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TEST D Time 30 minutes 20 Questions Questions 9-10 are based on the following.

In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history, and that, therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival. We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The rest of their time is spent as they choose. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization. 9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above? (A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies. (B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization. (C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure. (D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened. (E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.

19.Informed people generally assimilate information from several divergent sources before coming to an opinion. However, most popular news organizations view foreign affairs solely through the eyes of our State Department. In reporting the political crisis in foreign country B, news organizations must endeavor to find alternative sources of information. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the argument above? (A) To the degree that a news source gives an account of another country that mirrors that of our State Department, that reporting is suspect. (B) To protect their integrity, news media should avoid the influence of State Department releases in their coverage of foreign affairs. (C) Reporting that is not influenced by the State Department is usually more accurate than are other accounts. (D) The alternative sources of information mentioned in the passage would probably not share the same views as the State Department. (E) A report cannot be seen as influenced by the State Department if it accurately depicts the

vision is usually the most important means of detecting spatial relations. (B) The past is constantly renewed because of illuminating reinterpretations. However. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made above? (A) The average rural household includes more people than does the average urban or suburban household. these scientists will not achieve their goal until they produce such a machine that can move around in its environment.events in a foreign country. (C) Detecting spatial relations among objects requires drawing inferences from the information conveyed by light. . Which one of the following can be inferred from the argument in the passage? (A) The interpretation of historical events is affected by natural science. (C) Suburban households generally have more purchasing power than do either rural or urban households. 16. Any of these considerations may require that the past be reinterpreted in a manner that is new and more illuminating. Scientists trying to build computers that can detect spatial relations by the same kind of process have so far designed and built stationary machines. (D) The median income of urban and suburban households is generally higher than that of rural households. would best support the prediction above? (A) Human beings are dependent on visual cues from motion in order to detect spatial relations. (D) Although human beings can discern spatial relations through their sense of hearing. Rural households have more purchasing power than do urban or suburban households at the same income level. even when those objects are in motion. Human beings can see the spatial relations among objects by processing information conveyed by light. TEST 6 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. (E) Information about the spatial relations among objects can be obtained by noticing such things as shadows and the relative sizes of objects. Which of the following. (B) Human beings can often easily detect the spatial relations among objects. 15. the discovery of mistaken inferences in prior histories. (B) Rural households have lower food and housing costs than do either urban or suburban households. the discovery of previously unnoticed relationships among data. if true. History textbooks frequently need to be revised. The reasons for this are clear: new discoveries of documents and remains. (E) All three types of households spend more of their income on food and housing than on all other purchases combined. and the application of hitherto undiscovered principles of natural science all may indicate inadequacies in current history texts. since some of the income urban and suburban households use for food and shelter can be used by rural households for other needs.

9. (B) People with high self-confidence do not tell funny stories or jokes about others. (D) Each child was able to identify correctly only the utensils that he had used. each child picked only the one that he had used.(C) History books are outdated as soon as they are written. (D) Natural scientists also function as historians. Which one of the following inference is most supported by the statements above? (A) A person who lacks self-confidence will enjoy neither telling nor hearing funny stories about himself or herself. (E) Historians’ mistaken inferences are caused by unnoticed relationships among data. But when the children were asked to identify all of the rolling pins among a group of kitchen utensils that included several rolling pins. (E) Telling funny stories or jokes about people in their presence is a way of expressing one’s respect for them. often not acquired until late in life. Using clean-coal technologies to “repower” existing factories promises ultimately a substantial reduction of polluting emissions. (D) A substantial reduction of polluting emissions will be achieved by the careful design of new factories. In an experiment. Which one of the following statements is an inference that can be drawn from the information given in the passage? (A) Sulfur dioxide emissions are the most dangerous pollutants implicated in acid rain. and each father repeated the phrase “rolling pin” each time his son used it. is even more revealing than is good-natured acquiescence in having others poke fun at one. (E) The children were not able to distinguish the rolling pins they used from other rolling pins. Each father-son pair used a rolling pin that was distinctively different from those used by the other father-son pairs. 22. . (B) No two children understood the name “rolling pin” to apply to the same object. (C) Twenty percent of the present level of sulfur dioxide emissions in the atmosphere is not considered a harmful level. The strategy of using these technologies could cut sulfur dioxide emission by more then 80 percent and nitrogen oxide emissions by more than 50 percent. (D) Most people would rather tell a funny story or joke than listen to one being told. (C) Highly self-confident people tell funny stories and jokes in order to let their audience know that they are self-confident. 13. and will affect the full range of pollutants implicated in acid rain. Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above? (A) The children did not grasp the function of rolling pin. two-year-old boys and their fathers made pie dough together using rolling pins and other utensils. The emission of smaller quantity of nitrogen pollutants would in turn reduce the formation of noxious ozone in the troposphere. An easy willingness to tell funny stories or jokes about oneself is the surest mark of supreme self-confidence. (B) Noxious ozone is formed in factories by chemical reactions involving sulfur dioxide. (C) The children understood that all rolling pins have the same general shape. This willingness.

