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Student-centred learning (also called student-centered learning, child-centred learning, or child-centered learning) is an approach to education focusing on the needs of the students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators. Theorists like John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky whose collective work focused on how students learn is primarily responsible for the move to student-centered learning. Carl Rogers' ideas about the formation of the individual also contributed to student-centered learning. Student centered-learning means reversing the traditional teacher-centered understanding of the learning process and putting students at the centre of the learning process. Implementation considerations To implement a student-centered learning environment, attention must be given to the following aspects of learning:

The goal of student activity The role of the teacher Student's motivational orientation Assessment Student interaction

Because much of the power resides with students, teachers must realize that they are collaborators in learning. This is a role teachers must be comfortable with if they are to successfully implement a student-centred learning environment. A successful studentcentered learning environment will be open, dynamic, trusting, respectful, and promoting the natural desire and curiosity to learn. Students will collaborate on meaningful, authentic problems which serve to further their understandings of the subject matter and themselves. This experiential learning involves the whole person -their feelings, thinking, goals, social skills, and intuition. The result is a person who is empowered to be a lifelong learner; a student who embraces their own abilities and is accepting of others.

SCL IS : A move from Teacher centred activity Transfer of knowledge Coverage of content Giving knowledge TO Student centred activity Understanding of concepts Students as questioners and problem solvers Searching for knowledge, thinking for themselves

Student Centred Learning Are actively engaged in their own learning Are encouraged to think independently Needs and interests determine course activities Have choices Have opportunities to investigate and discover Work collaboratively Are given authentic problems to solve Are assessed for learning Monitor their own learning Demonstrate understanding in a variety of ways Receive active guided support and instruction

Student-centred and teacher-centred continuum Teacher-centred Learning Low level of student choice Student passive Student-centred Learning High level of student choice Student active

Power is primarily with teacher Power primarily with the student

Examples of student centred learning/teaching methods Outside of the lecture format Independent projects Group discussion Peer mentoring of other In the Lecture Buzz groups (short discussion in twos) Pyramids/snowballing (Buzz groups continuing the discussion into larger groups) Cross-overs (mixing students into groups by letter/number

students Debates Field-trips Practicals Reflective diaries, learning journals Computer assisted learning Choice in subjects for study/projects Writing newspaper article Portfolio development

allocations) Rounds (giving turns to individual students to talk) Quizes Writing reflections on learning (3/4 minutes) Student class presentations Role play Poster presentations Students producing mind maps in class

Examples of student-centred assessments

Diaries, logs and journals Portfolios Peer/self assessment Learning contracts and negotiated assessment

Projects Group work Profiles Skills and competencies

Assessment process and student-centred learning Involving students at the stage when the task is set:

Choosing the assessment task Setting the assessment task Discussion the assessment criteria Setting the assessment criteria Making self-assessment comments Making peer-assessment feedback comments Suggesting self-assessment grades/marks Negotiating self-assessment grades/marks Assigning self-assessment grades/marks Assigning peer-assessment grades/marks

Involving students at the stage after the task is completed: