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INTEGRATED ENGLISH REFERENCE NOTES

Prof. Dr. Ziya YURTTA


Atatrk University College of Agriculture Publication Number: 66 ERZURUM_1999

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page FIRST PART- ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SUMMARY ................................................1 1. TENSES (Zamanlar) .......................................................................................................1 2. MODALS (Modal Yardmc Fiiller) ..............................................................................6 3. ACTIVE-PASSIVE (Etgen-Edilgen) .............................................................................8 4. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Aktarmal fadeler) ................................................................9 5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (lgi Zamirleri)..................................................................10 6. CAUSATIVE FORM (Ettirgen Yap) .........................................................................11 7.TAG QUESTIONS (Tag Sorular)................................................................................11 8. PARTICIPATION (Katlm) ........................................................................................11 9. NOUNS (simler) ...........................................................................................................12 10. PRONOUNS (Zamirler)..............................................................................................14 11. VERBS (Fiiller)............................................................................................................15 12. ADJECTIVES (Sfatlar) ............................................................................................19 13. ADVERBS (Zarflar)....................................................................................................21 14. PREPOSITIONS (Edatlar).........................................................................................24 15. CONJUNCTIONS (Balalar) ...................................................................................26 16. VERBALS (Fiil Kkenli Kelimeler)...........................................................................28 17. PREFIXES (n Ekler)................................................................................................31 18. SUFFIXES (Son Ekler) ...............................................................................................31 19. MISCELLANEOUS (Muhtelif) .................................................................................32 Odds and Ends...................................................................................................................34 SECOND PART IDIOMS..............................................................................................37 VOCABULARY.................................................................................................................40 A Poem................................................................................................................................50

1 FIRST PART

ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SUMMARY 1. TENSES (Zamanlar)


1.1. Simple Tenses 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense Conditional T. I go1 I went I will go I would go Giderim Gittim Gideceim Gidecektim

1.2. Continuous Tenses (C.T.) 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 Present C.T. Past C.T. Future C.T. Conditional C.T. I am going I was going I will be going I would be going Gidiyorum Gidiyordum Gidiyor olacam Gidiyor olacaktm

1.3. Perfect Tenses (P.T.) 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 Present P.T. Past P.T. Future P.T. Conditional P.T. I have gone I had gone I will have gone I would have gone. Gitmiim (Gittim) Gitmitim Gitmi olacam Gitmi olacaktm

1.4. Perfect Continuous Tenses (P.C.T.) I have been going 1.4.1 Present P.C.T. 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 Past P.C.T. Future P.C.T. Conditional P.C.T. I am going to go I was going to go I used to go I would go
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Gitmekteyim Gitmekteydim Gitmekte olacam Gitmekte olacaktm I will go I would go

I had been going I will have been going I would have been going I am gonna go I was gonna go Giderdim (Alkanlk) Giderdim (arta bal)

Other verbs to be conjugated: to do, to be, to see, to have, to make. (to smoke for P.C.T.).

2 SAMPLE SENTENCES 1. I go to school every day in the morning at 8 oclock with my friends by bus. 2. I went to school 10 minutes late yesterday. 3. I will go to school at one oclock this afternoon. 4. I would go to school today, if I had completed my homework in time. 5. 6. 7. 8. I am going to Istanbul now. I was going to Istanbul, when I met him at the airport. I will be going to Istanbul tomorrow afternoon at two oclock. I would be going to Istanbul at this moment, if had not missed the plane.

9. I have gone to Antalya three times in the past. 10. I had gone to Antalya two months before I met you. 11. I will have gone to Antalya the day after tomorrow. 12. I would have gone to Antalya by now, if I had not had an accident on Sunday. 13. I have been smoking for 3 years now. 14. I had been smoking for 10 years, when I stopped smoking. 15. I will have been smoking for 6 years by the end of this year. 16. I would have been smoking for 15 years now, if I had not stopped smoking 5 years ago. Im gonna go to downtown. Are you gonna come with me? I was gonna go to theatre, if you had come earlier. I used to go to movies at least three times a week, when I was a student. I would go to see him and apologize to him, if I were in your place.

If I go to Istanbul, I will see him If I had gone to Istanbul, I would see him If I had gone to Istanbul, I would have seen him.

Istanbul'a gidersem onu greceim. Istanbula gitmi olsaydm, onu grrdm. O zaman Istanbul'a gitmi olsaydm, Onu grms olacaktm.

CONJUGATION OF TENSES
1.1.1. Simple Present Tense (do, does) (go) (-s) I go. You go. (He, She, It) goes. We go. You go. They go. I do not go. You do not go. - does not go. We do not go. You do not go. They do not go. Do I go? Do you go? Does - go? Do we go? Do you go? Do they go? Do I not go? Do you not go? Does - not go? Do we not go? Do you not go? Do they not go?

1.1.2. Simple Past Tense (did) (go) (went) I went. You went. - went. We went. You went. They went. I did not go. You did not go. - did not go. We did not go. You did not go. They did not go. Did I go? Did you go? Did - go? Did we go? Did you go? Did they go? Did I not go? Did you not go? Did - not go? Did we not go? Did you not go? Did they not go?

1.1.3. Simple Future Tense (will) (go) I will go. You will go. - will go. We will go. You will go. They will go. I will not go. You will not go. Will not go. We will not go. You will not go. They will not go. Will I go? Will you go? Will - go? Will we go? Will you go? Will they go? Will I not go? Will you not go? Will - not go? Will we not go? Will you not go? Will they not go?

1.1.4. Simple Conditional Tense (would) (go) I would go You would go. - would go. We would go. You would go. They would go. Do not Did not I would not go. You would not go. - would not go. We would not go. You would not go. They would not go. Don't Didn't Would I go? Would you go? Would - go? Would we go? Would you go? Would they go? Will not Would not Would I not go? Would you not go? Would - not go? Would we not go? Would you not go? Would they not go? Won't Wouldn't

4 1.2.1. Present Continuous Tense (am, are, is) (- ing) I am going I am not going Am I going?
Am I not going? (1)

(1) Aren't I going? 1.2.2. Past Continuous Tense (was, were) (- ing) I was going I was not going. Was I going? Was I not going?

1.2.3. Future Continuous Tense (will be) (- ing)


I will be going I will not be going Will I be going? Will I not be going?

1.2.4. Conditional Continuous Tense (would be) (-ing) I would be going I would not be going Would I be going? Would I not be going?

1.3.1. Present Perfect Tense (have, has) (gone) I have gone I have not gone* Have I gone? Have I not gone?

*Have not: Haven't

5 1.3.2. Past Perfect Tense (had) (gone) I had gone I had not gone Had I gone? Had I not gone?

1.3.3. Future Perfect Tense (will have) (gone)


I will have gone I will not have gone Will I have gone? Will I not have gone?

1.3.4. Conditional Perfect Tense (would have) (gone)


I would have gone I would not have gone Would I have gone? Would I not have gone?

1.4.1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (have been, has been) (- ing) I have been going I have not been going Have I been going? Have I not been going?

1.4.2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (had been) (- ing) I had been going I had not been going Had I been going? Had I not been going?

1.4.3. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (will have been) (- ing) I will have been going I will not have been going Will I have been going? Will I not have been going?

1.4.4. Conditional Perfect Continuous Tense (would have been) (- ing) I would have been going I would not have been going Would I have been going? Would I not have been going?

