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Digitized by the Internet Archive


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http://www.archive.org/details/costoffoodstudyiOOrichrich

WORKS OF ELLEN

H.

RICHARDS
New York

PUBLISHED BY

JOHN WILEY & SONS


43-45 East Nineteenth Street,
Conservation by Sanitation. Air and Water Supply; Disposal of Waste, (Including a Laboratory Guide for Sanitary Engineers.] Illustrated. Cloth, $2. 5U. 8vo, xii+ 305 pages. Laboratory Notes on Industrial Water Analysis: A

The

Survey Course for Engfineers. 8vo, 52 pages. Cloth, 50c net. Cost of Cleanness. 12mo, V + 109 pages. Cloth. $1.00.
$1.00.

The Cost

of Living: as Modified by Sanitary Science. Third Edition, Revised. 12mo. 164 pages. Cloth.

Air, Water, and Foodi From a Sanitary Standpoint. By Ellen H. Richards and Aipheus G. Woodman, Assistant Professor of Food Analysis, Massachusetts Third Edition, Revised Institute of Technology. and Enlarged. 8vo. 278 pages. Cloth. $2.00. Food Study in Dietaries. A Cost of The 12mo. 161 pages. Cloth. $1.00.
:

The Dietary Computer. By Ellen H. Richards,


istry,

Instructor in Sanitary ChemMassachusetts Institute of Technology, assisted $1.50 net. Pamphlet separately, $1.00 net. The Cost of Shelter. 12mo. vi + 136 pages. Illustrated. Cloth. $1.00.

by Louise Harding Williams.

Cost of Living: " Series.


Living. 2. Cost of Food. 1. Cost of 4. Cost of Cleanness. 12mo. Shelter. $4.00. vols, in a box.
3.

Cloth.

Cost of 4

Published by

WHITCOMB & BARROWS


158

Huntington Chambers

The Chemistry of

Cooking: and Cleaning:. By Ellen H. Richards and S. Maria Elliott. pages. Cloth. $1.00. Food Materials and their Adulterations. 183 pages. Cloth. $1.00.

Home Sanitation.
Revised Edition. Edited by Ellen H. Richards and Marion Talbot. 85 pages. Paper. 25c. Plain Words about Food.

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$1.00.

Leaflets.

Illustrated.

176 pages.

First Lessons on Food Diet.

52 pages.

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The Art

of Right-Living:.

60c net. 50 pages. Cloth. Sanitation in Daily Life. 82 pages. Cloth. 65c. net.

THE COST OF FOOD


A STUDY
IN DIETARIES.

BY

ELLEN

H.

RICHARDS,

Instructor in Sanitary Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

SECOND EDITION.
TOTAL ISSUE^ FOUR THOUSAND.

NEW YORK JOHN Wn.EY & SONS. London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited.
1913

/\ -V

v.-

"KS

Copyright, 190T,

BY

ELLEN

H.

RICHARDS.

THE SCIENTIFIC PRESS


ROBERT DRUMMOND AND COMPANY

BROOKLYN,

N. Y.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

In reply

to

the

many

questions

asked, the

author

wishes to state here that because the cost of the accus-

tomed food of the average family has increased since


the

book was

written,

and because the price of board

in

restaurant

and boarding-house has increased


it

thirty per

cent or more,
in

does not follow that


the
great variety

all

food has so risen


of

value.

From

and abundance

food materials ofiFered to-day the purchaser


sufficient

may

choose

and nourishing food, which need not

cost

more

than the prices given here.


materials
to

But

it

may

not be just those

which the palate has been accustomed.


is
it

Certain foods have gone out of fashion, corn meal


very
little,

used
out-

although in digestibility and palatability

ranks most of the prepared cereals sold for ten times as

much

per pound.
is

The morning cream


inexpensive.

a costly viand, but sugar

is still

Butter

may be had

at a very little if
it

any

advance.
as

It will

not be

"gilt edge," but

will

be just

wholesome and

nutritious.

Olive

oil

may be found

260872

IV

PREFACE TO THE SECOND ED.ITION


j

at the Italian

shops and
less

many

other foods

may be

pur-

chased of the Therefore

known

dealers.

it is

pretty certain that the cost of nutrition

has not advanced so


for.

much

as the current opinion calls


it

It is true,

however, that

requires time

and

atten-

tion

and a modification
and

of one's tastes to secure this


is

nutrition,

this modification
is

the most distasteful

exercise the ordinary person

called

upon

to undergo.
is

Perhaps the most instructive comparison

that of

the cost of food at Valparaiso, Indiana, given on pages

128-130,

of

this

volume, from data obtained by the


It

author during a personal inspection in 1892.


then $1.40 a week and

was

room

at 25 cents.

Mr. George
costs

Kennan
at

in

McClure
fifty

for

March, 1908, gives the


This
is

$1.88 and
the

cents for room.

in accord
factors,

with
table

general

trend

of

things.

External

linen, service,

decoration,

lights,

furnishings

in

short, the refinements of living

have increased the cost

of living, often doubling

it,

and

just so far as these factors

come

into play in the serving of food they increase the

cost of board, but not necessarily the cost of the

raw

material which

is

used.

It is advisable to

add a certain amount

of this cost

for the sake of refined living, but there is

a limit to which

the efiiciency of the individual


tion.

is

increased by this addi-

There

is

nothing in the discussion of costs which the

author wishes to *'take back," and certain conclusions

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


are only confirmed
servation.

V
and obneeded,

by seven

years' experience
is still

The

study enjoined on page 13


at the

and the question


nent.

bottom of page 68

is still perti-

Some

recent books are listed at the end of the

Bibliography.
Boston, March, 1908.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER
I.

PAGE

Food a

Necessity Knowledge of Food-values a Present-day Necessity Kind, Quality, and Cgst


I

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

VIII.
IX.

X, XI.

of Food Food for the Infant Food for the School-child Food for the Active Youth Food for the Youth at College and for the Brainworker Food for the Traveller and Professional Person Food for those ^n Penal and Pauper Institutions Food for the Person in a Hospital Food for Middle Life and for Old Age General Principles governing Dietaries Dietaries costing Ten to Fifteen Cents per Day per

15

29

37
45
52

60
70

84 go
98
iii

XII.
XIII.

XIV.

XV.
XVI.

Person Twenty-five Cents per Day per Person Forty to Fifty Cents per Day per Person Sixty Cents per Day per Person The Dietary Computer Food for Incipient Tuberculosis

134 138
'

143 151 155

Glossary of Terms Used. Bibliography, Selected Recent Books on Food and Nutrition Index
vii

159 163
165

THE COST OF FOOD

FOOD A NECESSITY. KNOWLEDGE OF FOODVALUES A PRESENT-DAY NECESSITY


"The physiological principle of the preparation of summed up in the postulate that it shall produce the
efficiency in the individual

food

is

highest

and the race."

^Thudichum.
all life,

The

food-supply

is

the controlling factor in

vegetable, animal, or human.


able food
is

In proportion as suit-

abundant, so thrives the living thing beit

cause of the ease with which

satisfies its appetite.


is

In the case of

human food

this ease

expressed in

terms of money.
little

Abundance means comparatively


article, so that
it

cost of

any

may be

easily ob-

tained by numbers of people.


of

Therefore

in

presence

abundant food-supply prosperous communities are

found.

The

plant must
its

by the presence of
forest

grow at the spot indicated The animal may range food.


it.

and plain

in search of

Early

man

did the

same, and peoples grew strong where space for pas-

Tlilv.GQST
fertility of soil

OF FOOD

turage or

gave opportunity for herds

and crops.
Nineteenth-century man, by his development of

means
all

of quick transportation

of foodstuffs from

quarters of the globe to any desired spot, has


entirely that the small cost
its

changed the problem so


of

any food material no longer depends upon


situ

production in

by the community which


its

is

to con-

sume
pared

it,

but only upon


flour
is

transportable character.
it

Wheat
kept
in

cheap simply because

can be pre-

in quantity

on the spot where


Fresh

it

is

grown, and

storage or carried around the world without


fruits are

appreciable deterioration.

dear be-

cause they will not endure this handling and storage.

They must be
for cost
is

desiccated or preserved.
it is

This reason

so often overlooked that


it

worth while

to emphasize

at the outset.

The

errors in buying

food-supplies have their root in the mistaken notion


that whatever
is
is is

obtained at small relative expense


unclean; that the use of such food

common and
a

mark
food

of plebeian tastes

and leads to very low

mental development.
of
''

As

a matter of fact the cost


of
its

is

no
is

measure

nutritive

value.

Cheap

" food

that which has required

little

cap-

ital

or labor to produce.
itself

Formerly each race adapted

to

its

environ-

ment and trained


the available diet.

its

digestion in accordance with

In great measure the races of

FOOD A NECESSITY
earlier

ages were modified by the possibilities of food

in the lands to

which they migrated.

The

influence

of food

upon character has yet to be adequately

studied and discussed.

In America to-day, the situation which confronts


us,
is

whether working man, student, or millionaire,

not

how

to get food enough, but

how

to choose
will

from the bewildering variety offered that which


best develop the powers of the

human being and


of greater impor-

make him tance, how


in

efficient,

and, what

is

to avoid that

tempting variety, indulgence


fibre

which weakens the moral

and lessens mental


as
it

as well as physical efficiency.

So long

is

the
is

popular belief that brilliancy of mind or position


chiefly

due to luxurious food, served with the

dis-

guises of the chefs art, so long will the aspiring politician

and novel-writer change from one boardingin search of variety,

house to another
will

and children

continue to

demand

the luxuries of the table un-

rebuked.
In spite of
all

preaching, few really believe that

plain living goes with high thinking.

Most, either

consciously
versatility

or

unconsciously,

attribute

American
of

and success to the richness and variety

food so easily obtained.


tarian has

Neither moralist nor saniincrease of

begun

to ask whether the

crime, of insanity, of certain forms of disease, of

moral recklessness,

is

not attributable to the

debili-

THE COST OF FOOD

tating effects of the food set before us, to the lower-

ing of ideals of living so well exemplified in the details


of the fashionable table.

In the case of plants, the importance of nutrition


to the organism has long been recognized.

