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C. Raymundo L.

Pascua

Why should we study the nervous system?


These are the organs that allow us to act, think and react.

Neuroscience
Branch of life science that deals with the structure and functioning of the brain and the neurons, nerves and nervous tissue that form the nervous system. Focuses on neural function in the central and peripheral nervous systems at the molecular, cellular, circuit and behavioral levels.

The Nervous System A network of cells that

carries information to and from all parts of the body.

Central Nervous System


Composed of the brain and the spinal chord which are in turn composed of neurons and glial cells that control life-sustaining functions of the body as well as all thought, emotion and behavior.

The Brain
The part of the nervous system that makes sense of the information received from the senses, makes decisions and sends commands to the muscles and the rest of the body.

neurons whose function is to carry messages to and from the brain. Inside: cell bodies of neurons Outside: myelinated axons and nerves

The Spinal Long Chord bundle of

Sensory: carry messages from the senses to the spinal chord Motor: carry messages from the spinal chord to the muscles and glands Interneurons: connect sensory and motor neurons

Neurons

Peripheral Nervous System


Made up of all the nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal chord Divided into somatic and autonomic nervous system

Made up of sensory pathway and motor pathway Sensory pathway: all the nerves carrying messages from the senses to the central nervous system Motor pathway: all the nerves carrying messages from the CNS to the voluntary or skeletal muscles of the body

Somatic Nervous System

HOW IS INFORMATION TRANSMITTED?

Neuron: specialised cell in the nervous system that receives and sends messages within that system.

Glial Cells
Structure on which the neurons develop and work Hold the neurons in place. Make up 90% of the brain

1. Get nutrients to the neurons 2. Cleaning up the remains of neurons that have died 3. Communicating with neurons and other glial cells 4. Providing insulation for neurons 5. Develop into new neurons *

Functions of Glial Cells

Types of Glial Cells


Oligodendrocytes: produce myelin for neurons in the brain and spinal chord Schwann Cells : produce myelin for neurons of the body

Layer of fatty substance Purpose of Myelin 1. Insulates the neuron 2. Protection 3. Speeds up the neural message traveling down the axon Neurilemma: serves as a tunnel through which damaged nerve fibers can repair themselves

Myelin

Semiliquid solution found inside and outside the cells Semipermeable Inside: negative Outside: positive Reason: 1. Diffusion 2. Electrostatic fusion

Ions

Resting Potential Action Potential Neurotransmission Reuptake

Neural Signalling

THE OTHER PARTS OF THE BRAIN

Ciccarelli, Saundra K., and J. Noland White. Psychology Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White.. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, 2012. Print. http://tle.westone.wa.gov.au/content/file/9691 44ed-0d3b-fa04-2e888b23de2a630c/1/human_bio_science_3b.zip/c ontent/002_nervous_control/page_10.htm http://www.appsychology.com/Book/Biological /neuroscience.htm http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/schwan n_myelin.html

Sources