2. MODALS (Modal Yardmc Fiiller)


2.1 2.2 2.3 Can May Must ktidar belirten yardmc fiil Mezuniyet belirten yardmc fiil Mecburiyet belirten yardmc fiil Gidebilirim (Muktedirim) I may go I must go Gidebilirim (Mezunum) Gitmeliyim (Mecburum) be able to have to, have got to, be obliged to, need to, be to, be compelled to, be supposed to, should, ought to. I might have gone I must have gone Gitmi olabilirdim Gitmi olmalydm I could have gone Gitmi olabilirdim

I can go

Can Must

7 To be able to (muktedir olmak, yapabilmek) I am able to go I was able to go Gidebilirim Gidebildim


(Gitmeye muktedirdim)

I will be able to go

Gidebileceim

I would be able to go Gidebilecektim

To have to (Mecbur olmak, Zorunda olmak) I have to go I had to go Gitmek zorundaym Gitmek zorundaydm I will have to go I would have to go Gitmek zorunda olacam Gitmek zorunda olacaktm

If I go, I will be able to see him. If I had gone, I would have been able to see him. If you had fallen, you could have broken your leg. If you had started then, you could have finished it by now. If I go, I will have to see him. If I had gone, I would have had to see him. He must have studied really well (his grade is good). He should have studied really well (his grade is bad). I need two hundred dollars so that I can go there. I bought the car so that you would not have to walk. Do you have to go? I may have to go.

3. ACTIVE-PASSIVE (Etgen-Edilgen)
Active Voice2 1 She writes a letter 2 She wrote a letter 3 She will write a letter 4 She would write a letter 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 She is writing a letter She was writing a letter She will be writing a letter She would be writing a letter She has written a letter She had written a letter She will have written a letter She would have written a letter She has been writing a letter She had been writing a letter She will have been writing a letter She would have been writing a letter Passive Voice3 A letter is was will be would be " " " " " " " " " " " " is being was being will be being would be being has been had been will have been would have been has been being had been being will have been being would have been being

written by her

He can write a letter. He may write a letter. He must write a letter.

A letter can be written by him. A letter may be written by him. A letter must be written by him.

Let him write a letter. Let a letter be written by him. Architect Ali has designed it. It has been designed by architect Ali. He had broken a window. A window had been broken by him.4 ______________________________________________________________________ A. Someone gave me a present. P. I was given a present. P. A present was given to me. A. They made him believe that she died. P. He was made to believe that she died.

2 3

S+V+O (Subject + verb + object) O+ to be+ V3+ S (Object + to be fiilinin uygun hali + esas fiilin 3. yani past participle hali + subject) 4 Geili fiiller (transitive verbs) yani nesne alan fiiller veya neyi ve kimi sorularna cevap alnabilen fiiller iin P.V. yaplabilir. Geisiz fiiller (intransitive verbs, to go gibi) iin P.V. yaplamaz.

4. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Aktarmal fadeler)


Direct Statement 1. "I go".6 2. "I went". 3. "I will go". 4. "I would go". 5. "I am going". 6. "I was going". 7. "I will be going". 8. "I would be going". 9. "I have gone". 10. "I had gone". 11. "I will have gone". 12. "I would have gone". 13. "I have been going". 14. "I had been going". 15. "I will have been going". 16. "I would have been going". Indirect Statement5 He said that " " " He said that " " " He said that " " He said that " " " He went. He went. He would go. He would go. He was going. He was going. He would be going. He would be going. He had gone. He had gone. He would have gone. He would have gone. He had been going. He had been going. He would have been going. He would have been going.

"What are you doing? "Where were you going? "Can you help me? "May I come in? "Will you be able to go? "Do you have to go? "Did you have to go? Do you go? Did you go? Go ! He told me to go today-that day this-that

He asked me what " where " " " " " if if if if if if if

I was doing. I was going. I could help him. He might come in. I would be able to go. I had to go. I had to go. I went Iwent He told me not to go

Dont go!

if = whether now - then

tomorrow-the next day yesterday-the day before

Present tenses become past, past tenses remain the same. Future tenses become conditional, conditional tenses remain the same. 6 When the introductory verb is in present or future tenses, the tense of the narrated part may not change.

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5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (lgi Zamirleri)


Who Whose Whom Who Whose Whom I saw the man whom you gave money in the bank. The man whom I saw yesterday was quite tired and anxious. The man with whom I played billiards is a champion in... I saw the man whose car was stolen yesterday afternoon. The man whose car was stolen yesterday afternoon is a lawyer. Did you see the lady whose car was without a license plate? Ki o Ki onun Ki ona (onu) Which (What, that) Of which To which Ki o Where Ki onun When Ki ona Of whom Ki orada Ki o zaman Ki onun

I saw the man who came to school on Sunday. The man who is coming toward us is a doctor. He who comes late deserves punishment. Those who were late missed the opening ceremony.

Which (what, that) I picked up the pen which (that) was on the floor. I do not understand what you say. That is not what I want. This is the knife with which I cut the rope. The car to which you threw stone is a Cadillac Aldorado. Where This is the place where they had met first. When There will be a time when Turkey will be full a member of the European Union. He is the man, about whom you were talking = He is the man, whom you were talking about = He is the man, you were talking about.

He who comes early sits down. Atatrk is to Turkey what Washington is to U.S.A. Those who are coming now will have to go back soon.

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6. CAUSATIVE FORM (Ettirgen Yap)


To have something done To get something done I have my shoes polished... I had my shoes polished... I will have my shoes polished... I would have my shoes polished... I got my shoes polished 7.TAG QUESTIONS (Tag Sorular) You go to school, don't you? You went to school, didn't you? You will go to school, won't you? You would go to school, wouldn't you? 8. PARTICIPATION (Katlm) A. Affirmative Agreements Ali goes to zoo. Ali went to zoo. Ali will go to zoo. Ali would go to zoo. I do too It is a pen, isnt it? You have to go, don't you? He may go, may he not? He has to go, doesn't he? I do too. I did too. I will too. I would too. So do I B. Negative Agreements He does not go to zoo. He did not go to zoo. He will not go to zoo. He wouldn't go to zoo. I don't either Let's go, shall we? Open the door will you? I am going, aren't I? I don't either. I didn't either. I won't either. I wouldn't either. Neither do I You do not go to school, do you? You did not go to school, did you? You will not go to school, will you? You would not go to school, would you? To make somebody do something To get somebody to do something I make Ali study English... I made Ali study English... I will make Ali study English I would make Ali study English... I will get Ali to study English

He was made to study for four hours. She was made to pay for her mistake. I was made to believe that he was innocent. I will get him to accept the conditions

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9. NOUNS (simler)
9.1. Proper Nouns (zel simler) Ali, Mary, January, Ankara, London, Canterbury 9.2. Common Nouns (Cins simler) cook, book, sinister, minister 9.3. Countable Nouns (Saylabilir simler) apple, box, ranch, table 9.4. Uncountable Nouns (Saylamayan simler) bread, butter, salt, water 9.5. Masculine Nouns (Eril simler) boy, man, prince, king 9.6. Feminine Nouns (Diil simler) girl, woman, princess, queen 9.7. Neuter Nouns (Ntr simler) Things and animals whose sexes are not known stone, steel, pots and pans 9.10. Nouns with the Same Form for M. and F. child, parent, artist, painter, cousin 9.11. Nouns with Different Forms for M. and F. father-mother, brother-sister, nephew-niece, bull-cow, horse-mare, cock-hen 9.12 Plural Forms (oul ekilleri) 9.12.1. Regular Form cat-cats, dog-dogs 9.12.2. Special Forms 9.12.2.1. Nouns Ending in O, ss, sh, ch, X tomatoes, kisses, watches, boxes exceptions: pianos, photos 9.12.2.2. Nouns Ending in fe, f, wife-wives, life-lives, wolf-wolves, self-selves, 9.12.2.3. Nouns Ending in y 9.12.2.3.1. Following a Consonant baby-babies, lady-ladies 9.12.2.3.2. Following a vowel day-days, boy-boys.