The
fur-

gardener produces

leaf

or blossom at

will,

and even

changes color and form, by the substances he


nishes to the

growing

plant.

has

The American farmer and wage-earner thinks he made a great advance when he can say, " We keep

help

now and my

wife and daughter can

sit

in rock-

ing-chairs and read novels,'' but with the leisure and

lack of interesting occupations

comes the habit

of

nibbling sweets with the novels, the perverted taste


in

food as well as literature. The


less

girls

have more food

and

work than

is

good

for them, with the logical


fail.

biological result that grandchildren

It is

not

over-education but over-nutrition which threatens


race extinction.

To quote

Prof. Patten

:*

"Formerly
the overfed

the underfed failed to survive;

now
is

it is

among whom
ideal of health

the elimination
is

taking place.

The

to obtain complete nutrition. Over-

nutrition, as well as

under-nutrition,
to evils that

weakens the

body and subjects


of survival.

it

The plethora
to eat

of food

make it incapable now enjoyed intheir systems

duces

men

and drink more than

can stand.
* "

Must we look among women


of English

for the

Development

Thought," pp. 379-387^

FOOD A NECESSITY
best examples of over-feeding?

... It is said that all female animals become barren when overfed. Cheap food and a sugar diet, therefore, make the conditions out of which the thought movement of
. .

the present epoch will proceed."

Man

has a wide range of

activities,

and because he
is

does not see the separate result of any one, he not sensitive to
its

effect.
it

Man,

also,

has great

adaptabiHty, and abuses

by too sudden changes.


fundamental race
in-

Desire for food


stincts,

is

one

of the

and

in pre-scientific
itself

days was supposed to


circumstances.

take care of

under

all

Even
if

now
said

it is

usually

assumed to be a

safe guide in food

not in drink.
*
:

distinguished physician has recently

" This for

splendid instinct

appetiteso
in

necessary
times

our existence

especially

early

has
life.

now more

than ever to meet with sudden modifica-

tions resulting

from the complexity

of

modern
in this

While primarily responsible


eration, both in quantity

for the discovery of in-

numerable aliments, the very abundance

gen-

and

variety,

is

embarrassing,

and we

find the results of unnecessary

and

artificial

stimulation in the unnatural desires for food.

The
all

lack of attention as to the appropriateness of food


subjects not only the digestive apparatus but
cells of

the

the individual organism to distress and not


* Dr.

Charles G. Stockton.

*'

Hygiene,"

THE COST OF FOOD


In this matter the problem
to train the appetite into

infrequently to disease.
to be solved
is,

first,

how

natural and
live so that

wholesome
by means

paths, and, second,

how

to

of proper physical, mental,

and

moral activity there may be successfully oxidized


the kind and quantity of nutriment required in nor-

mal
the

life,

and that there may be successfully discharged


that
result

waste products
. .

from

the

oxida-

tion.
''

It is

unsafe to trust the individual to the guidthis

ance of the appetite alone, for the reason that


instinct

was

built

up

for

a condition

of existence

very different from that which enables the people of


this

country to indulge themselves to-day."


true that appetite can be educated, diit is still

It is also
'

rected, like any other habit, but

common

superstition that likings for food are inborn traits.


It

seems to be most

difificult

to inculcate the prin-

ciples of right living in the face of this superstition,

especially in the face of the intense individualization

so widely taught

namely, that each person


all

is

a law

unto himself.

Respect for natural laws, obedience


living orresult,

to the fixed principles which govern

ganisms
is

in

order that freedom of activity

may

most unwelcome teaching.

The bearing
living

of this
is

attitude
evident.

upon

habits of Hfe
effort

and cost of

very
is

Every

to inculcate saner ideals

met with

scofifing,

with unproven assertions, and

FOOD A

xi-x:essity

with a demand for freedom and unrestrained choice


as a mark, of

American Hberty.

Men

have yet to

learn

that

''

independence cannot with safety be

made
liefs

to apply to their relations with nature."

Scientific sociology

must take account


and a controlling
definite

of these be-

and tendencies and inaugurate a

series of studies

of existing conditions

series of ex-

periments before
reached.

any

conclusion

can

be

The following suggestions


desirable.

are given for

the purpose of indicating lines in which such studies

and experiments are


It is freely

acknowledged that many

of the state-

ments have no
foundation
in

basis of mathematical proof

only a

observation of years and of a someof conditions.


If

what wide range


tifically

they can be scienBut,


if

refuted, well

and good.

they are

true, thoughtful young-

men and women


it is

will
late.

do well

to take heed to their

ways before

too

Cost of food

is

a result of several factors.


of potatoes or corn

Seed

a bushel
for

withdrawn

from consumption;

Rent

ground to grow the plant or graze


renew the productive power of

the animal;
Fertilizer to

the

soil;

Labor

to plough, plant, cultivate, gather; or

to feed, water, and keep clean the animal;

Machinerv

utensils, wear,

and tear;

THE COST OF FOOD


Interest
Plant.

on

capital

invested

building

and

Waste due

to rainy or dry seasons, to disease

of both plant

and animal;

Preparation for market; mismanagement of


raiser,

packer, transporter, distributer

Inevitable loss in dressing for the table, un-

eatable parts;
Indigestible portions, natural or produced by

cooking, which must yet be paid for

Preparation for the table; cost


time,

in labor

and and

and waste

in digestion, natural

due to wrong choice.


If

once the public can disabuse


''

its

mind

of

any

idea of close connection between


cost

food value " and


is

namely,

that a cheap food


is

a poor food,

that a dear food

good food

then a beginning

in scientific dietaries

can be made. The cost of a food

depends upon how many of these factors enter into


its

history before

it is

placed on the table.

Pudding

costs

more than oat-meal mush because


necessary for the preparation

of the greater length of time required in preparation

because skilled labor

is

and transportation of the ingredients.

The

excessive cost of board to-day

is

due to many

other things besides the cost of raw materials. When a man pays $io a week for '* table-board " he pays
for fragile china, neat

aprons and caps for the maid.

FOOD A NECESSITY
time Oi the cook
etc.,

in garnishing, choice of dishes, etc.,

so that the

raw material he consumes forms


not only

barely one-third the total cost.

The

cost of food

is

its

money
it

cost,

it is

the cost to the body to appropriate


considered.

which must be

Man
his

is

an adaptable animal, but he often abuses


for
its

power by asking

use too often and by

making too sudden changes.


most diverse kinds
or the hardest water,
it,

He

can

live

on the

of food as he can drink the softest


if

he has been brought up to

but sudden changes are apt to be disastrous.

A man

treats his

stomach as

if

it

were a thing

apart from himself

an

inanimate machine and a

very simple one at that, not Hkely to get out of repair.

Engineers

know how

to get the best

work
it

out of their engines, and they have learned that

pays to take care of the machine.


apparatus
is

Man's digestive

more

delicate

and complicated than any


it

machine, and yet he treats


lect,

with indifference, negruns


it

and even contempt.


it,

He

without trying

to understand
if it

and blames everything but himself

gives out.

In pioneer days circumstances were

the stern teachers of wisdom, but


to indulgence are

now
if

temptations
at

on every street-corner and

every family table.


of cast iron, as
if

Men go on
will

by mere

made power they could make


as

they were

poisons into food.

lO

THE COST OF FOOD

To

a watcher of events

it is

maddening to see the

crowd rushing on to destruction, not seeing the


precipice and not believing any warnings, attributing

the disappearance of friend after friend to any but

the right cause.

When
say,

man

drops dead in the street his friends


at high pressure; he

Oh, he has been Hving

has had

many

business cares; he has tried to do too


that

much; he
say,
his eating.

inherited

tendency.

They never

He was

so careless or foolish or foolhardy in

The

family physician does not dare to

prescribe diet, he
ject;

knows

it is

a too

unwelcome subpart of

he can only send the

man away from

the temptation on a sea-voyage.

There are none so bHnd as those who


their eyes,
blind.

wilfully shut

and

in all

food matters
will

we

are wilfully

The day

of

reckoning

come, however.
mental as well as

In the interest of the race, of


physical

its

development, there

is

no subject which on human progwere an alterna-

should occupy the attention of educators comparable


with that of food and
ress.
If,

its

influence

as in

some other

things, there

tive, it

would not so much matter, but nature has not

provided a substitute for food.


its

Nothing can take


and right food
is

place.

It is

a condition of

life,

an essential of

efficient living.
fact,
it

This being an indisputable

seems strange

FOOD A NECESSITY
that
cles;
all

M
educational
cirall

discussion of
still

it is

tabooed
is it

in

and

more strange

that teachers, of

persons, are the most careless and reckless in matters of diet.

The very people who would

profit

most

by right habits of living seem most oblivious of the


fundamental principles.
It is therefore

hopeless to expect to impress the

pupils through the teachers, hence outside influence

must be brought to bear on both.


should

Naturally

it

come through

the parents, the mother chiefly,

while the children are young, but the father

who

mingles with his fellows and sees more of

life

should

watch

for his share in the general


lines.

training along

progressive
It

has become too

much
them

the fashion to allow

children a greater range of electives in food than in


studies,

to set before

bewildering variety
a

and applaud
choice.

rather than

disapprove

whimsical

So much has been done


thinking for themselves.
the daily paper,
it

in the

way

of popularizing

knowledge that persons are not


If

willing- to

do any

new word appears in must be explained by a synonym


a
If

of easy comprehension.

a scientific fact
in

is

an-

nounced,
currency.

it

must be couched

terms of every-day

Mental laziness has come to be a


teristic

distinct charac-

of the

mass

of the people

who have been

12

THE COST OF FOOD

taught facts or supposed facts without having had to


think for themselves.
the subject of food
is

Hence

it

happens that when

broached and such terms as

proteid, carbohydrates,
repellent, rebellious

and metabolism are used, a


is felt

mood
it

sweeping over the

audience.

Indeed,

is

often voiced in the request


tell in

to use every-day language, to

plain terms

what

these things are.

This

is

often impossible; at least

it

would mean oc-

cupying time and space

in definition so that

none

would be

left

for discussion.

In the glossary, pages

151-4, will be found a vocabulary for the benefit of

those

who

are willing to take the trouble to learn

it.

These few chapters do not form a compendium of


knowledge.

wide acquaintance with generally ac-

cepted 'facts and a certain groundwork of the funda-

mental sciences, such as chemistry, physics, and


physiology,
student.
If
is

assumed to be the preparation of the


bacteriology, physiological chemistry,
also in a

and theoretical chemistry are


his possession, so

measure
attempt

in
is

much

the better.

