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1.0 PENETRANT TESTING PROCESS SPECIFICATION 1.1 Scope -This specification establishes inspection of nonporous materials. The penetrant inspection processes described in this specification are applicable to inprocess and final inspections. 2.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS 2.1 The following documents, of the issue in effect on the date of invitation for bids or request for proposal, form a part of this specification to the extent specified therein: ANSI/NCSL American National Standard for Calibration Z540-1-1994 ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A ASTM D 95 Method of Test for Water in petroleum Products ASTM D 2512 Compatibility of Materials with Liquid Oxygen, Test Method for ASTM E 1316 Standard terminology for Nondestructive Examinations ASTM E 1417- Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination MIL-I-25135-Inspection Materials, Penetrant QPL-SAE-AMS-2644-3-Qualified Products List of Products Qualified under ASE Aerospace Material Specification AMS 2644. 2.2 The referenced documents form a history of this specification to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise indicated, the issue in effect on the date of invitation for bids or request for proposal shall apply. 3.0 MATERIALS SECTION 3.1 Penetrant Materials a. Use only materials listed or approved for listing by the Air Force in QPL-SAE-AMS2644-3 for penetrant inspection. b. The manufacturer of penetrant materials shall furnish the purchaser with recommended emulsifier dwell times, wet developer concentrations and mixing instructions. c. The manufacturer shall provide material safety data sheets for each product. d. The system concept for penetrant materials shall be used for all penetrant inspections. 4.0 EQUIPMENT SECTION 4.1 General - The penetrant equipment shall be constructed and arranged in a manner that will: a. Minimize water, dust and other contamination to the inspection materials and parts, b. Permit uniform, controlled operations and provide safe and adequate ventilation for the process and ;materials involved and c. Be suitable for the penetrant material in use.

4.2 Certification and calibration of equipment. a. All gages, meters and measurement equipment shall be calibrated per ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994. b. Certify temperature and pressure instrumentation for the operating range to be used. Minimum accuracy of temperature gages is 2.8C ( 5F). Minimum accuracy of pressure gages is 35 kPa ( 5 psi). c. SI units shall be used for measurement of ultraviolet light intensity. d. Lux (lx) shall be used for measurement of visible light. 4.3 Removal Station a. The removal station shall be equipped with a water pressure gage, water temperature gage and spray nozzles that produce a coarse spray that is cone shaped or fan shaped. b. Maximum water pressure allowed is 276 kPa (40 psi). c. Water temperature shall be between 10 and 38C (50 and 100F). d. Ultraviolet light intensity at the rinse station shall be 1000 W/cm 2 and a maximum of 100 lx of ambient white light at the parts surface. 4.4 Developer Station a. Dry developer stations shall be equipped with a system to inject dry air into the chamber and disperse the particles. b. Aqueous suspendible developers shall be equipped with a system to keep the developer agitated and maintain the developer materials in suspension. 4.5 Dryer Station a. Dryers shall be equipped with a temperature control and a monitoring device. b. Thermostatic controlling devices shall be calibrated per 4.2. c. Dryer temperatures shall not exceed 72C (160F). 4.6 Inspection Station a. The area shall be kept clean and free of contaminating products and clutter. b. Ultraviolet lights used in the inspection station shall have a minimum intensity of 1000 W/cm2 at the working surface of the part being inspected. c. Ambient light in the inspection station during fluorescent penetrant inspection shall not exceed 20 lx. d. White light used in the inspection station for interpretation and evaluation of visible penetrant indications shall have a minimum intensity of 1000 lx. e. Inspection stations should be equipped with ventilation systems. 4.7 Portable Kits a. Ultraviolet lights used in portable kits shall have a minimum intensity of 1000 W/cm2 at the working surface of the part being inspected. b. Portable kits shall maintain the system concept for penetrants and developers 5.0 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION SECTION 5.1 The training, qualification and certification of personnel performing penetrant operations and inspections for acceptance/rejection shall be in accordance with ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A