the cloud must surrender the same percentage of its ordinary oxygen as of its oxygen-18. Which one of the following is a proper inference from the passage? (A) All governments commit same inexcusable and reprehensible acts. . a higher proportion of all water molecules containing oxygen-18 than of all water molecules containing ordinary oxygen descends to earth. water molecules containing oxygen-18 are rarer than water molecules containing normal oxygen. Human rights violations are always inexcusable. (B) Once it has passed over the Amazon. Consequently. Which one of the following inferences can be most reliably drawn from the passage above? (A) Most children who believe there will no consequences if they are discovered playing with fire do play with fire. Further. across the Amazon forests. It is even more important that we criticize democracies that have committed human rights violations than that we criticize dictatorships that have committed more violent human rights offenses. 11. scientists were surprised when measurements along the entire route of rain clouds’ passage from above the Atlantic Ocean. (D) Human rights violations are more likely to occur in democracies than in dictatorship. (E) During a rainfall. the rain cloud contains more ordinary oxygen than oxygen-18. 23. (C) The clouds rainfall contains more oxygen-18 than ordinary oxygen. our criticism is more likely to have an effect on the former than on the later. the rain cloud contains a greater-than-normal percentage of oxygen-18. more violent human rights violations. almost 60 percent of all fires are set by children. (D) During a rainfall. In a rain cloud. showed that the oxygen-18 content of each of the clouds remained fairly constant. (E) Those who do represent the will of the people are less likely to be moved by criticism than are those who merely claim to represent the will of the people. the cloud must surrender more of its oxygen-l8 than it retains. Which one of the following inferences about an individual rain cloud is supported by the passage? (A) Once it is formed over the Atlantic. But in rainfall. while in rural areas about 40 percent are. In metropolitan areas.(E) The choice of technologies in factories could reduce the formation of noxious ozone in the troposphere. (B) Some human rights violations are more reprehensible than other. A psychological survey discovered that all children who play with fire believe that there will be no consequences if their parents catch them doing it. the site of their original formation. (C) Criticism of human rights violations is certain to have no effect on a dictatorship. Oxygen-18 is a heavier-than-normal isotope of oxygen. but those committed by governments that represent the will of the people are even more reprehensible than those committed by dictators. where it rains almost daily.

(D) An organism does not necessarily belong to a class simply because the organism has one or more external body features similar to those of members of that class. had fins. (B) The members of a single class of organisms must exhibit one or more similar external body features that differentiate that class from all other classes of organisms. has a 40 percent lower risk. these children have not been among those playing with fire. However. ichthyosaurs adapted to their marine environment by converging on external body features similar to those of fish. in the area that is now Senegal. who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years. such as diet. (C) Li. Researchers corrected for differences in relevant health habits. Numismatist: In medieval Spain. (D) Children who play with fire attach no sense of right or wrong to this action. Most strikingly. most gold coins were minted from gold mined in West Africa. members of one class will differ from members of the other class in several external body features. (B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease. (E) Most children who do not play with fire believe there will be consequences if their parents discover them playing with fire. (E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health. a process by which different classes of organisms adapt to the same environment by independently developing one or more similar external body features. In a recent large study. ichthyosaurs. (C) If parents have successfully instilled in their children the belief that there will be consequences if they are caught playing with fire. The gold mined in this region was the purest known. (D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults. which one of the following is an inference that can be properly drawn on the basis of them? (A) The members of a single class of organisms that inhabit the same environment must be identical in all their external body features. Which one of the following inference is most supported by the passage? (A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects. (E) Whenever two classes of organisms share the same environment. If the statements above are true. like fish. The similarity between ichthyosaurs and fish is an example of convergence. and indeed coins . (C) It is only as a result of adaptation to similar environments that one class of organisms develops external body features similar to those of another class of organisms. those who took large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for two years showed on average a 40 percent lower risk of heart disease than did members of a control groups.(B) Parents who discover their children playing with fire will prevent those children from playing with fire in the future. Ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles and thus do not belong to the same class of organisms as fish. Its gold content of 92 percent allowed coins to be minted without refining the gold. 21. 12. Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food enthusiasts.