No

made

to give a popular treatise so

upon
of

a subject re-

quiring

much
is

concentration

attention

and

systematic study.
large
field

Only a small section

of a very
will

prepared for the seed which


it

be

dropped into
tific

from time to time from current

scien-

periodicals

and reports.
will

Some

of the seeds will

prove to be weeds, and

be pulled up and thrown

FOOD A NECESSITY
away, but the ground
will

be kept in condition to
it is

grow

the

good grain

as fast as

found.

The scientific attitude of mind, namely, to suspend


judgment while the
ing,
is

little

plant of knowledge

is

grow-

important.
until
it

Neither accept nor throw away


itself

an idea

has proved

weed or a good food


is still

for further growth.


in its infancy.

The

science of nutrition

A
fines:

study of food

may

be divided into three chief

1st.

Food substances or

stufifs

and

their office in

the body;

Food materials in which the foodstuffs occur; 3d. The relative cost of the right amount of the foodstuffs when derived from the various food ma2d.
terials.

The aim

of the present study

is

the 3d, which

is,

however, influenced not only by the kind of food, but

by the preparation and combination to which

it

is

subjected outside the body, and by the mental and


physical condition of the

body receiving the

pre-

pared food.

Some

future writer will be able to

com-

bine results of these three studies into a

handbook

which may be followed.


public
If
''

Neither the cook nor the

is

yet ready for


is

this.

food

that which builds


its

up the body and


or
if
'*

furnishes energy for that

activities/'

food

is

um

of foreign substances

which taken within

14

THE COST OF FOOD


it

the organism enables


in the plant, to

to

grow and

perfect seed

grow and manifest


in man,''

activity in the

animal, to grow, to manifest activity, and to think

thoughts new and old

it

behooves us to

learn something about these substances which the

organism

uses.

Among

other sources of informa-

tion the reader will find the data he needs in Bulletin

No.

28,

U.

S.

Department

Agriculture,"^

and Diet

"

by Hutchison.
titles.

and in *'Food The bibliography on page


in recent

155 furnishes other

These sources have been available only


years, so

that

it

is

not strange that middle-aged

housewives are not familiar with the technical terms


used.

The younger women, however, should


even the arithmetic of dietaries becomes
ing,

see to
full

it

that

of

mean-

and that a respect

for the value

of properly

selected and prepared food should be inculcated with

the children's other lessons.


* Atwater,

W. C, and Woods,
Washington

C. D.,

Chemical

Composition of
Stations, Bulletin

American Food Materials. U.


No.
28, latest edition.

S. Office of
:

Experiment

Government.

5 cents.
:

Richards, E. H.,

The Dietary Computer.

New York

John Wiley

&

Sons.

$i.5o

ft^^>

II

FOOD FOR THE INFANT


enactment in France prohibits the giving of any form food to infants under one year of age without the auHogan. thority of a prescription from a qualified medical man."
"

legal

of solid

One way
for

to determine
is

what substances are food


which
This
the

mankind

to find out the composition of the

natural foods.

For

instance, of milk,

is

universal food of the

young mammal.
adult.
I

will pre-

pare the

way

for the study of the food of other

animals, both

young and

TABLE
HUMAN
MILK.
Water,
per cent.

Nitrogenous
Substances,

200 Analyses.

per cent.

Mineral Fat, Sugar, Salts, per cent. per cent. per cent.

Minimum Maximum
Average
cow's MILK, 800 Analyses.

81.09 qi.40
87.41

.69

4.70 2.29

1.43 6.83 3.78

3.88 8.34 6.21

12

1.90
31

Minimum

80. 32

Maximum
Average

90.69
87. 17

2.07 6.40
5-55

1.67 6.47 3.69

2. II 6. 12

35
1. 21

4.88

.71

We
is,

find milk to consist of

87 per cent water, that


the other 13 per

the substances which

make up

cent are diluted and are not in a concentrated form.

We

find four classes of substances:


15

l6
1st.

THE COST OF FOOD

2d.

Fats
Sugar

Nitrogenous, or albumen, casein,


*'

etc.;

butter-fats,''

composed

of

many

kinds

of fatty acids
tile,

and glycerine, some soluble and vola-

others not-

the so-called
salts,

fixed fatty acids;

3d.

milk-sugar,

one of the many sugars

known
4th.

in nature;

Mineral

such as calcium phosphate

and sodium and potassium chlorides and certain


gaseous elements.

The
in

first

and fourth

classes exist for the

most part
in sus-

combination with each other; the second

pension

a so-called emulsion
alone,

the third probably in

simple solution.

Since the young animal can

live,
it is

and grow well

to-

ward maturity on milk


the exception of
air,

evident that, with


the elements of

here are

all

animal nutrition.

we examine any animal organism fish, worm, insect, or the human body, we find the same substances, and none which cannot come under Therefore we may assume that these general heads.
If

the thousand materials used as food must contain

these

same substances

in

varying proportion.
are

The tables of food composition made out in terms of these classes.


learn the

therefore

F6air words to
of intelligent

meaning

of,

and yet hundreds


Truly

persons turn away from any book on food where


these words meet the eye!

we

are a lazv

people

when

it

comes to

intelligent effort.

FOOD FOR THE INFANT

\J

To make

it

as easy as possible,

we

will

begin with

the food of the infant.


the average, 6.5
is

At

birth the child weighs,


(boy).

on

lbs. (girl), 7.3

Its first effort

to breathe in the air that gives the needful


it

oxygen
for.
its

for the transformation of the food

next cries

Upon
in

this

food (of which

it

takes one-seventh
it

weight daily) and inhaled

air

gains an ounce a day


activity.

weight and finds energy for constant

As
of

activity increases the gain in


half

weight lessens, and one

ounce per day


first

is

a fair average.

At the end

the

year thirteen or more pounds have been

added.

At maturity the muscle increase has been

50-fold, that of the skeleton 25-fold, that of the total

body weight

18-fold.

The composition
at birth,
is:

of the

body

now, compared with that

RELATIVE BODY COMPOSITION At Birth.


Skeleton
16

Grown Man.
16

Muscles
Fatty tissue

2Z
14 31

42
10

Other

tissue

47

During
40

this first year, the child


lbs.) of

has taken some-

thing like 500 quarts (1,000


lbs.

milk containing
sugar, or 130

proteid, 46" lbs. fat,

and 50

lbs.

lbs. of
little

food, to giye 13 lbs. in weight.

This gives a

idea of the office of food in the body; of


is

much
little

used up in mere

living, in

motion, and

how how

goes to body
is still

tissue.

Thisi increase of actual

substance

further cut
is

down by

the fact that

part of this weight

water, although not so great a

THE COST OF FOOD


is

proportion as

the case in later

life,

when bones
of the infant,

and brain have

practically ceased growing.

There
save that
the
first

is
it

little
is

to

add on the food

safest to "keep to the natural diet for

year as closely as possible.

As
foods.

the child grows, substitutes are found in other

Starch replaces part

of the

sugar;

meat

tissue, part of the casein;


fats,

vegetable

oils

and animal

part of the milk-fat; while the mineral salts are


in all materials.

found

In the second year


the
is,

some

solid food

is

added, but

same

relative composition

must be kept.
proteid or
all

That
starch

the solid food must not be


all

all

or

sugar.
in the

The
little

proteid from animal sources

may be

given
fish,

form of eggs, yolk preferred, chicken,


mutton, and from vegetable sources

a very

in

oat-meal and whole-wheat, or in some of the patent


lentil

preparations which are what they seem, and in


or pea flour used for thickening broths.

The starchy

food

may

be of

rice,

potatoes, macaroni, the cereals

carefully chosen,

and rusks, pulled bread, or Zwie-

back.

Sugar
for

is

now

almost universally advocated as food

young
of

children, not as

amusement between

meals,

but as part of the dietary and counted as such.

A
If,

pound

candy yields as many heat-units or calories


its

as a child of fourteen needs in

whole day.

however, the child

satisfies

its

appetite with this

. .

FOOD FOR THE INFANT


candy,
terial
it

19

defrauds

its

body

of the " building "


lacks,

ma-

which the candy totally

and

of the fat

which seems equally necessary.


" Butter vs. Jam.")

(See Hutchison,

Of the 10
of sugar.

oz. of

carbohydrate
oz.

which a child

of fourteen requires,

perhaps 4
is

may be

in the

form

This

the quantity

of milk-sugar

which a child
if

of three or four years

would absorb
Cane-sugar
is,

its

diet

were

of niilk exclusively.
di-

however, more disturbing to the

gestion and should, therefore, not be held as innocu-

ous as milk-sugar.
This allowable amount of 3 or 4
ever,
oz. should,

how-

form part
will

of regular

meals or of a definite
in the discussion of

luncheon, as

be indicated

the

school luncheon.

The following
food:

table,

compiled by Ufifelman,

will

indicate the slow variation required in the child's

TABLE
Age.
Proteid,

II*
Fat,

Carbohydrates,

Grams.

Grams.
3536. 38.

Calories.

Grams.

1/2 years.. years.


.

3
5

years

42.5 45.5 59
53,

100

no
120
135 145
I .SO
1

4 years

41-5
43

years 8 to 9 years. 12 to 13 years


14 to 15 years.

56. 60. 72

44.
:

47.

245

79

48
_

270
j

909.7 972.4 1050.4 II56.8 1224.0 1270.0 1736.8 1877.3

Hutchison,

p.

453.

Schroeder, Archiv.

fiir

Hygiene, IV,

39, 1886.

20

THE COST OF FOOD


In the child's diet there
is i

part of proteid to 4.5

of fat
ratio

and carbohydrate.
is
i

In that of the adult the

to 5.5 parts.
is i

In the child's diet there

part of fat to 3.7 cari

bohydrate.

In that of the adult


is

to 1.6 parts.

The

child

more

active

in

proportion to his

weight than the adult, and therefore needs a larger


proportion of calories in his food.

His body also

presents nearly three times the surface in proportion


to his weight,

and therefore loses more heat, an ad-

ditional reason for

more heat-producing

food.

TABLE

III

A GENERAL STATEMENT
Body
Weight,
Kilos.

Age,
Years.

Total

Dry
Substance,

Nitrogenous,

Food,

Fat,

Carbohydrates,

Grams.

Grams.

Grams.

Grams.

Grams.

Girl, 4 Boy, 6 Girl, 9 V *4

13.3 18.0 22.7

1203 1560 1660

197 311 328

44.8 63.7 61.3 78.0

41.5 45.8 47.0 43-3

102.7 197-3 207.7


281 .0

As an

illustration

may be

taken the food of a child

of four or six.