13 9.12.2.4. Nouns that are in plural form and take singular verbs : Mathematics, Statistics, Athletics, Economics 9.12.2.5. Nouns that are in plural form and take plural verbs: pants, trousers, pajamas, glasses, pliers, shears, scissors, scales, tweezeers 9.12.3. Irregular Forms fish-fish, trout-trout, sheep-sheep news-news, baggage-baggage, information-information man-men, woman-women, foot-feet mouse-mice, louse-lice, ox-oxen tooth-teeth, child-children 9.12.4. Original Latin or Greek Nouns thesis-theses, crisis-crises, alumnus-alumni, phenomenon-phenomena erratum-errata, radius-radii memorandum-memoranda, datum- data basis-bases, axis-axes, nucleus nuclea 9.12.5. Others sister in law-sisters in law man student - men students VIP- VIPs, MP MPs, UFO-UFOs 9.13. Possessive Forms (yelik ekilleri) Ahmet's apples, man's fob Shakespeare's plays, the plays of Martha X A stone's throw, ten dollar gas For heaven's sake, for goodness sake Jone's house, Joness house A week's holiday ; a week holiday Three dollars worth of gas The keys of the car, the names of the cities

9.14. Articles (Tantclar7) 9.14.1. The Definite Article (Belirli Tantc) The The boy, the girl, the sky, the old The rich, the Alps, the U.S.S.R., the Netherlands, the U.S.A. The North Pole, the Smiths 9.14.2. The Indefinite Article (Belgisiz Tantc) a, an A boy, a girl, an apple, an hour, a university

Tantclar zel isimlerden nce kullanlmaz.

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10. PRONOUNS (Zamirler8)


(A) I You He She It We You They (B) Me You Him Her It Us You Them (C) My Your His Her Its Our Your Their ( D) Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs (E) Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves

A. Personal Pronouns (ahs Zamirleri) (zne) B. Objective Pronouns (Nesne Zamirleri) C. D. E. F. Possessive Pronouns (Mlkiyet Zamirleri) Possessive Pronouns (Mlkiyet Zamirleri) Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns (Dntrme ve Pekitirme Zamirleri) Interrogative Pronouns (Soru Zamirleri)

Who? Whose? Whom? Which? What? How? When? G. Relative Pronouns (lgi Zamirleri) Who, Whose, Whom, Which, What, That. H. Demonstrative Pronouns (aret Zamirleri) This, That, These, Those . Indefinite Pronouns (Belgisiz zamirler) One, Someone, Anyone, Somebody, Anybody, None, No One, Everyone, Everybody, All. ______________________________________________________________________ I want nothing: I don't want anything No: not any Is everybody ready?

Zamirler zne yerine kullanlan szcklerdir

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11. VERBS (Fiiller)


11.1. Infinitive Form 11.2. Present Form 11.3. Past Form 11.4. Past Participle 11.5. Regular Verbs 11.6. Irregular Verbs 11.6.1. Present Bet Cast Cost Hit Hurt Let Set Spread Put Quit Shut 11.6.2. Build Lend Send Spend 11.6.3. Get Go Forget Hang Ring Sing Spring Sit Win Got Went Forgot Hung Rang Sang Sprang Sat Won Got Gone Forgotten Hung Rung Sung Sprung Sat Won Elde Etmek Gitmek Unutmak Asmak (Zil) almak ark Sylemek Sramak Oturmak Kazanmak Built Lent Sent Spent Built Lent Sent Spent Ina Etmek dn Vermek Gndermek Sarfetmek Past Bet Cast Cost Hit Hurt Let Set Spread Put Quit Shut to go go went gone (Dzenli Fiiller) (ask, asked, asked) (Dzensiz Fiiller) Past Participle Bet Cast Cost Hit Hurt Let Set Spread Put Quit Shut Bahse Girmek Atmak Malolmak Vurmak Incitmek Brakmak Kurmak Yaymak Koymak Terketmek Kapatmak

16 11.6.4. Hear Read Pay Say 11.6.5. Feed Lead Hold 11.6.6. Feel Keep Sleep Weep Leave Meet Lose 11.6.7 Bind Find Shine Strike 11.6.8. Bring Buy Fight Think Catch Teach Sell Tell Make Stand Brought Bought Fought Thought Caught Taught Sold Told Made Stood Brought Bought Fought Thought Caught Taught Sold Told Made Stood Getirmek Satn Almak Dvmek Dnmek Yakalamak retmek Satmak Anlatmak Yapmak Durmak Bound Found Shone Struck Bound Found Shone Struck Balamak Bulmak Parlamak Vurmak, Grev Yapmak Felt Kept Slept Wept Left Met Lost Felt Kept Slept Wept Left Met Lost Hissetmek Saklamak Uyumak Alamak Brakmak Karlamak Kaybetmek Fed Led Held Fed Led Held Beslemek Yol Gstermek Tutmak Heard Read Paid Said Heard Read Paid Said Duymak Okumak demek Sylemek

17 11.6.9. Ride Write Rise Bite Hide 11.6.10. Bear Swear Tear Wear Break Speak Choose Steal 11.6.11. Grow Know Throw Fly Slay See 11.6.12 Take Shake 11.6.13. Beat Eat Fall Do Go Lie Lay Lie Beat Ate Fell Did Went Lay Laid Lied Beaten Eaten Fallen Done Gone Lain Laid Lied Dvmek Yemek Dmek Yapmak Gitmek Yatmak, Uzanmak Yatrmak, Uzatmak Yalan Sylemek Took Shook Taken Shaken Almak Sarsmak Grew Knew Threw Flew Slew Saw Grown Known Thrown Flown Slain Seen Bymek Bilmek Atmak Umak Katletmek Grmek Bore Swore Tore Wore Broke Spoke Chose Stole Born Sworn Torn Worn Broken Spoken Chosen Stolen Tamak Yemin Etmek Yrtmak Giymek Krmak Konumak Semek almak Rode Wrote Rose Bit Hid Ridden Written Risen Bitten Hidden Binmek Yazmak Kalkmak Isrmak Saklamak

18 11.6.14 Forbid Give Begin Drink Run Forbade Gave Began Drank Ran Forbidden Given Begun Drunk Run Yasaklamak Vermek Balamak Imek Komak

11.7. Verbs Followed by the Gerund admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, defer, deny, dislike, dread, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep, mind, miss, pardon, postpone, prevent, propose, remember, resent, resist,stop, suggest To object to, to confess to, to get used to, to look forward to He objected to joining the army. He admitted robbing the bank. She appreciated receiving letters from her fans. I enjoy calling her once in a while. I don't mind walking to my office. I don't remember seeing her. I can't help laughing when I think of that joke. Stop talking, l can't stop loving you. I am looking forward to hearing from you. I can't stand listening to a loud music. 11.8. Verbs Followed By the Gerund or Infinitive Start, begin, continue, intend I started studying. (I started to study!) 11.9. Verbs Followed By That and Verb-1 Suggest, recommend, insist, demand He suggested that we go. What do you suggest that we do? The kidnappers demanded that the father pay the ransom in small dollar bills. 11.10. Verbs Followed by the Gerund or Infinitive Taking a Different Meaning try + gerund try + to infinitive stop + gerund denemek abalamak brakmak I tried solving the problem. I tried to pick up the stone. I stopped smoking. I stopped to smoke.

stop + to infinitive iin durmak

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12. ADJECTIVES (Sfatlar)


12.1. Definitive, Comparative and Superlative Forms Of Adjectives 12.1.1. Regular One or Two Syllable Adjectives Long Short Heavy Old Weak Strong Longer Shorter Heavier Older Weaker Stronger The Longest The Shortest The Heaviest The Oldest The Weakest The Strongest

12.1.2. Regular Multi Syllable Adjectives Beautiful Important Eccentric Tiring Tired Boring Bored 12.1.3. Irregular Adjectives Good Bad Much Little 12.2. Comparisons 1. as.............. as 2. more .......... than I am as old as you are. He is twice as old as she is. I am older than you are. I am more important than you are. I am better than you are. 3. The most.... among (in) He is the best runner among students. She is the most beautiful girl in town. (... in the world) Better Worse More Less The Best The Worst The Most The Least More Beautiful More Important More Eccentric More Tiring More Tired More Boring More Bored The Most Beautiful The Most Important The Most Eccentric The Most Tiring The Most Tired The Most Boring The Most Bored

20 The sun is one million times as big as the Mars is. The population of Erzurum is about twice as much as that of Kars . The statue of Atatrk in Erzurum is twice as big as the one in Kars. Ahmet spends half as much money as Mehmet does. There are more than twice as many people in the world now as there were 25 years ago. There are as many students in Erzurum as there are people in Kars. I have studied for as many years as you have lived. I am not as tired as you are: I am not tired as much as you are. A is 100 times richer than B. A is as tall as B. A is not as tall as B. A is not so tall as B. I am as generous as you are miser.