6.0 PROCESS CONTROL SECTION 6.1 Quality Checks a. The following tests of penetrant materials used in open tanks shall be made, in accordance with AMS 2644, on a monthly with 1. penetrant intensity, 2. sensitivity, 3. water content (Method A only), 4. lipophilic emulsifier water content and 5. hydrophilic remover concentration b. Dry developers shall be checked daily for caking and penetrant contaminations. c. Wet developers shall be checked daily for penetrant contamination and wetting ability and weekly for concentration. d. Ultraviolet light intensities shall be checked at the beginning of each shift and after bulb replacement. e. Ambient light intensities shall be checked weekly. f. White light inspection intensities shall be checked at the beginning of each shift and after bulb replacement. g. System performance checks shall be made daily. 6.2 Process Limitations a. Do not use form a or b developers with Type II penetrant systems. b. Do not use Type II penetrants for final acceptance inspection of aerospace components except as specified on engineering drawings. c. The use of developer is required for all inservice inspections. d. When inspecting oxygen lines or tanks, penetrant materials should be tested for impact sensitivity before use per ASTM D 2512. e. Final inspection of components shall not be performed until all operations that could expose or produce surface discontinuities have been performed. 6.3 Sequence of Operations for Penetrant Inspection a. Penetrant inspection operations shall follow established and approved sequences. b. Normal inspection sequence shall be: 1. precleaning, 2. penetrant application and dwell, 3. penetrant removal/wash, 4. dry and developer application depending on type developer used, 5. developer dwell, 6. inspection and 7. postcleaning and protection.

6.4 Precleaning of Components a. Clean all components to be penetrant tested in accordance with applicable process specifications. b. Surfaces shall be free of any rust, scale, welding flux, burrs, feather, edges, smeared material, spatter, grease, paint, carbon, plating, engine varnish, oily film, dirt and other contaminants that would mask discontinuities or produce non-relevant indications. c. Surfaces shall be cleaned by solvent or chemical means. Mechanical cleaning shall only be accomplished by abrasive blasting if the surface of the metal is not peened by the process and surface discontinuities sealed. d. Etching of components shall only be accomplished per approved engineering data. e. Components shall be thoroughly rinsed and dried after solvent, chemical or mechanical cleaning. 6.5 Penetrant Selection and Application a. Unless indicated on engineering drawings, the following penetrants and sensitivities will be used for the components indicated in Table A1.1. b. Mehtod B or Method D will be used on aluminum alloys. c. Temperature of the component, penetrant and ambient air shall be between 10 and 43C (50 and 110F) for penetrant application. Components shall not be preheated above the maximum temperature range. d. Application of penetrant shall be applied by dipping, spraying, brushing, pouring, or flowing. e. Parts shall not remain immersed in penetrant during penetant dwell time. Parts shall be rotated if necessary to avoid pooling of the penetrant. The penetrant on the surface of the component will not be allowed to dry. 6.6 Penetrant Dwell Time a. Unless indicated on engineering drawings, the minimum penetrant dwell time shall be 15 min for discontinuities other than intergranular corrosion. b. Minimum penetrant dwell time for intergranular corrosion shall be 1 h. 6.7 Penetrant Removal a. General Keep washing of components to a minimum. Components suspected of being overwashed shall be reprocessed. A small amount of background is acceptable. Type I penetrants shall be removed under ultraviolet light. b. Method A, Water Washable Penetrant 1. A manual or automatic spray wash may be used. 2. Removal shall be as specified in 6.7f c. Method B, Post emulsifier, Lipophilic Penetrants 1. Emulsifier will be applied by dipping, pouring or flowing onto the component. Brushing or spraying shall not be used. 2. Emulsifier dwell time shall be the minimum time required to render the penetrant water washable.

Table A1.1: Penetrant Selection

Type I I I I II 1 2 3 3 N/A Sensitivity Level Material/Component Castings, other than precision. All materials not otherwise covered by this table. Aluminum alloys. Method C for suspected localized damage or rework. Ground handling or support equipment and tooling.