The following

list

(Table VI) should furnish variety

enough, since great care must be taken to form


habits of eating plain food, without condiments or
stimulants, in order that
full

bodily and mental de-

velopment

may

take place.

Less variety

is

needed

FOOD FOR THE INFANT


by a well-trained
child than

21

by an

adult.

cretion in diet in these formative years


in

An may

indis-

result

atrophy of some

cells,

wrong tendencies
bud

in others,

and permanent nerve displacements,


prick in the undeveloped

just as a pin-

will leave a scar

which

shows during the

life

of the tree.

The

child has not

the reserve store of the adult and cannot go with-

out food

safely

for

any considerable time.

The
irri-

digestive organs are excessively delicate, easily


tated;

therefore hard, coarse,

dry foods are pro-

hibited; also spices, condiments,


tants.
It is also

and

all

nerve-irri-

true that a taste for highly spiced food,

for sweets, etc.,

may man
;

be fixed by a very Httle unwise

indulgence, especially since habit rather than instinct

guides civilized
first

in the choice of food.

It is

the

taste that costs:

no sane mother would give her


its curi-

child cofifee or

wine why should she yield to


rich gravies?

osity
child

and give spiced foods and


is

If

the

not taught to be whimsical and fickle

in ap-

petite,

he

will rarely

food. Alas, he usually

make any remarks about his hears too much for and against
his ship

food,

and as the parrot's vocabulary betrays


child's fancies

companions, so the

betray his parents

and nurse.
It
is,

on

all

accounts, best to adhere to a simple,


is

well cooked, nutritious diet until the child

fifteen

or

sixteen;

then

the

digestive

organs

will

have

22

THE COST OF FOOD


full

gained their
years

strength, and for the next twenty

may be trusted with anything in reason. As has been said, milk is the universal food of young mammal, furnishing that which is needed
growth and
repair, for muscle, bone,

the
for

and

tissue,

and
in

also, in its sugar, the heat

form of energy used


active.

keeping the body

warm and
in the

The young chick


which
is

egg

finds as its food that

needed

for all but activity.


is

Since

its

op-

portunity for motion


develops,

very slight,

it

simply grows,
that

makes blood and bone and muscle, so


its shell

the chick steps forth from

a perfect animal
eat,

strong enough to stand, with wit enough to

but

requiring at once corn-meal to furnish the starch


for the activity

which the young

mammal

derives

from the sugar

in the milk.
is

Since the egg

so nearly a complete food, and


it

so easily transformed into animal tissues,


to study
its

is

well

composition and to compare

it

with milk,

meat, and

fish:

TABLE
Foodstu.
Water, percent.

IV
Nitrog.

Substances
per cent.

Fat, percent,

Food yalue
per
lb. in

Cal^

Whole egg, without Yolkofegg


White "

shell 73.7

12.5
16.1

12.1

742

51.0
85.5
.
.

3i.4(Konig)i623
.25 1.4

12.9
12.8
13.7

250
295

Young
Fowl

chicken, broiler

43.7
47.1

12.3
7'3

775

Beef, round, lean Dressed halibut salmon

40.9 61.9
48.1

19.5
15.3

^7

44
8.1

13.8

47 600

FOOJ) FOR

THE INFANT

2$

The growing

chick, before activity begins, needs

12% N., 10% fat, and in addition 1% One egg-shell equals 40 grams. It is mineral salts. Oxygen possible that part of this is used as needed. for the metabolism of the egg contents must come in

74%

water,

through the

shell.

It is clear

that the

egg contents

are not sufficient for the activity of the chick, since


its

appetite at once develops for cornmeal as well

as for grubs; neither are they dilute

enough

to fur-

nish water for evaporation and for that general tissue

exchange which motion

of

body

increases.
is

Water,

being the heat regulator of the body, being


in

constantly

lost

and hence must be supplied

in the

food
exist-

greater

amount than

is

needed

for

mere

ence.
in

We

learn, then, that

eggs are not

sufficient

themselves for the active


water, too

child.

They contain too

little

much

nitrogen, but

we

also learn
for
es-

that

they must contain the right

proportion

body building, and therefore are a valuable food,


pecially

when

there

is

demand
growing

for just this kind

of sustenance, as after fever; in cases of nerve ex-

haustion, as well as for

children.

As

in

milk, the substances found in eggs

do

not exist

by

themselves, but in combination one with another or


several in a

more or

less loose

connection.

Thus the

sulphur and phosphorus seem to be in close association with the fat in the

form

of lecithin.

It

is

barely possible that this group

may

be utilized with

24
less

THE COST OF FOOD


expenditure of .energy than some other forms of
;

matter for nerve building and nutrition


limited

only

amount can be
it is

assimilated in a given time,

therefore

not to be supposed that a diet of eggs

can be used to force brain development, certainly not

beyond a very small


various meats and
fact that flesh
is

limit.

Th,e foods nearest in composition to eggs are the


fish,

as

is

to be expected

from the
contents.

formed

in the

tgg from

its

Meats, however,

differ in that

they contain the prod-

ucts of the decomposition due to muscular activity, to breaking


also are

down of tissue, such as urea, and they more or less rich in the tough collagen or
cells in

connective tissue which holds the bundles of

place and serves as ropes or straps to join muscle to

the framework of bone.


terstitial

The

fat of

muscle, both in-

and enveloping, lacks the high mineral con-

tent of the egg-fat combination, the latter occurring

only in

marrow and

brain to any degree, so that fat of


fat of

meat

is

not a perfect substitute for

egg.

The
to the
ing.

various cuts of meat differ largely in regard

amount

of

fat,

both

interstitial

and envelop-

Fish, as a rule, has less

fat,

and

in

products of de-

composition ranges with white meats, such as breast


of chicken, and veal.
It is

evident that lean meat does not burnish

suffifat

cient heat-units for

normal human

life,

that verv

FOOD FOR THE INFANT


meat must be eaten
well
fat,

2$
It is

to bring

up the

calories.

known

that the child, as a rule, has a distaste for

therefore a leaf

may

be taken from the diet-book

of the chick

and starchy foods be added as soon as


This must not be

milk ceases to be the sole food.

done

until

the child's digestive juices are able to


is

transform starch into an assimilable sugar, which


at

about the ninth month.


is

Even then

a limited

amount only
Since the

given until the second year.


of the child
it

mucous membrane
and

is

of a

most

delicate

easily irritated texture,

is

un-

wise to give acids or foods which produce acids on

decomposition, or to give food which has


fibre or

woody
is

any indigestible substance

until greater vigor

of digestion appears.

Therefore the oatmeal


jelly,''

bet-

ter strained, " oatmeal


ley pearled.
If

and the wheat and barand eggs are given,

abundance

of milk

white bread and rice


of the former
is

may

serve, but

where the

cost

too great, the necessary mineral salts

must come from whole wheat, oatmeal, peameal


soup, strained.
It is

unsafe to use any cereal food which happens

to be put
cereals are

upon the market with the idea


ahke
digestible.

that

all

Experiments on

chil-

dren are costly.

The reader is advised to study the diet of the infant and young child as to quantity and quality, to become perfectly familiar with the composition of these

26

THE COST OF FOOD

twenty foods, Table VI, and with the combination of

them

into suitable menus.


child's

The
too
is

food

still

contains

much
if

water, that in
is

the form of ripe

fruits,

soups, and milk

better than

much from
be easy to

the city tap

but

bread and butter

the staple, then

will

much water should be allowed. It make up a day's menu from Table VI


:

for a child of four to six, for instance

TABLE V
ONE day's menu
^.'"-<'-

I^
679 226
(1/2 lb.

Grams.

Su5[rc4S^ ^ '^-r Grails ^*


q,^^^
88.8

Grams
22.3
20.3

Grams.

1/2 pint milk

27.1
3.6

33.9
119.

1/2
1/8

pound bread pound dry rice

147

cooked) 4 ounces orange 2 ounces egg 1/2 ounce butter

56.6

49
41.7
19.5
12

4.5
.1

.1

44.7
9.7

114
56.6 14

.1

7.3
.1

5.3
11.

At average
If

prices, this

would cost

12 to 13 cents.

the reader wishes to


this sort of

work,

become familiar with problem, worked out in a

dietary
variety

of costs for

two

different ages with the substances


will

given in Table VI,


tion.

serve as an excellent introduc-

For books on
pages

children's diet,

from the medical

standpoint, consult the bibHography.

For a

diet of

low

cost, see

6i to 65, " Children in Institu63.

tions.''

On

soup instead of milk, see page


is

The young mother

advised to keep closely to the

simple diet of very few foods and, as was said earlier,

! 1

3 5

FOOD FOR THE INFANT

27

TABLE

VI

APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMON FOOD MATERIALS


S

= u
u>

u u
u
3.

^
a.

(J

u
1.8

Apples
Barley (pearled) Beef (round) Beef juice (as p u rchased) Beef juice (as it should'
I
'

25
I

61 5 10 .8

1.8

56

42.2
86
1

64 2
93 88

4-5 32.2
2.7

352

255 1660 650


115

22.2
31
II

be) Bouillon andconsomme.

127
1.8
55

96
35 4
II

Bread (white)
Butter

Cheese
pale)

(American
31 6

43.1 4-5

44 385
164.2
5

239.5

1205

3504 2060 325 910


285 645 1705 1620 325 905 i860 465 325 1189 1635 1685 1685

Chicken

34.8

Cream Cream soup


Eggs (whole) Eggs (yolli) Lentil meal
Milk (whole)
10.5

48 74
87.

4
5

66 49
87

130-6 67 84 23.5 59-4 73.5


14.9 67.5 70 3-2
1

20.4
14.5 43-1
151

25

10. 73 115.

8.7
18.

260 22.7
308
76.

Mutton (leg) Oatmeal


Peas (green) Potatoes Prunes (dried)
Raisins Rice

18

51 4 7. 2 74- 6

67.5
33

2.2
4

62
15

"

ID

19 14

8.6
II.

9
10. 4

Wheatlet

43 55.9

21.3 2.3 6.3

69 282 338. 363 340

not to give " tastes " of other foods; on no account


to permit the tasting of tea or coffee.
If

eggs and

cream seem to make the


that
of the

little

one's diet as costly as

grown-ups, remember that these few

years determine the child's future.