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13. ADVERBS (Zarflar9)


13.1. Adverbs of Manner (Hal Zarflar) Slowly Quickly Well Badly Altogether Separately Generally Particularly Deliberately Accidentally Naturally Artificially Similarly Conversely Apparently Certainly Evidently Obviously Presumably Fortunately Especially Actually Mostly Personally Undoubtedly Clearly Surely Definitely Positively Yavaa Hzlca Iyice Ktce Birlikte Ayrca Genellikle zellikle Kasden Kazaen Doal Olarak Yapay Olarak Ayn ekilde Tersine Olarak Grn Olarak Muhakkak Grne Gre Ak Olarak Farazi Olarak Iyiki zellikle Gerekten ounlukla ahsen phesiz Aka Emin Olarak Muhakkak Kesin Olarak Smoking kills slowly.

Zarflar, bir fiilin veya sfatn anlamn belirten veya kuvvetlendiren kelimelerdir

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13.2. Adverbs of Time (Zaman Zarflar)


Now Then Earlier Later The day before yesterday The day after tomorrow Every third day All of a sudden A while ago A moment ago A little later Right now Right away At the beginning At the end Until now From now on From then on Sooner or later Eventually Lately Recently Soon Immediately In the meanwhile Every other day imdi O zaman, ondan sonar Daha nce Daha sonra nceki gn br gn gnde bir Aniden Biraz nce Biraz nce Biraz sonra Hemen imdi (nce) Hemen imdi (sonra) Balangta Sonunda Bu zamana kadar Bundan sonra (artk) Ondan sonra Er veya ge Sonunda (nihayet) Son zamanlarda Son zamanlarda Yakn zamanda Derhal Bu arada Gn ar It is time to go now.

He was here right now. He will be here right away.

13.3. Adverbs of Place (Yer Zarflar)


Here There Burada, buras, buraya Orada, oras, oraya He is here. It is here. Come here.

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13.4. Adverbs of Frequency (Sklk Zarflar)*


Once Twice Three times All the time Always Frequently Occasionally Periodically Once in a while Rarely Once in a blue moon Repeatedly Continually Intermittently Bir kez Iki kez kez Her zaman Her zaman Sk sk Arada srada Periodik olarak Arada bir Nadiren ok nadir Mkerrer olarak Srekli olarak Kesintili olarak I went there once.

* (Sklk zarflar yardmc fiillerden sonra, asl fiillerden nce gelir) (I am always late)

13.5. Adverbs of Degree (Derece Zarflar)


Almost Nearly Quite Too Enough Extremely Only Just Hemen hemen Neredeyse Olduka Haddinden fazla Yeterli Ar ekilde Sadece Sadece It is almost completed.

13.6. Words with the Same Adjective and Adverb Forms


Fast Late Hard Early Friendly Low Hzl Ge Sert Erken Dosta Dk Dont go too fast.

24

14. PREPOSITIONS (Edatlar10)


In Out On Off At Over Under In front of At the back of At the bottom of On the top of Around Across Against Along Among After Before Behind Below Between Beyond By Up Down From Into Near Opposite Outside Past Through
10

Iinde, iine Dnda, dna stnde, stne Uzanda, uzana De, da, e, a zerinde, zerine Altnda, altna nnde, nne Arkasnda, arkasna Dibinde stnde evresinde, evresine Karsnda, karsna Karsnda, karsna Boyunda, boyuna Arasnda, arasna (ikiden fazla ey) Sonra nce Arkasnda, arkasna Altnda, altna Arasnda, arasna (iki ey) tesinde, tesine Yannda, yanna Yukarda, yukarya Aada, aaya Den, dan Iine Yaknnda, yaknna Karsnda, karsna Dnda, dna Den teye Iinden, arasndan

It is in the box. Put it in your pocket.

Edatlar bir nesnenin dier bir nesneye gre konumunu belirten kelimelerdir.

25 Until, till To With Without E kadar E doru Ile Ile olmakszn

ABOVE OVER ON TO FROM

IN

OUT

THROUGH

INTO

OUT OF

BY

BELOW UNDER

A diagram of the most commonly used prepositions

26

15. CONJUNCTIONS (Balalar)


And Or But For Yet If Although (though) Notwithstanding Nevertheless Because Because of In spite of In stead of Due to Besides Except Like Likewise As Therefore However Whereas In fact As a matter of fact Not to mention the fact that In as much as Since About Ve Veya Fakat Iin, den dolay Henz, yine de Eer E ramen E ramen Yine de nk Den dolay E ramen Yerine Den dolay Zaten, ayrca, den baka Den baka, hari Gibi Ayn ekilde Gibi, ken (giderken) Bunun iin Buna ramen Halbuki Gerekte, nitekim Aslnda, zaten, nitekim Kald ki Madem ki, den dolay Madem ki, den dolay Hakknda = (pertaining to, regarding, with regard to in connection with, , related to pursuant to, in relation to) George and Jack go to bed at ten.

27

Either .......or

Ya ........ya da......

Either you or your friend will have to go there. Neither you nor your friend can pay for that. Both you and your girl friend were seen there. Not only you but also your friends are not wanted here. I dont know whether or not he is in Erzurum. She will have to go there Whether she wants it or not The more you study the higher grade you get. The more you work, the more you earn. The higher you go, the harder you fall

Neither.....nor

Ne ........ne de.......

Both ........and

Hem ....hem de......

Not only....but also

Yalnzca ...deil, fakat ayn zamanda .......da ..ip ........mediini ....se de .....mese de

Whether ....or

The more ....the more

Ne kadar ok .......... O kadar ok ............

Just as ......so

Nasl ki .......ise, ayni ekilde........

-Just as Kosovo is sacred land to the Serbs, so is Krajina to Croatians. -Just as Chechenia is an internal matter of Russia so is Karabag for Azerbeijan.

28

16. VERBALS (Fiil Kkenli Kelimeler)

16.1. Gerund (sim Fiil) 16.1.1. Present Swimming is a good exercise. I like swimming in a warm pool. She likes teaching tap dance. I can't stand waiting in lines. Being alone in a trip is boring. I like your speaking with an accent 16.1.2. Past Having been alone on that trip was boring. He denied having been late for work. 16.2. Infinitive (Mastar) 16.2.1. Present To exercise in the morning is good for health. I like to swim in heated pools. She has a lot of work to do. I felt the earth move. He saw him go into the building. 16.2.2. Past To have seen him doesn't mean much. It is unfortunate for him to have met her. I am sorry to have met you. I wish I had never met you. 16.3. Participle (Sfat ve Zarf Fiiller) 16.3.1. Adjective Participle (Sfat fiiller)

29 16.3.1.1. Present The movie is exciting. It is a very exciting movie indeed. People living in the country are lucky. The energy needed by all living things comes from the sun. The lecture was interesting and informing. 16.3.1.2 Past He is a retired teacher. (tired, disappointed etc.) The broken chair will be repaired. I will borrow the required money from the bank. I am excited. 16.3.2. Adverb Participle (Zarf Fiiller) 16.3.2.1. Zaman Bildiren Adverb Participle 16.3.2.1.1. Present Watching TV, he fell asleep (while...) Entering the room, I saw the burglar (while...) I saw him crossing the street (while) 16.3.2.1.2. Past Having watched the game he left the stadium (... after that.) Having finished his work, he went home (... after that..) 16.3.2.2. Sebep Bildiren Adverb Participle 16.3.2.2.1. Present Being very hungry, I ate a lot. (Because ...) Knowing him well, she did not believe him (Because...) 16.3.2.2.2. Past (Having been) Wrapped in a blanket, he didn't mind spending the night outside. (Because...) Having been very hungry, I had eaten a lot. Having received no letter from her for a long time, he was worried.