Minimum time will be determined by experimentation on a test component. 3. Maximum dwell time is 3 min for Type I penetrants and 30s for Type II penetrants. 4. Emulsifier action shall be stopped by water immersion or quick water spray of the entire component. 5. rinse of the component shall be performed as specified in 6.7f d. Method C, Solvent Removal 1. Type I and II penetrants shall be removed by first using a clean, dry, lint free cloth or towel to remove excess penetrant. The remaining background penetrant shall be removed, under appropriate lighting, by wiping with a clean, lint free cloth or towel dampened with solvent. Repeat until all excess penetrant is removed. 2. In no manner will penetrant be removed by spraying flushing the surface of the component with solvent. e. Method D, Post emulsifier, Hydrophilic Penetrant 1. Prerinse the component with a water spray for the time necessary to remove the bulk of the excess penetrant. Water spray shall be in accordance with 6.7f. Maximum prerinse time is 90 s for any on area. 2. Hydrophilic remover may be applied by immersion, flowing or spraying. If a spray rinse is used, do not exceed recommended limits for remover concentration. Spray rinse parameters are in 6.7 f. 3. Remover dwell time will be determined by experimenting on test components. The dwell time will be the minimum time necessary to produce an acceptable background. Dwell time will not exceed 2 min. 4. Final rinse will be performed as specified in 6.7f. f. Rinsing 1. Removal station shall conform to 4.3. 2. Hydro air nozzles are permitted only with Type I, Level I Sensitivity penetrants. Maximum air pressure is 172 kPa (25 psi). 3. Rinse spray will be a coarse spray that is cone shaped or fan shaped. Spray nozzles will held about 30 cm (12 in.) from the part. 4. Rinse water contaminants that may leave residue on the component after drying are not acceptable. Filtering of water may be required.

g. Drying 1. Dry stations will conform to 4.5 2. Components shall be removed from the dryer as soon as the surface is dry. 3. Maximum drying time, for circulating air dryers shall not exceed 30 min. Parts left in dryers for longer that 30 min shall be reprocessed. 4. Maximum drying time for room temperature drying is 1 h. 5. If required, parts will be rotated to avoid pooling of liquid during drying 6. Components with thin cross sections shall not be mixed with components with thicker sections. h. Developing 1. Components will be completely dried before application of dry or nonaqueous developer. 2. Developer dwell times will be half of the penetrant dwell time, but not less than 10 min for final inspection. Developer dwell time begins when developer is on the part and dry. 3. Dry developers may be applied by dipping, dusting or fogging. Excess dry developer may be removed by gently tapping component. 4. Aqueous soluble and suspendible developers may be applied by dipping flowing and spraying. Brushing on is not acceptable. Dry parts immediately after excess developer has drained from the component. 5. Non-aqueous developers are applied by spraying. Containers shall be shaken or agitated sufficiently. Developer will be sprayed onto the component in a manner to produce a light uniform coating. i. Inspection/Evaluation 1. Inspection of components may begin and it is recommended, as soon as developer is dry. However, final inspection of the components shall not be made until the developer dwell time has elapsed. 2. Inspection of components shall be accomplished in the proper and appropriate lighting conditions as specified in 4.6. 3. Inspectors working in darkened conditions shall allow at least 5 min for dark conditioning to occur before inspection components. 4. Inspect components completely. Magnifiers may be used to interpret or evaluate indications. 5. Perform interpretation and evaluation of indications to determine if components meet specification requirements per engineeringh data. 6. Removal of an indication and application of non-aqueous developer is permitted only once. 7. Acceptance and rejection criteria per engineering data will be provided for each component inspected and included in the written procedure. j. Postcleaning 1. Components will be postcleaned by either water wash or solvent to remove all penetrant materials. 2. Mild scrubbing may be used to remove wet developers. 3. Components will be dried after cleaning and protected as needed.

7.0 WRITTEN PROCEDURE REQUIREMENT 7.1 Written procedures for components shall be in writing and approved by a Level III certified per 5.1 in penetrant testing. 7.2 Perform penetrant inspections according to a written procedure that meets the requirements of this specification. A general written practice for similar components is acceptable. All written procedures will contain at least the following information: a. Precleaning operations should include the materials and procedures b. The type, technique and sensitivity of penetrant materials to be used; c. Detailed procedures on the application and dwell time of penetrants, the removal of the penetrant, drying parameters, developer and application technique, developer dwell time, inspection and evaluation requirements and postcleaning of components; d. Inspection and evaluation criteria will include areas of high interest on each component and acceptable and rejectable criteria based on engineering data. Allowable limits of mechanical evaluation should be included; e. Postcleaning operations should include the materials and procedures to be used; and f. Documentation requirements for each inspection.