That an inflamed
irri-

stomach may mean

years of invalidism; that an

28
tated brain

THE COST OF FOOD

may mean

insanity later.
later.

spent

now

can well be saved

The money Above all remembad temper,


ani-

ber that a wrong diet means

irritability,

and general uncomfortableness.


mal
is

The healthy

happy animal.

As has been
fair

indicated above,

12 to 15 cents per day,

where food has to be puraverage for a child

chased at city rates, gives a


of four to six.

Where

only half that can be spent,


will suffer.

there

is

always danger that some organ

Well-cooked cornmeal and whole-wheat bread made


with
ter,

fat

must then take the place

of eggs, rice, but-

and cream.*
special
diets

For

consult

Dr.

Clement Dukes'

" School

Diet."

Ill

FOOD FOR THE CHILD AT SCHOOL


"Old men
youths bear
bear want of food best; then those that are adults;
it

least,

most

especially children,

and of them the

most

lively are the least capable of

enduring

it."

Hippocrates.

The

child

is

now

of school age

and goes from the

business of eating and sleeping and telling to his

companions the wonderful things he has found

out,

to that of studying things out of books and reciting


to others dull facts just as he has learned them.

He
of
life

passes from the freedom of play to the restraint


the
(if

desk
he
is

and

chair,

from constant out-door


to the

a fortunate child)

bad

air of

the school-room.

He

is
if

in great

danger of injury
is

from these causes even

his

food

adapted as peris

fectly as science permits.

But when that


kills.

wrong
food

there

is little

wonder that the pace


little
is

At twelve he needs only a


than at
six.

more

fat in his

Whether
is

this

because the growth of

brain and

marrow

now

very slow, or whether the

body

is

best served with the fat

made from

the carfat inis

bohydrates, or whether the presence of extra


terferes with

some process

it is

a fact, that less fat


29

30

THE COST OF FOOD

present in available form in the tissues, and therefore there


is

less

reserve force available.


carries several days' rations in his
fat so that
full
it

The grown man


tissues in the

form of

is

no matter of

consequence whether he gets


day.

meals on a given

No

organ
if

will suffer

by even three or four days'

abstinence

the

man

is

in

normal condition, but no


of visible or stored

young animal (note the absence


fat in veal, in

chicken broilers) carries

much

reserve,

hence the child


fast
cell

who goes
by atrophy,

to school without break-

becomes exhausted before noon and some brain-

may

suffer

or, in

order to save the


abstracted from
result.
in

precious legacy, nutrition

may be

muscles already formed and a stunted growth

The food

of the child at school

is

then second

importance only to that of the

infant,

and the parent


is

who
third

neglects this part of his child's bringing up

culpable and his sin will surely be visited upon the

and fourth generations.


is

This

not the place to go into an exhaustive


if

dis-

cussion of the food given at home, for


family table
is w^ell

the general

cared for there will be less danger

to the youth of high-school age


it

from what he

finds

on

than there

is

in the

noon luncheon.

At

this

period of change and unrest, flavor begins

to count for more, and greater pains should be taken to use such natural foods as contain possibilities of
flavor.

Asparagus, lettuce, celery,

etc.,

owe

their

FOOD FOR THE CHILD AT SCHOOL

popularity and efficiency not to their food values

reckoned

in calories or proteids

but to the stimulus

to the nerves given by the very small quantity of

sapid principles.

Used with

discretion, these are ad-

juncts worth the excessive price.

For a pound
is

of

food value
stead of
I

in this

form $1.00 to $2.00

often paid in-

to 2 cents for a

pound
is

of

wheat or corn.
excessive beefiforts

The

cost of

many

of these things
is

now

cause their real value

not appreciated, and

are not directed to producing and preparing them.

The
school

child

at

school needs

to

have temptation

to indiscriminate eating removed, because


life is

modern

exciting at best and the food should be

such as to quiet rather than excite.

The

lack of fresh

air should be considered in planning the food of the

child in the school-room, for such confinement

is

at

best unnatural.

What

modification of diet

may be

made to meet such conditions is not yet known. It may be found that it is in response to this artificial life that sugar is demanded by the modern child. Certain
it is

that sugar

may be
is

allowed

if

it

is

taken so as

not to interfere with the appetite for more substantial

food.

There

a real reason

why sugar and


must be

the

predigested foods should not form a large proportion of the diet.


All food, to be of use,
in a

condition to pass through the


digestive tract.

membranes

of the

Soluble substances are liable to pass


in

through too rapidly and

too great quantity for the


32

THE COST OF FOOD


tissues,

immediate need of the

and thus to clog the


soon there

capillaries or irritate the nerves, or give a sense of

sufficiency before
is

enough

is

really eaten;

a craving for more, and at


It is better

odd times.

where a considerable time elapses beless

tween meals to have a portion of the meal


diffusible.

quickly

Therefore,

supply
all

starch

rather

than
diffi-

sugar, bread rather than

meat, but not too

cultly digested food as fried

eggs and rich gravies

which require not only time but energy to make


available.

Child-study does not yet include a study of the influence of food

upon the mental

as well as physical
definite

growth,

it

nevertheless

may have more who


is

and

direct bearing than anything else.


is

Over-stimulation
properly fed; nerv-

impossible to the child

ous troubles are directly traceable to bad digestive


conditions.
It is

only in rare cases that, by accident

or malformation, nerves are so crowded or twisted


that the currents
arises
*'

short circuit."
tissues

Most

irritation
in-

from inflamed

due to products of

digestion.

These products are carried by the blood


is

to every part of the body; and that which


sensitive
is

most

most

affected.

The

child at school needs

a quality of food which will give a rich blood carry-

ing only those substances which the tissues can use,

not loaded with that which must be rejected.


effort to reject, a strain
is

In the

put upon some part which

FOOD FOR THE CHILD AT SCHOOL

33

becoming weakened, soon shows by inflammation or


by torpidity that
If
it is it is

not doing

its

work.
is

there
in the

is

any place where penury

dangerous

food of children at school, and especially in

the noon lunch of high-school children.


vailing

The
in

pre-

American habit

of

intemperance

eating

leads to such indulgence by the children that ten

cents a day

must be spent

at a lunch-counter to pro-

cure clean, well-prepared food which will satisfy the

average pupil.
for five cents, for three.

Just as

good food could be served


sufficient

and perfectly

might be given

This extravagance works injury to the

most deserving pupils

those
week

from families where


for each child
is

even twenty-five cents a

not

to be thought of aside from the family budget.

And

so because of this gross feeding of the class which

puts pleasure of the senses before future well-being,


the child of less fortunate parents,
a better brain,

who probably

has

must struggle through

his school years

without the
ficial.

warm luncheon which would


is

be so benedi-

Fortunately he sometimes has far better


able to secure from unpromising

gestion and

ma-

terials a sufficiency of nutrition.

The

necessity of attention to the food of school


is

children

becoming recognized, and school authorithe

ties are alive to


fires

wisdom

of providing fuel for the

they are kindling.


for

The school luncheon

high schools or any

34

THE COST OF FOOD

schools where children are prevented from going to


their

homes
said,

for a 12-0'clock

meal may

cost, as

we
a

have

from

five to ten cents, well served at


If it is

counter with the least paraphernalia.


in place

to serve

of the

noon meal,

as in

manual training

schools where the session lasts until 3 o'clock, then


the pupils should be served at tables with due regard
to neatness

and order, and with ample time


of service

for

two

courses.

The expense

may be
at a

lessened

by the pupils buying the served order

counter

and taking

it

themselves to the table which has been


Rightly managed this
final cost.
is

cleaned by a maid.
ful

success-

and reduces the

This kind of luncheon


cents.
It iieed

will cost

from ten to twenty

not cost more than eight to twelve,


is,

but taking the average American youth as he


higher cost only
will satisfy,

the

and

if

means allowed he
luncheon

would spend more.

A
may
air

few words as to the character of


not be amiss:
is

this

It

must be borne
in

in

mind that

the child

going back to study,


in

not too good

often

very bad

air.

Therefore not too

much

blood (energy) must be taken from the brain, and yet


circulation
is

to be

promoted so that

fresh blood

may

be brought to the brain-cells before they are too ex-

hausted to benefit by

it.

The mental

forces are to
is

be gently stimulated and not rendered torpid, as


the case

when

the child becomes sleepy.

FOOD FOR THE CHILD AT SCHOOL


For quickening the
fluid is best in
(if

35

circulation,

fluid

and warm
as milk or

many

cases,

such
Cold

as hot milk, soup


fluid,

not greasy) and cocoa.

fruit, is

often quite as acceptable.


fluid in the

Vigorous children can take the


water and the solid
in

form

of

the form of bread and butter

with or without meat, or in the form of crackers,

which appeal to children and,


to agree with

if

well masticated,

seem

them even

better than the excessively

yeasty bread so

common.
have
It

American children

will

not be satisfied without some sweet, and, right or

wrong, they

will

it.

may be an

effort to off-

set the unnatural conditions to

which they are sub-

jected, to furnish a quick-burning fuel,

one which can

be used at once and leave no ash behind, one which


while giving less energy also requires less energy to

convert into useful material.


for

In any case, the liking

sweets must be heeded and that form given which


the best; namely, fruit-sugars as far as
it

will serve

possible and milk-sugar as soon as


for ten cents per
raisins

can be bought

pound.

All dried fruits

dates, figs,

are most excellent food and should be freely


Gingerbread and cookies

furnished.

may be

used

for variety, but the

most

attractive viand

on account
will

of flavor, consistency, texture,

and temperature

be ice-cream.
terials

If

properly made, of the best macleanliness, this


is

and with absolute

a valu-

able food, high in actual value per pound.

In the

36

THE COST OF FOOD


days of spring and
fall it is

warm
the
will

most

refreshing,
for

and

quantity

which can be served

ten

cents

not appreciably lower the temperature of the


body, especially since he
is

child's

apt to

make

the

pleasure last as long as possible.


If
I

luncheon
fish

is

served at table, well-made Rash,

creamed

or chicken, well-made stews, eggs, cold


light

meats, baked apples, or

puddings may be
is

added.

For a noon luncheon when brain-work


after
it,

demanded

pastry, doughnuts, custards, etc.,

should be prohibited.

They demand too much ex-

penditure of energy by the body.

In winter a nut-cake
the robust ones

may

not be too hearty for

ing on the cake

who may be
afifect

demand strong food, even frostpermissible,


all
if

these rich and


at

sweet things are not eaten at


times so as to

intervening

the appetite.