30

VERBALS

Gerund

Infinitive

Participle

Present

Past

Present

Past

Adjective

Adverb

Present

Past

Time

Cause

Present

Past

Present

Past

31

17. PREFIXES (n Ekler)


Aboard Abroad Archbishop Enrich Impossible Semiofficial Prehistoric Post election Vice-president : (Gemide, gemiye) Welcome aboard. : (Yurt dnda, yurt dna) I have not been abroad yet. : (Bapiskopos) Archbishop Makarios had been involved in politics. : (Zenginletirme) Protein can be used to enrich the flour. : (mkansz) When something is not possible it is impossible. : (Yar resmi) AA is a semiofficial news agency. : (Tarih ncesi) People did not know much in prehistoric times. : (Seim sonras) Post election politics has been quite complicated : (Bakan yardmcs) Vice-president Johnson had an heart attack.

18. SUFFIXES (Son Ekler)


Drinkable Kingdom Enriched Employed Childish Civilized Americanize Booklet Lakelet Payment Careful Careless Carefulness Carelessness Separately Naturally Personally Strong Smoke Simple : (ilebilir) This water is drinkable. : (Krallk) The United Kingdom is ruled by Elizabeth II. : (Zenginletirilmi) This food has been enriched by extra protein. : (i, mstahdem) The employees will strike to raise their wages. : (ocuka) It is childish to cry over simple things. : (Medeniletirilmi) The wild tribes are civilized now. : Amerikallatrmak : (Kitapk) That booklet consists of only 30 pages. : (Glck) Van is a lake but Kkekmece is a lakelet. : (deme) The size of the payment is determined by the purchase power. : (Dikkatli) You have to be careful when you cross the street. : (Dikkatsiz) He fell on the ice because he was careless. : (Dikkatlilik) That job requires complete carefulness. : (Dikkatsizlik) The accident happened as a result of carelessness. : (Ayr olarak) Place the pieces separately. : (Doal olarak) Naturally they will refuse the offer. : (Kiisel olarak) Personally, I hate cold weather. : gl : duman : basit Strength Smoky Simplify : g, kuvvet (sfattan isim) : Dumanl (isimden sfat) : Basitletirmek (sfattan fiil)

32

19. MISCELLANEOUS (Muhtelif)


Three lane highway Hundred page book The tea is too hot to drink The tea is hot enough to drink There is no body in the room The movie is not interesting, I would rather (I'd rather) watch TV tonight I had better (I'd better) start studying, or else I will flunk the exam. They talk to each other. They talk to one another. You can go whenever (or wherever) you want You can take whatever (or whichever) you want No matter what, I will go there Sooner or later I'm gonna get you They came here one after another They came here one at a time They came here one by one They came here in a group of two The more you study, the more you learn The more you work, the more you earn Did you happen to meet Mr. President I happened to be passing by the scene when the accident happened. You don't get into this, mind your own business: That is none of your business You have to take a taxi in order to get there in time (... so, as to ..., so as not to...) You have to study hard in order that (so that) you can learn English well Has what happened to you happened to them too Bu i seni ilgilendirmez. Oraya zamannda varabilmek iin taksi ile gitmen gerekir. ngilizceyi iyi renebilmen iin Senin bana gelen onlarn bana da geldi mi? eritli karayolu 100 sayfalk kitap ay iilmeyecek kadar scak ay iilebilecek kadar scak There is not any body in the room televizyon seyretmeyi tercih ederim. almaya balasam iyi olur. Yoksa snavda akarm. (2 persons) (More than 2 persons) Her ne zaman istersen Her ne istersen Ne olursa olsun... Er veya ge Onlar buraya birbiri peine geldiler. Onlar buraya birer birer geldiler. Onlar buraya birer birer geldiler. Onlar buraya ikier ikier geldiler. Ne kadar ok alrsan o kadar ok Ne kadar ok alrsan o kadar ok Hi (tesadfen) bakanla karlatnz m Kaza olduunda oradan tesadfen geiyordum. Bu ie karma. Kendi iine bak.

33 Open the door. Please open the door (open the door please). Will you please open the door? Would you please open the door? Would you be so kind as to open the door please? The cars were travelling bumper to bumper. Put the boxes one on top of the other to save room (on top of one another) The workers put the rails end to end and welded them. The fishermen laid the fish side by side in the market. If it weren't for the umbrella, we would get wet. If it had not been for you, I would not have been able to go there. Had it not been for you, she would have died. (Inversion) Should one day you come here, please stop by my office. Should I hear from him, I will let you know. Did you use to go there? No. I didn't use to go there. Let us (me, him, her, it, , them) go. Shall we? Let's stay here. Let's not stay here. Shall we go? This is the first time I have seen such a thing. If you had not been a stupid, you would not have listened to the same thing every Sunday. You cant have seen him yesterday, he was with me all day. Someone came here, didn't they? I am a doctor, aren't I? I heard him sing. I heard him singing. You can't go there until you have finished your work. Don't stick your neck out. He suggested that I see the doctor. To arrive in Istanbul. To arrive at the airport. To arrive on the scene. We will take turns. Whose turn is it? It is my turn. Sit at the table. Hold it tight, so that you won't fall He held it tight so that he wouldn't fall

34 It is made of gold. It is made from (out of) packing cases. To fall in (out of) love with sb. Would you honorable MPS come to order please? To take a chance: to take a risk. To give a chance: to give an opportunity. Ski slopes in Erzurum are steeper than those in Sarkam. The population of Erzurum is twice as much as that of Kars. On behalf of : adna In behalf of : yararna 20 % of the students who passed the exams are girls. Half of those that were sent there were donkeys. I saw Ahmet go to school. (Action completed) I saw Ahmet going to school. (The action may not have been completed.) You have to be a little bit crazy to keep your sanity. Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut afterwards. Don't bite the hand that feeds you. May god give you twice as much as what you want for me! Every body must account for his actions. There are two sides to a coin. There are more to things than meets the eye. There is nothing to it. Every criminal must stand trial, and get a fair trial.

Odds and Ends - to rank first - to put someone to shame - council of Higher Education ICBMs, airborne bombers, submarine based missiles a duplicate copy of important documents special thanks are due to those who... his philosophy is moderation in everything Jack of all trades, but master of none Dont let this chance slip away. boil, grill, bake, fry, pots and pans, garnish extant X extinct poker, bridge, black jack, chess, backgammon

35 heart, club, spade, diamond citius, altius, fortius wrestling, boxing, running, high-jumping, long-jumping, skating, skiing, swimming, diving, riding, hammer-throwing, discus-throwing, javelin, tennis, ping-pong, pole-vaulting, golf, football, voleyball, basketball, soccer, etc. Five Pillars of Islam: praying, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, confirmation of faith. (the sixth one, they say, is knowing your boundries) Mental Abilities : Intelligence, memory, perception, reasoning, orientation, willpower stability, attention, sensitivity. Acrophobia: fear of height. Acrobat: acts in the heights. To pass (fail, flunk) the test To stand the test of time. To chant nursery rhymes. At ease, attention, fire. Open shed barns Honest to God : Vallahi Duplication, multiplication, replication, reproduction. Liberty, equality, fraternity. Dilemma: A difficult situation. Paradox: strange but true. Enigma: Muamma, esrar, ifre To be vulnerable to pressure To take somebody at his word. The theory of Lambrazo on the nature of man On the spur of the moment. To tell a lie To lie ander a tree To lay a wreath, (a foundation stone and a L)

36 Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division 2+3=5 5-3 = 2 5 x 6 = 30 30 : 6 = 5 Two plus three equals five. Two plus three is five. Five minus three equals two. Five multiplied by six equals thirty. Five times six is thirty. Thirty divided by six equals five.

