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UNIVERSIDAD DE CARABOBO

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE EDUCACIÓN


ESCUELA DE EDUCACIÓN
DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS
CÁTEDRA: GRAMATICA Y LINGÜÍSTICA INGLESA
ASIGNATURA: LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA

PHONETICS REVIEW

Phonetics studies sounds produced in human languages.


 Articulatory studies how sounds are produced.
 Acoustic studies how sounds travel in the air and how they are perceived by human ear.

Phonemes: Minimal units of sound that have meaning.

Consonant phonemes: consonants are sounds with some obstruction in the airstream.

CRITERIA TO DESCRIBE CONSONANTS

1. Place of articulation classifies speech sounds in terms of where in the vocal tract the air stream is
obstructed.

Bilabial
Made with the two lips.

Labiodental
The lower lip articulates with the upper teeth.

Dental
The tip or blade of the tongue, articulates with the upper teeth.

Alveolar
The blade, or the tip and blade of the tongue, articulate with the alveolar ridge.

Retroflex
The tip of the tongue is curled back to articulate with the part of the palate immediately behind the
alveolar ridge, but there is no contact between the organs.

Alveo-palatal
The blade, or tip and blade of the tongue, articulate with the back part of the alveolar ridge, and
there is at the same time a raising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate.

Palatal
The front of the tongue articulates with the palate.

Velar
The back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate or velum.

Uvular
The back of the tongue articulates with the uvula.

Pharyngeal
The root of the tongue articulates with the back of the pharynx.
Glottal
The vocal cords narrow the glottis causing friction, but not vibration.

2. Manner of articulation refers to how the airflow is regulated by the tongue or lips.

Plosives
A plosive is formed by the complete obstruction of the vocal tract by the articulators. This
obstruction is then released, allowing the air to explode out of the mouth.

Fricatives
They are produced by forcing the air stream through a passage which has been so narrowed that
audible friction results.

Affricates
An affricate is produced with a complete closure at some point in the mouth behind which the air
pressure builds up; the separation of the organs is sufficiently slow to produce audible friction.

Laterals
They are formed by an obstruction at a point along the center of the vocal tract, the air being
allowed to escape on one or both sides of the contact.

Nasals
Speech segments during whose production the velum is lowered closing the entrance to oral
cavity, the air being allowed to escape through the nose.

Flaps
They are produced by a single rapid contact of the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge.

Approximants
Speech segments where there is an approach of one articulator toward another, but without the
tract being narrowed to such an extent that audible friction is produced.

3. Voicing. These states are determined by the action of the vocal folds in the larynx.
 Voiceless
 Voiced

BILABIAL LABIO- DENTAL ALVEOLAR RETROFLEX ALVEO- PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL


DENTAL PALATAL
/p/- /t/- /k/-
STOP /b/+ /d/+ /g/+
/f/- /θ/- /S/- /∫/- /h/-
FRICATIVE /v/+ /Z/+ /3/+
/ /+
/t∫/-
AFFRICATE /d3/+
LATERAL /l/+

NASAL
/m/+ /n/+ /η/+
APPROXI-
MANTS /w/*+ /r/+ /j/+
*NOTE: labio-velar *Voicing: voiced (+) and voiceless (-)
Vowel phonemes are produced with no obstruction of the airstream. They are all voiced and form the
nucleus of the syllable.

CRITERIA TO DESCRIBE VOWELS

Height of tongue: high, mid, and low.


Part of the tongue involved: front, central, and back.
Position of the lips: rounded and unrounded.

EXERCISES

1. Write the phonetic symbol for the first sound in each word.
a. knife f. unit
b. justice g. chaos
c. though h. puppies
d. chemistry i. sugar
e. giant j. rhythm

2. Write the phonetic symbol for the last sound of each word.
a. lamp f. catch
b. bath g. robbed
c. ache h. cash
d. baked i. cats
e. pens j. little

3. Write the phonetic symbol for the medial consonant sound.


a. reason f. future
b. either g. feature
c. author h. water
d. vision i. fishing
e. soften j. receipt

4. Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic descriptions: Then give an
English word that contains this sound.
a. Voiceless bilabial stop f. Voiced alveolar lateral
b. Voiced alveolar stop g. High front tense vowel
c. Voiceless velar stop h. High back lax vowel
d. Voiced labiodental fricative i. Voiced alveolar fricative
e. Voiced bilabial nasal j. Voiced velar nasal

5. For each group of sounds listed below, state the phonetic feature or features that they all share.
a. /b,d,g/ d. /p,t,k/
b. /p,b,d/ e. /k,g,ŋ/
c. /f,s,z/ f. /l,t,d/