that the aim of personal career enhancement never advances the pursuit of truth (D) illicitly takes advantage of an ambiguity in the meaning of “self-interested” (E) improperly draws an inference about a cause from premises about its effects In the industrialized nations. However. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above? (A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies. We cannot. many people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history. but the Senegalese gold was never refined. the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. without giving justification. and that. Which one of the following inferences about gold coins minted in medieval Spain is most strongly supported by the information the numismatist gives? (A) Coins minted from Senegalese gold all contained the same weight. The mints could refine gold and produced other kinds of coins that had much purer gold content. The reasoning in the philosopher’s argument is flawed because the argument (A) improperly infers that each and every scientist has a certain characteristic from premise that most scientists have that characteristic (B) improperly draws an inference about the scientific community as a whole from a premise about individual scientists (C) presumes. but like most people. The Mbuti of central Africa. (E) The only unrefined gold from which coins could be minted was Senegalese gold. a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. the activities of the scientific community are largely directed toward enhancing the status of that community as a whole. both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization. they are selfinterested. Accordingly. the professional activities of most scientists are directed toward personal career enhancement. therefore. Philosopher: Scientists talk about the pursuit of truth. Rather. and only incidentally toward the pursuit of truth. (C) Two coins could have the same monetary value even though they differed from each other in the percentage of gold they contained. gathering. directly test this assumption. and tending to other economic necessities. for instance. 9. and only incidentally toward the pursuit of truth. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. . The rest of their time is spent as they choose. Hence. spend only a few hours each day in hunting. prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival. of course. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century. (D) No gold coins were minted that had a gold content of less than 92 percent. (B) The source of some refined gold from which coins were minted was unrefined gold with a gold content of less than 92 percent. as well as the same proportion of gold.minted from this source of gold can be recognized because they have that gold content. 13.

(E) The children were not able to distinguish the rolling pins they used from other rolling pins.(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization. (C) The children understood that all rolling pins have the same general shape. (E) As industrialization progresses. 9. people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work. 22. Each father-son pair used a rolling pin that was distinctively different from those used by the other father-son pairs. since some of the income urban and suburban households use for food and shelter can be used by rural households for other needs. (D) The median income of urban and suburban households is generally higher than that of rural households. An easy willingness to tell funny stories or jokes about oneself is the surest mark of supreme self-confidence. Rural households have more purchasing power than do urban or suburban households at the same income level. (E) All three types of households spend more of their income on food and housing than on all other purchases combined. two-year-old boys and their fathers made pie dough together using rolling pins and other utensils. (C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious. This willingness. each child picked only the one that he had used. (C) Suburban households generally have more purchasing power than do either rural or urban households. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made above? (A) The average rural household includes more people than does the average urban or suburban household. is even more revealing than is good-natured acquiescence in having others poke fun at one. Which one of the following inference is most supported by the statements above? . (B) Rural households have lower food and housing costs than do either urban or suburban households. (D) Each child was able to identify correctly only the utensils that he had used. TEST 6 30 Minutes 20 Questions 1. monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure. and each father repeated the phrase “rolling pin” each time his son used it. often not acquired until late in life. In an experiment. (B) No two children understood the name “rolling pin” to apply to the same object. But when the children were asked to identify all of the rolling pins among a group of kitchen utensils that included several rolling pins. Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above? (A) The children did not grasp the function of rolling pin. (D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.