62: six squared 63: six to the third power a/b = c a.b = c X = X/N 6 and 36 a2 - b2 : (a+b) (a-b)

ax : a to the power x a-b : a to the power minus b. dividend / divider = quotient multiplied. multiplier = product X bar equals sum X over N (average) 6 is a factor of 36, 36 is a multiple of 6 (arpan ve kat) The difference of two squared numbers is the product of the sum and the difference of these numbers.

37 SECOND PART

IDIOMS

All the same As if As soon as possible At first At last At least To be about to To be familiar with To be in charge of To be interested in To be one's turn To be tired of To be used to To break down To break up (with) To bring up By the way To catch cold To catch fire To be fed up (with) To be fond (of) To be in need (of) To be out of question To be through (with) To beat about to bush To change one's mind To come across To come to an end To call for To catch up (with)

yine de sanki, imi gibi mmkn olan en ksa zamanda ilk nce nihayet en azndan zere olmak aina olmak sorumlu olmak ilgilenmek sras olmak bkmak alk olmak bozulmak bozumak ocuk yetitirmek sras gelmiken souk almak ate almak bkmak usanmak holanmak ihtiyac olmak sz konusu olmamak bitirmek, iliii kesmek laf uzatmak Fikrini deitirmek karlamak sona ermek gerektirmek yetimek

I was not invited to the conference, but I will attend all the same. He orders me to do things, as if he is my father. Please let me know the result as soon as possible. At first, I thought that he was a student At last, he was able to pay his debt. There were at least 500 people in the theatre. He was about to leave the room when I went there. I am familiar with that subject. He is in charge of this department. I am not interested in politics. Now it is your turn to wash the dishes. They are tired of uninvited guests. People in Erzurum are used to cold. My car broke down on the way. He broke up with his girl friend yesterday. He was brought up in a village. By the way, I had met him in Paris. Take your coat with you, otherwise you will catch cold. The forest caught fire in a dry hot day. I am fed up with all this nonsense. He is fond of Jane Fonda very much. The old man is in need of money and care. A general amnesty is out of question for the coming ten years. I am through with that research for this semester Please don't beat about (around) the bush, come to the point. Did you change your mind? We come across different types of people in the railway and bus stations. Sooner or later, this tragedy will come to an end. The project calls for a million dollar. Turkey has been trying to catch up with the

38 West for the past 100 years. He was charged with murder and robbery. She did away with all her old clothes. I will try do my best to accomplish it and save my face. He falls asleep right after he goes to bed. Ferhat had fallen in love with irin. I don't feel like drinking tonight. He feels sorry for the poor and gives them money. I'll find out where he was at that time. He will keep his mouth shut for the time being. You can not get anything for nothing. They cant get along well with each other. I hope you will get well soon. You have to get in touch with the manager. to get out of the house : evden kmak to get off the bus : arabadan inmek to wake up : uyanmak You will get used to it soon. Give me a call tonight. I wont give in any more. He gave up his plan to go to Sakarya Heads or tails? Heads you win, tails I win. I have nothing to do with it. in other words, he will not pay his debt. please keep in mind that ... Keep in touch with us even if you go far far away. He can't keep up with the rest of the group Please let me know if you run into him. The mother will look after the child. Don't make fun of me sir. He made up with his girl friend today. I will make up for the time I lost The students played a joke on the teacher. He made a lot of money in gambling. Don't make up your mind without consulting the consultant. Dont change your mind so often. Turkey can make use of coal for energy. Mind your own bussiness. Dont stick your nose into this matter. Resolve the matter once and for all.

To charged (with) To do away with (to get rid of) To do one's best To fall asleep To fall in love (with) To feel like To feel sorry (for) To find out For the time being For nothing To get along To get well To get in touch (with) To get in the house To get on the bus To get up To get used to To give a call To give in To give up Heads or tails To have nothing to do with something In other words To keep in mind To keep in touch (with) To keep up (with) To let someone know To look after To make fun (of) To make up (with) To make up (for) To play a joke (on) To make money To make up one's mind To change one's mind To make use of To mind one's own business Once and for all

ile itham etmek kurtulmak, bandan atmak elinden geleni yapmak uykuya dalmak ak olmak can istemek acmak anlamak imdilik bedava, karlksz geinmek iyilemek temasa gemek eve girmek arabaya binmek yataktan kalkmak almak telefon etmek taviz vermek vazgemek yaz tura Bir eyle ilgisi olmamak dier bir deyile aklda tutmak ilikiyi devam ettirmek ayak uydurmak birisine bildirmek bakmak (ocuk vs.) alay etmek barmak telafi etmek aka yapmak para kazanmak karar vermek karar deitirmek yararlanmak kendi iine bakmak kesin olarak

39 Out of curiosity Out of date Out of order To pay attention to To put out To put off To call off To put on weight To run into To see someone off To set fire to To shake hands To shut up To show up To slow down To stick to the point To take a bus To take a chance To take advantage of To take after To take a seat To take into account To take a break To take apart To take by surprise To take part in To take seriously To take sides To take someone for someone else To take up To turn someone down To wake up meraktan demode bozuk dikkat etmek sndrmek tehir etmek iptal etmek kilo almak rastlamak birisini uurlamak atee vermek el skmak sesini kesmek kagelmek yavalamak konuya bal kalmak otobse binmek i ansa brakmak istirmar etmek Birisine ekmek bir yere oturmak hesaba katmak ara vermek paralamak artmak katlmak ciddiye almak taraf tutmak birisini birisine benzetmek alkanlk edinmek birisini reddetmek uyanmak Just out of curiosity, how much money do you make in one month? Your shirts are out of date, keep them up to date. Don't turn the radio on. It is out of order. Pay attention to what I say. They put the fire out. They had to put off the show because of the bad weather. They called off the show for financial reasons. Some people put on weight fast, no matter what... He ran into his old friend in the street. The honor troop was present when they saw the president off. They set fire to the house on purpose. We shook hands when we broke up. If you don't have to talk, just shut up. He showed up one hour after the show. The car slowed down and pulled over. Do not beat about the bush, come and stick to the point. You must take a bus or a taxi. Study hard. Dont take a chance. Do not take advantage of his innocence. Who did he take after? He took after his good for nothing uncle. He asked me to take a seat when I entered the room. The teacher should have taken the conditions in his family into account. We took a break after we studied an hour. They took the car apart to repair it. That news took me by surprise. I would like to take a part in the research. Don't take to the movies too seriously. A president should not take sides on political matters. They often take me for my brother. I gave up smoking but took up chewing gum. Dont take up a harmfull habit. The girl turned the boy down when he asked her for a date. I try to wake up early in the morning.

40

41

VOCABULARY
Just as keys are attached to rings, the words should be attached to sentences to prevent them from being lost. English Words English Logic When the English tongue we speak, Why is break not rhymed with freak? Will you tell me why it's true? We say sew, but likewise few And the maker of the verse Can not cap his horse with worse? Beard sounds not the same as heard Cord is different from word Cow is cow, but low is low; Shoe is never rhymed with foe. Think of hose and dose and lose, And of goose and yet of choose. Think of comb and tomb and bomb, Doll and roll, and home and some, And since pay is rhymed with say. Why not paid with said, I pray? We have blood and food and good; Mould is not pronounced like could. Wherefore done, but gone and lone? Is there any reason known? And in short, it seems to me, Sound and letters disagree.

