels. This exercise is optional-not for credit. A. Trace a drop of blood from the small intestine to the heart and back to the intestine. Include all of the major vessels along the way. Include the hepatic portal system. B. C. Trace a drop of blood from a point in the knee to the heart and back to the knee. Include all of the major vessels along the way. Trace a drop of blood from a point in the forearm to the heart and back to the forearm. Include all of the major vessels along the way.

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