scientists were surprised when measurements along the entire route of rain clouds’ passage from above the Atlantic Ocean. (D) A substantial reduction of polluting emissions will be achieved by the careful design of new factories. water molecules containing oxygen-18 are rarer than water molecules containing normal oxygen. (E) The choice of technologies in factories could reduce the formation of noxious ozone in the troposphere. across the Amazon forests. 20. the site of their original formation. Which one of the following statements is an inference that can be drawn from the information given in the passage? (A) Sulfur dioxide emissions are the most dangerous pollutants implicated in acid rain. (D) Most people would rather tell a funny story or joke than listen to one being told. (B) People with high self-confidence do not tell funny stories or jokes about others. where it rains almost daily. 13. a higher proportion of all water molecules containing oxygen-18 than of all water molecules containing ordinary oxygen descends to earth. Consequently. the rain cloud contains a greater-than-normal percentage of oxygen-18. Which one of the following inferences about an individual rain cloud is supported by the passage? (A) Once it is formed over the Atlantic. (C) Highly self-confident people tell funny stories and jokes in order to let their audience know that they are self-confident. Oxygen-18 is a heavier-than-normal isotope of oxygen. The emission of smaller quantity of nitrogen pollutants would in turn reduce the formation of noxious ozone in the troposphere. the cloud must surrender the same percentage of its ordinary oxygen as of its oxygen-18. showed that the oxygen-18 content of each of the clouds remained fairly constant. (C) The clouds rainfall contains more oxygen-18 than ordinary oxygen. But in rainfall. (D) During a rainfall. (B) Once it has passed over the Amazon. (E) During a rainfall. The strategy of using these technologies could cut sulfur dioxide emission by more then 80 percent and nitrogen oxide emissions by more than 50 percent. the cloud must surrender more of its oxygen-l8 than it retains. In a rain cloud.(A) A person who lacks self-confidence will enjoy neither telling nor hearing funny stories about himself or herself. It is even more important that we criticize democracies that have committed human rights . (C) Twenty percent of the present level of sulfur dioxide emissions in the atmosphere is not considered a harmful level. and will affect the full range of pollutants implicated in acid rain. the rain cloud contains more ordinary oxygen than oxygen-18. Using clean-coal technologies to “repower” existing factories promises ultimately a substantial reduction of polluting emissions. (B) Noxious ozone is formed in factories by chemical reactions involving sulfur dioxide. 11. (E) Telling funny stories or jokes about people in their presence is a way of expressing one’s respect for them.

our criticism is more likely to have an effect on the former than on the later. (D) Human rights violations are more likely to occur in democracies than in dictatorship. (B) Some human rights violations are more reprehensible than other. (C) Two coins could have the same monetary value even though they differed from each other in the percentage of gold they contained. 13. (E) The only unrefined gold from which coins could be minted was Senegalese gold. Further. as well as the same proportion of gold. but the Senegalese gold was never refined. Human rights violations are always inexcusable. . The gold mined in this region was the purest known. and indeed coins minted from this source of gold can be recognized because they have that gold content. Numismatist: In medieval Spain.violations than that we criticize dictatorships that have committed more violent human rights offenses. most gold coins were minted from gold mined in West Africa. (E) Those who do represent the will of the people are less likely to be moved by criticism than are those who merely claim to represent the will of the people. (B) The source of some refined gold from which coins were minted was unrefined gold with a gold content of less than 92 percent. The mints could refine gold and produced other kinds of coins that had much purer gold content. but those committed by governments that represent the will of the people are even more reprehensible than those committed by dictators. Its gold content of 92 percent allowed coins to be minted without refining the gold. (D) No gold coins were minted that had a gold content of less than 92 percent. Which one of the following inferences about gold coins minted in medieval Spain is most strongly supported by the information the numismatist gives? (A) Coins minted from Senegalese gold all contained the same weight. (C) Criticism of human rights violations is certain to have no effect on a dictatorship. Which one of the following is a proper inference from the passage? (A) All governments commit same inexcusable and reprehensible acts. more violent human rights violations. in the area that is now Senegal.