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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE ABOUT HAZE & ITS EFFECTS

ABOUT PSI
PSI stands for 'Pollutant Standards Index'. It is an index developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to provide accurate, timely and easily understandable information about daily levels of air pollution. The ambient air in Singapore is monitored through a telemetric network of air monitoring stations strategically located in different parts of Singapore. Air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide and particulate matter called PM10 (particulate matter of 10 microns or smaller in size) are used in the determination of the index. The PSI value gives an indication of the air quality as shown:

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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE

PSI Value 0 to 50 51 - 100 101 - 200 201 - 300 Above 300

PSI Descriptor Good Moderate Unhealthy Very unhealthy Hazardous

ABOUT PM2.5

PM2.5 refers to fine air particles that measure less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter, a fraction of the diameter of human hair. These air particles are often found in dirt, dust and soot, and are dangerous to health. They lodge deep in our lungs and and cause respiratory and heart problems. Health advisories pegged to PSI and PM2.5 are tabulated below. NEA will issue advisories based on either the PSI or PM2.5, whichever is more stringent.

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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE HEALTH ADVISORIES PEGGED TO PSI
PSI Value 0 to 50 (Good) 51 to 100 (Moderate) 101 to 200 (Unhealthy) Persons with existing heart or respiratory ailments should reduce physical exertion and outdoor activity. The general population should reduce vigorous outdoor activity. 201 to 300 (Very unhealthy) 301 to 400 (Hazardous) Elderly and persons with existing heart or lung disease should stay indoors and reduce physical exertion and outdoor activity. The general population should avoid vigorous outdoor activity. Children, elderly and persons with existing diseases should stay indoors and avoid outdoor activity. The general population should avoid unnecessary outdoor activity. > 400 (Hazardous) Children, elderly and persons with existing diseases should stay indoors, keeping the windows and doors closed and avoiding physical exertion as far as possible Outdoor activity should be avoided. The general population should keep physical exertion and outdoor activity to as low a level as possible. Health Advisory None for the general population

None for the general population

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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE HEALTH ADVISORIES PEGGED TO PM2.5
24-hr PM2.5concentration (g/m3) 0 to 15 >15 to 40 Health Advisory

None None for the general population. Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion.

> 40 to 65

Following groups should reduce prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion:

People with heart or lung disease Children and older adults

Everyone else should limit prolonged or heavy exertion. > 65 to 150 Following groups should avoid all physical activity outdoors:

People with heart or lung disease Children and older adults

Everyone else should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion. > 150 to 250 Following groups should remain indoors and keep activity levels low:

People with heart or lung disease Children and older adults

Everyone else should avoid all physical activity outdoors.

Source: http://app2.nea.gov.sg/anti-pollution-radiation-protection/air-pollution/faqson-the-haze

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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE ADVISORY FOR THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEERS

1. Reduce physical exertion and outdoor activities until the situation improve. 2. Monitor your health closely and seek medical attention immediately if you are unwell. 3. Volunteers with heart ailments and respiratory problems should take precaution according to NEA and MOHs advisories. 4. Wear a mask when you have respiratory symptoms or are feeling unwell; 5. Exercise good personal hygiene e.g. frequent and thorough hand washing with disinfectant and water, avoiding hand-shakes, covering of mouth with tissue paper when coughing or sneezing etc. 6. Stay home if you are feeling unwell. 7. Close all doors and windows. 8. Do not return to the volunteer host centre until you are medically certified well. 9. Provide service remotely where possible. 10. Be informed about the disease outbreak via official sources only. 11. You may voluntarily suspend services at any time by informing our Volunteer Coordinator. 12. Learn how to use Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) correctly and appropriately. 13. Keep your Volunteer Coordinator updated of any change in personal particulars.

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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE

HOW TO WEAR THE N95 MASK

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THE SALVATION ARMY VOLUNTEER PROGRAMME (SINGAPORE) ADVISORY FOR HAZE

REFERENCES:
1. FAQs on the Haze, National Environment Agency, Retrieved 21 June 2013 from http://app2.nea.gov.sg/anti-pollution-radiation-protection/air-pollution/faqs-onthe-haze 2. Updates on the Haze (What You Should Do), Emergency 101 (Singapore Government), Retrieved 21 June 2013 from http://www.e101.gov.sg/haze/whattodo.htm 3. Singapore's air quality information now available 3 times a day, Straits Times (Aug 23, 2012), Retrieved 21 June 2013 from http://www.straitstimes.com/breakingnews/singapore/story/singapores-air-quality-information-now-available-3-timesday-20120823 4. Air Quality, Ministry of the Environment & Water, Retrieved 21 June 2013 from https://app.mewr.gov.sg/web/contents/Contents.aspx?ContId=1696 5. Six Steps to wearing the N95 Mask, Health Promotion Board, Retrieved 21 June 2013 from http://www.hpb.gov.sg/HOPPortal/health-article/HPB051227

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