1) For penetrant testing, the process specification establishes: a) A minimum degree requirement b) An average degree requirement. c) A maximum degree requirement. d) An engineering specific degree requirement. 2) When are in-service quality test on penetrant materials in open tanks required? a) Quality tests are not required; they are recommended periodically according to need. b) Whenever a complete changeover of materials is accomplished. c) Whenever requested in writing by the Quality Assurance Auditor. d) At least monthly. 3) In order to enhance the sensitivity of the process, which of the following may be done before application of the penetrant? a) The penetrant may be preheated to 66 C (150 F). b) The parts may be preheated between 66 and 107 C (150 and 225 F) c) A more sensitive penetrant may be mixed with contaminated penetrant. d) Fluorescent penetrant can be charged by exposure to intense ultraviolet light. e) None of the above procedures are permitted. 4) Which reference document covers the calibration of equipment? a) ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994. b) SNT-TC-1A. c) ASTM E 1316. d) QPL-SAE-AMS-2644-3. 5) Allowable penetrant materials are restricted to those in: a) ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994. b) ASTM E 1316. c) ASTM E 1317. d) QPL-SAE-AMS-2644-3. 6) The minimum accuracy of a temperature gage is : a) 5 F ( 2.8 C) b) 10 F ( 5.6 C) c) 15 F ( 18.3 C) d) Calibration is not required.

7) Material safety data sheets are provided by the: a) Prime contractor. b) Subcontractor. c) Penetrant manufacturer. d) Federal government. 8) For small parts, a dryer is required when: a) Aqueous wet developer is used. b) Non-aqueous developer is used. c) Dry developer is used. d) All of the above are used. e) Only a and c are used 9) One component requiring penetrant testing is suspected of having stress corrosion cracking. According to the specification, the penetrant dwell time required is: a) 10 min. b) 30 min. c) 1 h. d) 2 h. 10)According to the specification, which of the following reference documents is used for qualification of testing personnel? a) ATA Specification 105. b) SNT-TC-1A. c) MIL-STD-410E. d) ISO 9712. 11)Your company has entered into a contract to produce components for XYZ Manufacturing. A requirement of the contract is to use this specification for penetrant testing of the components. The date of the contract is January 1, 1996; components were not produced and tested until June 1996. The Specification was originally approved for use in January 1980. It was superseded and revised in May 1985 as the B Revision, again in April 1992 as the C Revision and also in August 1996 as the D Revision. Which revision is in effect for the purpose of your companys contractual requirement? a) The original January 1980 version. b) Revision B. c) Revision C. d) Revision D. e) Any of the above, according to your preference.

12)Emulsifier dwell time shall be a) As recommended by the penetrant material manufacturer. b) As specified in Table 1 of the Specification. c) Determined experimentally on each part. d) Controlled by use of a stopwatch. 13)According to the specification, specifying acceptance criteria is the responsibility of: a) The Level III. b) Quality assurance personnel. c) Engineering personnel. d) The Federal Government. 14)According to the specification, Type II penetrant can be used with: a) Form a developer. b) Form b developer. c) Form c developer. d) Both a and b above. e) Both b and c above. 15)According to the specification, Type II penetrants can be used for final acceptance inspection of aerospace components. a) True b) False 16)The system concept for penetrant materials is required for: a) Water washable penetrants. b) Postemulsifier penetrants. c) Solvent removed penetrants. d) All penetrants. e) The system concept does not have to be used. 17)According to the specification, etching of components shall be accomplished: a) Per engineering data b) According to MIL-STD-6869. c) According to the Level III. d) Etching of parts is not permitted. 18)The maximum lipophilic emulsifier dwell time for Type I penetrants is: a) 30s. b) 1 min. c) 2 min. d) 3 min.


19)When inspecting oxygen lines, penetrant materials should be tested for a) System sensitivity b) Penetrant sensitivity c) Impact sensitivity d) Either a or b 20)For Aluminum alloys a) Method A is used b) Method B is used c) Method B or D is used d) Only method is recommended as per specification



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