This precious

remnant pi the
of care.

instincts of primitive

man

is

worthy
''

distinguished physician has said,


is

If life

in other respects

normal, this appetite

is

likely to

lead in the right direction.''

But

alas!

who

leads a

normal

life?

Certainly not the city child for

whom
peo-

we

find ourselves constantly planning.

Young

ple should not crave the constant stimulant of variety

and condiment.
bringing-up

Something
do.

is

wrong with

their

when they

IV-

FOOD FOR THE ACTIVE YOUTH


"

Food

is

the only source of

human power

to

work or

to

think."

For

the type of

young person

is

usually chosen

who may be fed on the compact, hearty food of camp life, provided it is savorily prepared, without so many kinds of dishes at one meal as the
the soldier
city clerk requires,
life,
is,

because his sauces are out-of-door


all

fresh

air,

something to do
field,

the time.

That

the soldier in the

the youth in the logging-

camp

or on the farm, keeps up the excess of activity


in childhood, only

begun

now

it is

applied to useful
is

and commercial ends.


up, food
is

So long

as activity

kept

demanded

in greater quantity
is

than at any

other time.

The purveyor

usually right

when he
not

charges for a young teamster double the board which


is

ample for a seamstress.

However, the cost

is

necessarily greater for a double


it

amount

of food since

may be

of less expensive materials than the smaller

quantity of

more

costly food

demanded by the whim37

sical appetite of

the sedentary person.

38

THK COST OF FOOD

When
service,

the youth

is

at college instead of at military

how

shall his

food be graded?
is

His

life is

one

of less activity

unless he
of food

on an

athletic

team

of

more mental
ample supply

exertion, which

we

believe requires an

although the mechanics of

thought seem to be more economically carried on


than the mechanics of motion.
In both cases ease of
to the

work depends
kind of
effort.

largely

upon accustomedness

In a six-day bicycle race the winner used 4770


calories

per day, while the contestant

who

failed
in the

on the fourth day used 4610 and the second

race 6095, which increase was evidently not put to

the best use in developing energy.

In vigorous youth a taste for

all

natural foods

should be cultivated and a power of digestion de-

veloped which shall stand him in good stead


life.

in after

It

is

his

one chance, and woe to parent or


it

teacher

who

destroys

and

inflicts life-long

misery.

This

is

no vision

of a disordered brain.

Take a

census of any thousand students in any State in the

Union and
before
find!

set apart those

whose appetite and diges-

tion are normal,

who could live on whatever was set them, and how small a company you would
for

hardly enough

one

table.

Most

instructive lessons

may be

learned from the


crews,

training table

of football teams, boat

and

FOOD FOR THE ACTIVE YOUTH


soldiers
cal

39

on the march

as to diet for excessive physiis

work.

We

find that the following

a fair state-

ment

of the results at hand:


Carbohy
drates.

Proteid,

_Fat,

Grams.

Grams. 177

Calories.

Grams.

Average

of 7 boat crews..

155 181
85

440
577

4085

One

football learn

292

5740

United States

Army

280

500

4944

The form
eat

in

which the food

is

served

is

to be that

to which the
it.

men

are accustomed, so that they will

The

soldier takes his ration of bread, bacon,

beans, or stewed

meat and

cofifee

without

''

frills

" of

strawberry shortcake, ice-cream or


a Harvard boat crew requires.

cofifee-jelly

which

The former

costs 15

to 20 cents, the latter 80 cents to $1.00 per day.


It will

be noticed that the increase

is

in all the fac-

tors,

not in any one, which fact adds weight to


is

the beHef that food

to be taken as a whole, not in

separate parts; that the body can select that which


it

needs and reject the

rest.

The increased

labor of

the athlete does not, however, always bring lasting


strength, for
strained.

some one organ


live

is

very apt to be over-

Few men

to a comfortable old age


in youth.
full

who have over-exerted themselves


It is

not necessary to quote dietaries in


life.

for this
w^hat

active

The

various

army

rations

show

may be done, and

the U. S.

Government

bulletins


40
give

THE COST OF FOOD

many

illustrations.

As
is

a transition from this

chapter to the next there

considered the cost of

food for the large number in the middle

West who
rest.

are

workers part of the year and students the

It is

not possible for them to have the delicate flavors and


great variety which are usually associated with a
student's table in the East.

The provider who cannot go above lo cents per pound for food value contents himself with cabbage
and onions, which serve the same purpose as
paragus and lettuce and,
well.
it

as-

would seem, equally

Observation of the habits of young people in

America, east and west, north and south, leads the


author to the conclusion that the use of sapid vegetables in a suitable
it
'"

way

is

very

much
I

neglected, that
like turnip,"

is

most unfortunate when "

do not

do not eat

squash,'' are heard at every tabl^, that

college students avoid green vegetables unless they

are disguised in soups or sauces.

There are many good ends served by these despised roots

and

leaves, not the least of

which

is

" stuffing," since the twentieth-century digestive tube


is

in

danger of growing up

contracting
many
if

to a string
sur-

for lack of distending material.

The absorbing
this

face

is

distributed over

times in extent the


surface
fluid
is

nominal area of the tube, and

crowded together instead

of distended

by

and

FOOD FOR THE ACTIVE YOUTH

fibrous mass, absorption cannot so readily take place,

even
It

if

inflammation does not

result.
is

has been said that fear of indigestible food


of

the

bugbear

modern

life.

We

might say that the

word

itself is

one of the most misused terms.

Most
Thus
hours

persons consider any substance which requires a

long time to go into solution indigestible.

smoked meats and legumes remain four or


in the
ess,

five

stomach undergoing a slow macerating procas completely utilized

and yet may be

by the body

in the

end as sweetbreads and rusks, which leave the


in
is

stomach
There

two or three hours.


far
less

danger from cellulose-bearing

vegetables than from fat-bearing sauces.


says,
''

Thudichum

Cooks should avoid introducing concealed


fat into dishes needlessly, as

forms of

they

may

preju-

dice physiological nutrition."

Several

educational

institutions

in

the

middle

West

are

known

to feed their students

on good and

sufficient

food even for brain-workers at sums vary-

ing from 14 to 15 cents per day per person.

The

students are for the most part country bred and they

come

to the school for a serious purpose, willing to


if

endure hardship
in itself,

need be for the sake of an end

but only a means to the end they seek.

One
fol-

such institution furnished the author with the

lowing

bill

of fare

which

will

serve as a sample.

Vegetables are raised either on the college farm or

42

THE COST OF FOOD


is

are purchased cheaply, which

a large part of the

secret both of the health of the students

and the

in-

expensiveness of the dietary:

APPROXIMATE BILL OF FARE


Mondays and Thursdays
Breakfast:

Warm

drink; cereals, oatmeal and Gra-

ham gems;
fish balls),

vegetables and meat (cod-

bread and butter.

Dinner:

Vegetables, mashed potatoes; meat, beefsteak with gravy; side dish, peas or

Lima beans;
bread.

dessert, apple pie, hot corn

Supper:

Bread and butter, Graham bread and


sirup, sauce (peaches),

doughnuts

(hot).

Tuesdays and Fridays


Breakfast:

Warm

drink; cereals, oatmeal and Gra;

ham gems
Dinner:

vegetables and meat

hash

bread and butter.

Soup; vegetables, baked potatoes; meat,


bacon, mutton or veal with gravy; dessert,

macaroni or canned tomatoes,

hot corn bread.

Supper

Biscuit

and

butter, white

and Graham

bread, sirup, sauce (apple), cheese.

FOOD FOR THE ACTIVE YOUTH

43

Wednesdays and Saturdays


Breakfast:

Warm

drink; cereals, oatmeal and Gra-

ham gems;
Dinner:

vegetables and meat; Irish

stew; bread and butter.

Vegetables, beans or peas; meat, pork


(with the vegetables); side dish, turnips,

greens or cabbage; dessert, pudtarts,

ding or
sirup.

Boston brown bread and

Supper:

Cold beans or peas, bread and butter,

Graham
cake.

bread, sauce

(berries),

plain

Sundays
Breakfast:

Warm
meat,

drink;

cereals,

fried

mush and

sirup (or eggs); vegetables, potatoes;


fish,

gravy; bread and butter.

Dinner:

Vegetables, potatoes; meat, roast meat

and gravy;

side

dish,

according

to

season; dessert, according to season;

hot corn bread.

Supper:

Bread and butter, Graham bread, plain


cake, sauce, cheese.

Accounts.
flour,
I

Endeavor
corn,
i lb.

to use as
-|

much

as 4|- lbs.
lb.

lb.

oats,

lb.

beans or peas, ^

skim-milk cheese, and 1-5

lb.

codfish per person, per

Use as much more can make acceptable.


week.

of these articles as

you

44

THE COST OF FOOD


Endeavor not to exceed 2^
lbs.
i

potatoes, |

lb.

butter, i

lb.

pork, 2J

lbs. beef,

lb.

sugar, 2 eggs

per person, per week.


Side dishes like peas and

Lima beans may be served

without extra plates or saucers.


Sirup once a day.
Several other schools are

known
is

to the writer

where a similar severe

restraint

put upon mere ap-

petite for the sake of gaining an education,

and hence

the confidence with which the assertion on page 41


is

made.

There

is

no intention of recommending so limited


it

a dietary in every case, but


certain cases to
to health.

may be
is

of advantage in

know what

is

possible without injury

strong appetite

a great safeguard

against the dangers arising from intermittent supplies,

and

is

a chief factor in the energy of the pioneer.

FOOD FOR THE YOUTH AT COLLEGE AND FOR THE BRAIN-WORKER


"The
digestibility of a
its

brain-worker than

food is of far greater concern to a chemical composition." Hutchison.

While

it is

true that food must be considered as

a whole and not separated into constituents for one

organ over another, yet there are certain broad generahzations derived from ages of experience and
years of scientific observation which should serve as

guides to our limited knowledge in

diet.