42

Homophones Aisle (Ayl) Be (Bi) Break (Breyk) Die (Day) Cell (Sel) Doe (Do) Hair (Heyr) Flour (Flawr Heal (Hiil) Idol (Aydl) Mail (Meyl) Our (Avr) Straight (Streyt) Tail (Teyl) Fair Baby bottle (nipple) Long distance call Business suit Pants (slacks) Parka Shoestring Intermission Meat grinder Raisins Antenna Closet Faucet Scotch tape Fender Baggage Lost and found Make reservation Subway Zero Koridor Olmak Krmak lmek Hcre Dii Geyik Sa Un Iyilemek Put Posta Bizim Doru (Dz Hat) Kuyruk Doru Adil Teat Trunk call Lounge suit Trousers Onarak Shoelace Interval Mincer Sultanas Arial Cupboard Tap Cellotape Mud quard Luggage Lost property Book Under ground Naught Isle Bee Brake Dye Sell Dough Hare Flower Heel Idle Male Hour Strait Tale Fare Ada Ar Fren Boya Satmak Hamur Tavan iek Topuk Bo, Aylak Erkek Saat Boaz (anakkale) Masal cret (Bilet v.b.)

American English

English English
Biberon

Turkish
ehirleraras telefon Resmi elbise Pantolon Mont Ayakkab ba Ara (sinemada) Kyma makinas Kimi Anten Dolap Muslk effaf bant amurluk Bavul Kayp eya brosu Yer ayrtmak Metro Sfr

43

Agricultural Words and Terms


General Agriculture: Tarm Horticulture:Baclk, Bahecilik Viticulture: zmclk Apiculture: Arclk Cultivate: Ilemek Plow: Srmek, Pulluk Sow: Ekmek Plant: Dikmek Mow: Bimek Reap: Bimek Harvest: Hasat etmek Trash: Dvmek Wilt: Sararma Thin: Seyreltme Hoe: apalama Irrigate: Sulama Sprinkler: Yamurlama Barn: Samanlk Furrow: Kark Fallow: Nadas To Leave Fallow: Nadasa brakma Winnow: Savurmak Store: Depolamak Germinate: imlenme Emerge: kma Flower: iek, iek ama Mature : Olgun, Olgunlama Bran: Kepek Stable: Ahr Stem: Gvde (aa) Branch: Dal Bark: Kabuk Stalk: Gvde (sap) Seedling : Fide Fingerling: Yavru balk Rotation: Mnavebe Smut: Srme Forage Crops: Yem bitkileri Fodder Crops: Yem Bit. Cover Crops: rt bitkileri Bovine : Bykba hayvan Ovine: Kkba Hayvan Leaf: Yaprak Awn: Klk Bud: Tomurcuk Field Crops: Tarla bitkileri Cash Crops: Gelir bitkileri Subsistence Crops: Geimlik rnler Grain Crops: Daneliler Cereal Crops: Hububat Root Crops: Kk bitkileri Industrial Crops: End. bit. Oil Crops: Ya bitkileri Fiber Crops: Lif bitkileri Poultry: Kmes hayvan Feed: Hayvan yemi Trough: Kurun (Su kaplar) Saddle Animals: Binek h. Draft Animals: eki h. Flora: Tabii Bitki varl Fauna:Tabii Hayvan varl Farm Manure: iftlik gbresi Beef: Sr eti Mutton: Koyun eti

Plants
Grains: Hububatlar Barley: Arpa Wheat: Buday Corn: Msr Rye: avdar Millet: Dar Lentils: Mercimek Oat: Yulaf Awned Wheat: Klkl b. Rice: Pirin Weed: Yabanc ot

Industrial crops

44 Cotton: Pamuk Hemp: Kenevir Tobacco: Ttn Sugar Beet: eker pancar Flax: Keten, Jute: Kendir

Fruits:
Apple: Elma Pear: Armut Peach: eftali

Meyveler
Cherry Pip: Kiraz ekirdei Grape: zm Grapefruit: Greyfurt Date: Hurma Fig: Incir Melon : Kavun Watermelon: Karpuz Strawberry: ilek Mulberry: Dut Pineapple: Ananas Orange: Portakal Tangerine: Mandalina Lemon: Limon Quince : Ayva

Apricot: Kays Plum: Erik Cherry: Kiraz Pip: ekirdek

Vegetables: Sebzeler
Tomato: Domates Pepper: Biber Egg Plant: Patlcan Cucumber: Salatalk Lettuce: Marul Carrot: Havu Potato: Patates Onion: Soan Garlic: Sarmsak Bean: Fasulye Melon: Kavun Squash: Kabak (Dolmalk) Pumpkin: Kabak (Bal) Cauliflower: Karnabahar Cabbage: Lahana Mushroom: Mantar

Nuts: Kuruyemiler
Chestnut: Kestane Walnut: Ceviz Peanut : Fstk Coconut: Hindistan Cevizi Almond: Badem Cashew: Cashew Fst Pistachio: Antep Fst

Fodder crops: Yem Bitkileri


Alfalfa: Yonca Seinfoin: Korunga Vetch: Fi (Kspe) Clover : gl Grass: imen Crushed Straw: Saman

Flowers: iekler
Rose: Gl Tulip: Lale Jasmine: Yasemin Carnation: Karanfil Violet: Meneke Lily: Zambak Daisy: Papatya Lavender: Lavanta

Trees: Aalar

45 Willow Poplar: Kavak Oak: Mee Hazelnut: Fndk Pine: am Division : Blm : St Maple: Akaaa Palm Tree: Palmiye Herbicide:Yabanc Ot Ilac Pea: Bezelye Chick-Pea: Nohut Class: Snf Okra: Bamya Spinach: Ispanak Celery : Kereviz Parsley: Maydanoz Leek: Prasa Family: Familya

Animals and Insects Bovine: Bykba Hayvanlar


Cow: Inek Ox: kz Calf: Dana Bull: Boa Buffalo: Manda Pig: Domuz Camel: Deve

Ovine: Kkba Hayvanlar


Sheep: Koyun Eve: Koyun Ram: Ko Lamb: Kuzu Goat: Kei Buch: Teke Doe: Kei (Dii), Dii Geyik

Poultry: Kmes Hayvancl


Chicken: Tavuk Hen: Tavuk Rooster: Horoz Turkey: Hindi Goose: Kaz Duck: rdek Duckling: rdek yavrusu

Saddle Animals: Binek Hayvanlar


Horse: At Stallion: Aygr Mare: Ksrak Donkey:Eek Mule: Katr

Domestic Animals
Dog: Kpek Bitch: Kanck

: Ev Hayvanlar
Puppy: Guduk Cat: Kedi Kitten: K.Yavrusu

46

Insects: Bcekler
Fly: Sinek Bee: Ar Mosquito: Sivrisinek Beetle: A. Bcei Insecticide:Bcek ldrc Butterfly: Kelebek Spider: rmcek Cockroach: Hamam b. Silkworm: Ipek bcei Locust: ekirge Genus: Cins Species: Tr Variety: eit Strain: Hat

Wild Animals and Others Land Animals: Kara Hayvanlar


Wolf: Kurt Fox: Tilki Bear: Ay Lion: Aslan Tiger: Kaplan Leopard: Leopar Monkey: Maymun Zebra: Zebra Giraffe: Zrafa Elephant: Fil Beaver: Kunduz Jackal: akal Rabbit: Tavan Rat: Tarla faresi Mouse: Ev faresi Bat: Yarasa Squirrel: Sincap

Sea Creatures: Deniz Yaratklar


Whale: Balina Shark: Kpek Bal Dolphin: Yunus Bal Trout: Alabalk Coral: Mercan Sponge: Snger Octopus: Ahtapot Mussel: Midye Shrimp: Karides Lobster: Istakos Crab: Yenge

Birds: Kular
Sea Gull: Mart Hawk: Atmaca Dove: Gvercin Falcon: ahin Canary: Kanarya Parrot: Papaan Crow: Karga Sparrow: Sere Pigeon: Gvercin Eagle: Kartal Stork: Leylek Crane: Leylek Peacock: Tavus Pheasant: Keklik Vulture: Akbaba Ostrich: Devekuu Owl: Bayku

Reptiles: Srngenler
Snake: Ylan Scorpion: Akrep Crocodile: Timsah Alligator: Timsah Turtle: Kaplumbaa Worm: Solucan Snail: Smkl bcek Frog: Kurbaa