The
is

horse,

when

called

upon to do heavy draught

work, which requires steady pulHng under direction,


apt to be fed with corn and hay; while the spirited
is

roadster or hunter, which


wits about

called

upon

to have his

him and to use reserve force suddenly, has


hay and corn.

oats with

little

The man
open

in a

logging-camp at hard work

the

air at a

low temperature finds pork, beans, and


biscuit

pan bread or

none too

s.atisfying

and

sustain-

ing, while the student sitting in

an over-heated room

with only a short walk three times a day, often at a

slow pace, well muffled up, would be unable to digest


45


46

THE COST OF FOOD

a quarter of the lumberman's diet, and finds himself


clearer of brain with
breakfast,

eggs,

toast,

and cofee

for

and chicken and

rice for dinner.


is

The obvious
exercise, while

lesson to be learned
it

that muscular

uses proteid and

fat,
is

uses by preferavailable than


It is

ence more carbohydrate when

it

mental exercise appears to demand.

true that

the body needs to have muscular exercise in order


to keep
that,
it

its

charge

the
if

brain

active,

but above

does seem as

the brain requires

more

fat

and nitrogen

in proportion. in

The system must,

as

was
so
of
''

said,

be kept up
is

good condition and then


body

economical

the

a
of

very

little
it is

excess
a waste
it is

brain food " supplies the need; but


it

to manufacture

out of substances from which

obtained only at the expense


or at the expense of

many

by-products,

much

digestive force.

Above
head
*'

all

else,
is

the brain-worker needs a " clear


in

that

one
that

good working
enough
all

condition, this

demands blood
rich
it

is fluid

to circulate freely,

enough

in

oxygen

to keep

the cells bathed in

at their

maximum

vitality, with dissolved nutritive

substances sufficient for the needs of repair and

nourishment.

There must be absent, moreover,

all

traces of imperfect decomposition


fluid

in the circulating

which

will

tend to

irritate, inflame,

or clog the

minute blood

vessels.

The food may be anything which

serves the proper

FOOD FOR THE YOUTH AT COLLEGE


\

4/

purpose of food, provided

it

is

properly prepared.

The brain-worker
va ntage of bad
air

is

subjected to the great disadof exercise.

and lack
which
is

This leads

to a loss of appetite,

then stimulated by ad-

ditions of strong flavors

and by attractive serving.


last to see
If

He
to

seems, of

all

men, the

the true

remedy
then

for lack

of strong appetite.
in close air

he must continue
little

work

and with

activity,
let

take a lesson from the chick in the shell and


eat a limited quantity of the

him

most

easily digested

nitrogenous food, with the

fat

predominating over

the carbohydrates and possibly in the latter, sugar

taking precedence of starch.


Therefore, while the food for the brain-worker

should belong to the class easily digested,

it

should

not be too concentrated or be predigested so that a


large
rent.

amount
For
in

is

at

once available
is

in the

blood cur-

a short time there

a lack of available

food which results in exhaustion and possibly in an overstepping of the elastic limit of recovery.

The temptation
market.

is

great to use, according to the

directions, the various proprietary foods

found

in the

The busy student does not seem

to grasp

the idea that food for his body and brain must pass

through several transformations by means of the


ready present
cells

al-

before
it

it

can nourish

new

ones.

He

seems to consider
etc.,

suflficient
fill

to pour in prepared

milks, cereals,

just to

the void.

Mental

48

THE COST OF FOOD

energy he seems to hold as heaven given without


the intervention of earth forces.

To

the

man whose

brain

is

his capital, the loss of

an hour of thinking-power

may mean

thousands of

dollars, yet in ninety-nine cases

out of one hundred

such a

man
his

will

eat a meal which will inevitably


of

weaken

power

thought and possibly change the


eats "
it is

future of a

Unbelief
bane, and

" no matter what a man


diet.
is

town or county.

is

his

when he breaks down

at fifty

said to

be because he applied himself too closely


cause he was foolish in his

never be-

The contrary
fine

picture
of

even more pitiable; a


fear lest the food

mind the prey


suit.
is

morbid

should not

This condition often follows a break-

down and

a result of previous neglect of the most


It

obvious laws of health.

sometimes seems as
the

if

the

more deHcately organized


danger there
is

mind, the greater


its

of fixing
if

it

upon

own

condition.

For

this reason,

for

no other, right habits should

be acquired in youth before the danger of morbid

mental processes

is

so great.

For

this reason, also,

there should be restaurants where the business

man

and scholar

will

not be tempted to swallow food sure

to use up mental energy.


laid

His home table should be

with strength-giving and not strength-sapping

viands, so that the evil

But

all this caire

may be reduced to a minimum. costs too much money and means

FOOD FOR THE YOUTH AT COLLEGE


too

49

much time given

to

it!

Not

at

all, if skill

and

judgment are used.


sary to buy a

Because the flavor of mushof the steak


it is

rooms adds to the reHsh

not neces-

pound

of fresh

mushrooms

at $1.00 the

pound.

Because, on a given occasion, an author has

written a particularly brilliant paragraph after eat-

ing a dish of sweetbreads there


nishing a like dish every day.

is

no cause

for fur-

Students going up for examination, business

men
full,

with decisions of large import to make, professional

men

with great interests at stake,

all

require the

available

amount

of

nervous energy, and the food

taken for at least twenty-four hours before should be


that which will give this energy.

In each case

it

may

be different.

Eggs

for one,

bacon for another, rare

beefsteak for a third, while a fourth

may have
and

such a
with

bank
a

of health to

draw upon that


fruit

rolls

cofi^ee

banana or other

may put him

in the best condiall

tion.

The

usual American breakfast of

kinds

of flesh,

fish,

or fowl with vegetables and hot bread,

never

fits a man for his best work. The author has expressed elsewhere, and more
it is

than once, the view that

the imperative duty of

the college and university to take in hand the matter


of food for the future leaders of the nation, as

an

example

of

what education

really stands for

if

for

no

other reason.
If

Dr. Johnson was right in his statement that

50
*'

THE COST OF FOOD


can spin very well, but they cannot
it

women

make

good book on cookery/'

behooves the university

man

to follow the

example

of the eighteenth-century

savant and turn his attention to the transmutation


of the dross of the

market into the

fine

gold of the

highest

human endeavor. The unexpected is relished

in

food as in pleasure

by those who are sensitive mentally to tastes and


appearances. simple
affair.

surprise

is

welcome even

if it

is

This means only foresight on the part

of the provider,

and care taken not to exhaust

all

combinations by too lavish a display.

Happy

is

the

man who
is

is

so well balanced that he

takes his breakfast, as his newspaper, as a matter of


course, and

who

no more

ruffled

by the fraction of

variation in the stiffness of his boiled

egg than by
is

the
sits

rumour

of an Indian outbreak.

Happy

he

who
free

down

to the dinner provided for

him without

thought of what he must leave out, with a mind


for social pleasure, secure in the skill of his cook.

and knowledge

What,

then, shall the brain-worker eat?

little

of anything

which

his

system can appropriate.

His

table need not be different


in appea'rance.

from that

of other

men

few things
sauces,

may

well be omitted,
patties,

as

rich

gravies,

custards,

highly

seasoned or fried entrees.

Fresh bread and pastry

should be rigorously banished, otherwise a liberal

FOOD FOR THE YOUTH AT COLLEGE


diet of a
at

few well-cooked and well-seasoned dishes

any one meal should give mental vigor.

Of great value
the cobwebs
laries
blasts.

to the

man who

lives

are frequent outings of

two or three

much indoors days when all


all

may

be blown away and

the capil-

flushed out

by ocean breezes or mountain


if

The

stimulus of change, even


is

the food

is

only moderately good,


is

invaluable.

Length

of time

of less importance than completeness of change.

The joy
yet
little

of living

who would not have and


it?
it!

how few
there
is

are willing to pay the price of


little

thought, a

self-control,

and then forget


Thrice

that

such a thing as digestion.


is

blessed the

man whose body


is

such a perfect mait

chine that he
case
is

not conscious of

only
is

in

such

he a whole man.

Just as a suggestion,

we may

say here that, for the

family table, forty cents a day per person


thirty cents should suffice,

ample;

and with

''

a $5,000 wife*,"

the brain-worker will thrive


day.

on twenty-five cents per

(See pages 123 to 133.)

*At the Columbian Exposition in 1893, a gentleman was heard on leaving the Workman's Cottage " with its family living on $500 a year, It will take a $5,000 wife to do it."
to say,
*'

'*

VI

FOOD FOR THE TRAVELLER AND FOR THE PROFESSIONAL PERSON


" For they can conquer

who

believe they can."


life is

The man who

has an aim in

ready to forego

certain indulgences which his

companions with no

thought of the future provide for themselves.

He

may

refrain

from smoking or from theatre-going,


which would cost either money

from the
or time.

social affairs

may be a great writer, philosopher, or that he may make a name for himself as an engineer or a business man. The one
does this in order that he
thing he does not take into account
the food he eats and
its efifect
is

He

the quality of
his prospects.
rf

upon

He may
dangei:

consider

its

cost

and deny himself

suffi-

cient supply, but at the present day, as a rule, the


is

in the

poor quality rather than


of

in the

quantity.

For lack

knowledge of the fundamental

position of the digestive system in the

human
it

econ-

omy, the majority of persons subject


impossible for
it

to a strain

to bear with safety,

and then blame

every other condition for the results.

From

the necessity of the case, the traveller


52

is

FOOD FOR THE TRAVELLER


surrounded
with
stimulating
sights

53

and

sounds,

whether agreeable or otherwise, giving the nervous


system extra labor, and therefore making
to supply
it
it

a duty

with nutrition.

This stimulation has a

very beneficial effect upon those


self-pitying

who have

fallen into

ways and whose digestion has been im-

paired by too
eat,

much

coddling.

But the temptation to


else to do, a variety of
is

when one has nothing


cooked and

dishes badly

indifferently served,
resist.

too

great for

has to

many persons to make a plea for his

client,

the engineer

The lawyer who who

has to examine a bridge, the pleasure-seeker with a

long journey before him cannot afford to arrive at his


destination with mental or physical

power

in the least

impaired, in a depressed instead of a refreshed condition.

The most important


is

factor of the

many

contribut-

ing to the favorable or unfavorable result of a journey


the food taken on the way.
If

" Just for once

it

will

not matter.''

tainted

meat disguised with


is

juicy

sauces and French

names

eaten, or

if

a jumble of
is

canned lobster, re-frozen ice-cream and puff paste


hastily

swallowed at a 20-minutes-for-lunch counter,

a sick

headache may warn the rash traveller or acute

indigestion
will
will

may

follow.