47

Agricultural Implements
Fork: Dirgen Rake: Trmak Pick: Kazma Shovel: Krek Spade: Bel Krei Hoe: apa Combine Harvester: Bier Dver Hammer: eki Sickle: Orak Scythe: Trpan Cart: Araba Plow: Pulluk Roller: Merdane Potato Planter: P. Dikici Seed Drill: Mibzer Tractor: Traktr Trailer: Rmork Wheel Barrow: El arabas Harrow: Srg Discharrow: Diskaro

Household Tools
Scissors: Makas Tweezers: Cmbz Pliers: Pense Pincers Axe: Balta Chopper: Satr, Falata Lever: Levye Drill: Matkap Screw: Vida : Kerpeten Driver: Tornavida Bolt: Civata Nut: Somun Spanner: Somun anahtar Wrench: ng.Anahtar Saw: Testere Hacksaw: Demir testeresi Ripsaw: Aa testeresi Dust Pan: Fara Awl: Biz Strainer: Szge Funnel: Huni Bucket: Kova Nail: ivi Hammer: eki Brush: Fra Broom: Sprge Mop: Paspas

Parts of a Human Body


The Skeleton : skelet Skull: Kafatas Collar-Bone: Kprck k. Shoulder-Blade: Krek k. Breastbone: G Kemii Rib: Kaburga Kemii Backbone/Spine: Omurga Hip-Bone/: Kala Kemii/ Pelvis: Leen Kemii Kneecap: Dizkapa Kemii Hair: Sa Head: Ba/Kafa Neck: Boyun Throat: Boaz/Grtlak Shoulder: Omuz Chest: Gs Back: Srt Waist: Bel Wrist: Bilek Fist: Yumruk Hand: El Palm: Aya, Avu ii Thumb: Baparmak Finger: Parmak Nail: Trnak Leg: Bacak Thigh: Uyluk Knee: Diz Calf: Baldr Ankle: Ayak bilei Foot: Ayak Heel: Topuk Instep: Taban kemeri Sole: Ayak taban Toe: Ayak parma The Face: Yz Forehead/Brow: Aln Jaw: ene Kemii Mustache: Byk Beard: Sakal Tooth: Di Lip: Dudak Tongue: Dil Eye: Gz Eyeball: Gz yuvarla Eyebrow: Ka Eyelid: Gz kapa Eyelashes: Kirpikler Iris: Iris/Iris Tabakas Brain: Beyin Wind Pipe: Soluk borusu Heart: Kalp Yrek Lung: Akcier Liver: Karacier

48 Stomach/Tummy:Mide/Karn Hip: Kala Bottom/Buttocks: K/Kaba Armpit: Koltuk Alt Arm: Kol Upper Arm: st kol Forearm: nkol Elbow: Dirsek Eye: Gz Nose: Burun Ear: Kulak Mouth: Az Cheek: Yanak, Avurt Chin: ene Temple: akak Kidney: Bbrek Intestines: Barsaklar Bladder: Sidik torbas Vein: Toplardamar Artery: Atardamar Muscle: Kas/Adale Vessel: Damar

Automotive Words and Terms


Car: Araba Bus: Otobs Truck: Kamyon Bumper: Tampon Headlight: n Far Signal: Sinyal Fender: amurluk Hood: Motor kapa Windshield: n cam Wiper: Silecek Roof: st Kaporta Trunk: Bagaj Wheel: Tekerlek Tire: Lastik Rear view mirror: Arkay gr aynas Steering Wheel: Direksiyon simidi To sound horn: Korna almak Gear: Vites Clutch: Debriyaj Brake: Firen Accelerator: Gaz Fan: Pervane Fan Belt: Pervane kay Starter: Mar Spark Plug: Buji Distributor: Distribitr Carburetor: Karbratr Dashboard: Konsol Glove Compartment: Torpido gz Front Seat: n koltuk Back Seat: Arka koltuk Seat Belt: Kemer Horn: Korna To Blow Horn: Korna almak Spare Tire: Yedek Lastik Jack: Kriko Lever: Levye Towing Rope: ekme halat Extinguisher: Yangn sn. Fuel Tank: Depo Pot Hole: Kasis To Start: altrmak To Speed Up: Hzlanmak To Swerve: Dir. Krmak Flat Tire: Patlak Lastik To Slow down : Yavalamak
To Pull Over: Kenara ekmek

To Stop: Durmak To Repair the flat tire: Lastik tamir etmek A Dent On The Fender: amurlukta bir knt

49

Military Terms
Private Corporal Sergeant Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant colonel Colonel General One Star general Two Star general Three Star general Four Star general Marshal Chief of staff Army Navy Airforce Infantry Er Onba avu Temen stemen Yzba Binba Yarbay Albay General Tu general Tm general Kor general Or general Mareal Genel kurmay ba. Kara kuvvetleri Deniz kuvvetleri Hava kuvvetleri Piyade Artillery Cavalry Tank units Military engineering Communication Units Cease- Fire Armistice Machine gun Bullet Artillery round Missile Nuclear warhead Gun powder Combat Booby trap Armored vehicles Trench Front line Topu Svari Tank stihkam Muhabere Ate Kes Mtareke Makinal tfek Tabanca mermisi Top mermisi Fze Nkleer balk Barut atma Bubi tuza Zrhl aralar Siper Sava hatt

Latin Words and Abbreviations


De facto De jure Phenomenon Phenomena Fait accompli (Or) Vice Versa Vis-A-Vis As Per Datum Data Thesis Theses In Reality In Law Event Events Accomplished Fact Conversely Faceto Face, Compared to In Accordance with Information (Sin.) Information (Pl.) Thesis Theses Fiili Durum Yasal Olarak Durum Olay Olaylar Emri Vaki, Oldu Bitti (Veya) Tersi Yz Yze, E Gre E Uygun Olarak. Veri Veriler Tez Tezler

50 Per Se Per Capita Ad Hoc In Vivo In Vitro Sine Quo Non Ceterus Paribus I.E. (Id Est) E.G. (Exempli Gratia) Etc. (Et Cetera) Et al. Ibid ( Ibidem) C.V. Quid Pro Quo Erratum Errata Criterion Criteria Bona Fide In (By) itself Per Head Specific In living thing Out of living thing Essential Other things being equal That Is For Example And so on And others In the book cited above Curriculum Vitae Something for something Error Errors Criterion Criteria Made in good faith Bizatihi Kii Bana zel Canl iinde Canl dnda Olmazsa olmaz Dier artlar sabit kaldnda Yani Mesela Vesaire Ve dierleri Y.A.G.E. zgemi Ksasa ksas Hata Hatalar lt ltler Iyi niyetle yaplm

Uni, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca.

Onomatopoeic Words (Tabiat sesleri taklidi kelimeler)


Bark: Havlama Meow: Miyavlama Hee Haw: Anrma Quack: Vak Vak Roar: Kkreme Weigh: Kineme Blah-Blah: Drdr Burb: Geirme Sneeze: Haprma Hush: H! Hum: Mrldanma (ark) Mrmr: Mrldanma (Sz) Purr: Mrldanma (Kedi) Snore: Horlama Piss: Ieme Cough: ksrme Crack: atrt Crackle: trt Crash: arpma Splash: Suya arpma Knock: Kapy Vurma Clap: Alk Sesi Chop: Odun Krma Chip: Kutuya Para Atma Moan: Inleme Crisp: Gevrek Bomb: Bomba lamak Snap: Ipin Kopmas Hick-Up: Hkrmak

51

A Poem

Come, come again. Whatever you are come again. Be you an idol or fire worshipper or an atheist Come again. Our way is not the way of hopelessness; Even if you have broken your oath or penitence a hundred times, Come again, Mevlana

Another Poem Whatever you wish for yourself, wish the same for the others. That is the assence of four Books, and the words of the fathers.

Yunus Emre