More probably

the viands

not show their vicious character so actively, but


simply cause heaviness, loss of sleep, general
irri-

tation

producing such a condition of the system


54

THE COST OF FOOD


weak defence
at a time

that disease finds a

when

it

should be met with strong resistance.


has been

Travelling
antici-

made

safe
all

and comfortable beyond

pation in nearly
are
still

points;

good

air

and proper food

wanting.
is

Since the body

not making any exertion,

it

needs not the foods which furnish bodily energy and


repair waste, except in so far as the involuntary

work

goes on: there

is

required less than half the usual


If,

amount

of food.

in travel, a

person can store up


is

energy for the future strain as a person


hospital before an operation,
food, but this storing
it

fed in a

is

safe to take

more

demands the
air

right materials

and that measure

of

good

which the railroad train


This
is

does not give, although the steamer may.


a
difference

between

the

two

modes

of

travel

which seems not to have been considered by either


caterer or eater.

Less meat

in

made

dishes, less

pastry, less Worcestershire sauce,


fruit

and more good

and well-cooked vegetables w^ould conduce to


Crusty
like
rolls,

the health of the railway traveller.


fresh butter, cookies for those

who

sweets

cake, even,

is far

safer for the occupant of a heated car

than the usual

bill

of fare.

The

dining-car has prolet it

vided most carefully for good water;

now
is

proIt is

vide safe milk and delicate, digestible dishes.


certain that
it

will

do so whenever the public


table.

wise

enough

to

demand such a

As

it is,

the traveller

FOOD FOR THE TRAVELLER

55

who

wishes to reach his journey's end in prime condibill

tion omits two-thirds the

of fare.

The
doctor

professional

man
little

or

woman

teacher, nurse,
life,

who

has

outdoor exercise needs to


the balis

observe a similar caution in every-day

ance between health of mind and of body


easily

very

put out of order, and


to secure.
is

it

should not be as

difficult

as

it is

At present the way

of the trans-

gressor

easy.

dish of blueberries

and so-called

cream costs 20

cents, a piece of blueberry pie con-

taining three times the food value, requiring five

times the labor to prepare, costs

10 cents.

Two

doughnuts cost
10,

5 cents,

while rolls and butter cost


half the food value

and bread and milk with

costs 15.

What

a revolution the simple adjustment

of price of food to value

would cause!
is little

In one's

own home

the case

better unless

the mistress understands

how

to keep the golden

mean between

the appetite and the need of the body.


is

To
but

a great extent each person

a law unto himself,


is

when

a dull, sleepy or headachy afternoon

sure

to follow the partaking of a certain lunch,

why

conI

tinue to take that lunch?


did
eat.''

''

She tempted me and


could say
it

How many a man


When
what he
eats," be

with perfect

truth to-day.
*'

shall the lesson of the proverb,

A man is
Is life

thoroughly learned?
let

worth living?

Then

us learn to

make

$6

THE COST OF FOOD


it,

the most of
to sustain
it.

for half its cost

is

the cost of the food

It is the belief in

the potency of natural causes to

bring

man

to his full estate,


is

and an ambition to reach

that estate that

demanded.

Every person must

make
for

his choice,
it,

not only as to a profession and his

place in
it.

but as to

how much

he

is

willing to pay

THE BUSINESS MAN's LUNCHEON

A
(i)

tour of down-town lunch places at the noon


of patrons:

hour reveals two sharply-defined classes

Those who believe


and a

in steak

and chops as best


dollar or a

braindollar

and nerve-food, and can afford a


half luncheon.
(2)

Those who believe


for the least

in staying the

pangs of hunger

money.

These pay ten cents for a piece of pie and some


cheese with a glass of milk, or a cup of coffee at five
cents more, and get just as

much

nutritive value as
it

the other

provided the body can


Proteid,

assimilate

in that

form
Chop

Fat,

Carbohydrate,

Grams.
15

Grams.

Grams.
....

/-oirt..;-o Calories.

20
.1

247.5
82 23

Potatoes Salad Orange-ice

2.1
.5

1-6

17.7 1.4
12

49
401

17.6

21.7
15

31.

^ mince pie
J oz. cheese

^ pint milk

6 3-5 8.3

66
-3

4-i
10.

436 53-7
178

12.5

17.8

29.1

78.8

668

FOOD FOR THE TRAVELLER


If

57
its

the luncheon

is

to serve as dinner, double

value in both cases

may

be put upon

it.

Habit

is,

alas, all-powerful,

and the man with

g^reat

business interests at stake, which he must consider at


his desk, will

continue to rush out for his quick and

hasty luncheon just as he did five or ten years before

when, as a subordinate, he was on the street half the


morning- going from one business building to another, to the wharves,
to

the custom-house,

etc.

Very few men seem


dition.

to adapt their habits to their conI

Again and again

must say

it, it is

because

of their unbelief in the effect of food

on

their physical

condition and on. their careers.

THE shopper's LUNCHEON

The majority

of

women who throng


two
list,

thS stores

may
ful

also be divided into

classes:

(i)

The

care-

housewife with a long

who

is

appalled at the

prices of the restaurant

and who

tries to finish

her day

of

unaccustomed exercise on a

slice of toast

and a cup

of tea, or takes chocolate eclairs or a small ice-cream,

with the natural consequence of a raging headache,

blunted
(2)

judgment,

and

unsatisfactory

purchases.

The woman who boards and who means to eat something she likes or something new, and who does not mind the time it takes. She comes down town
nearly every day, and she does not travel half the city
over, in one day, as does the
first

woman, she saunters

58

THE COST OF FOOD


Her luncheon
and sweets

slowly along one street or two at most.


consists of a

medley

of croquettes, salads,

which could never agree; dishes dressed over so that


the original ingredients

may

never be revealed, and

she pays
in bed, or

fifty

to seventy-five cents for the next day

perhaps a physician, and her family pay in

unhappiness.
Until one makes a business of visiting the popular
restaurants of any
city,

one does not

realize

what a

force these restaurants are in the forming and fixing


of food habits.

Many

attempts have been

made

to

provide hygienic luncheons, but the number of those


willing to reform at the expense of a
little

time and

thought

is

too small at any one point to sustain such


Besides, the only persons
in the

an estabHshment.

who
way

have interest enough

problem are those cranks

who

believe a single article of diet, or a peculiar


is all-sufficient.

of cooking,

In every city there


''

may
"

be found,

in out-of-the-way places,

eating-houses

presided over by

some motherly

soul

where

really

good food may be had under


on the
of fare

plain

old-fashioned
of

names; where one need not fear to eat


bill
;

any dish

where below

stairs

it is

as clean as

the visible portion and where twenty-five or thirty


cents will procure a

good meal.

FOOD FOR THE TRAVELLER BACHELOR BOARDING


I

59

have elsewhere estimated that


sufficient

25%

of the family

income was a

proportion to pay for raw


for the preparation,

food material and


serving, etc.

15% more

For an income
for food

of $1,200 per year this


it,

would mean $300

and $200 for serving

or

$500 out of the $1,200


persons, including the

for a family of three or four

maid and occasional guests.

The young man with a salary of $1,200 is apt to pay $5 or $6 a week for his table-board, $300; and
lunches and suppers beside to the extent of $150.

Now,

then, can he consider

matrimony and the supmust


live

port of a family?
well in order to

He
do
it

rightly feels that he

his

work

well,

and he does not


is

know how
problem
the

to

do

for less,
If

and no one

solving the

for him.

he marries,
to

his wife has only

same bachelor experience

go upon and can


that
it is

only double the expense.


current saying
I

What wonder
''

among men,

Oh,

can't

marry

until

have< $3,000 a year.''

fine

commentary,

this,

on

the intelHgence and thrift of American youth, and a

good and

sufficient

reason for the decrease of na-

tive population!

A word to the thoughtful should be


would lead us too
far afield.

sufficient.

An
facts

adequate discussion of the bearing of these

VII

FOOD FOR THOSE


" Deficient diet, like

IN

PENAL AND PAUPER

INSTITUTIONS
mental,
is

a vitiating

all morbid conditions, both corporeal and and degenerating influence." King Chambers.

Those unfortunate
expense of the State
into
1.

individuals

who

are kept at the

may be

conveniently divided

two general

classes:

The
full

potential citizen, as pauper children


into

who

may grow up
State
into better

value, criminal youth

men and women returning to the who may be brought


also

ways and so repay the care and trouble;

and the
2.

sick poor,

who

come under

this class.

The pauper
vicious.

past work, the hopelessly insane,

and the

The food
for

for the latter class

may be

dismissed

with few words.

While the State undertakes to care


This

them,

it

must not starve them nor give them


because a sick person costs more

such food as to cause diseased conditions.


latter
is

self-evident,

to care for than a well one.


tion

But there

is

no obliga-

to

give

them more

than that quantity and

quality which will serve the ends of existence.

They
60

FOOD FOR CRIMINALS AND PAUPERS


have forfeited any rights to pampering.
is

6
it

Hence

that

when

a subsistence ration
all

is

to be studied,

scientific

men

over the world go to these institu-

tions for data.

There are several other reasons why

conclusions are

more valuable

in

such cases.

The

inmates have
side.

]i:.tle

chance of getting food from out-

They

are usually under the eye of the physi-

cian.

The raw food


more

material

is

of standard quality,

of

which the analyses are more numerous, and thereto be relied upon.
It is limited in variety,

fore

purchased by contract, and the amounts served are

more
is

definitely

known.

This

is

in cases
is

where there
skilfully

no

fraud,

and where the cooking

and

conscientiously done
case.

which

is,

alas,

not always the

In one institution, of the


existence, several

first class,

no longer

in

hundred children from

six to four-

teen years were fed at a cost of 9.5 cents with sufficient

good raw material which was

spoiled in the cooking,

in

insufficiently

stewed beans, which caused diarrhoea


sour bread,
etc.

many
It

cases,

Their blotched,
pitiful to be-

pinched faces, and stunted bodies, were


hold.

were better that they should have been put

out of the way like superfluous kittens than that they,

through no

fault of theirs,

should be kept alive to be

no

credit to themselves or to the State.

The inexpensive foods


cooking, and
if

require the

most

skill

in
its

such an institution

will

not pay

62

THE COST OF FOOD


well,
it

cooks

should allow more rations to

make up

for those that are spoiled.

For three hundred perday


in cost of
It will

sons fed, a difference of

five cents a

raw materials means over $5,000 per


pay any
this

year.

institution to

spend $1,000

in salaries to save

amount, and yet to secure more palatable and


nutritious food, which can be done so readily

more

with sufficient knowledge.

See Table VII,

p. 69, for

some estimates
experiment

of costs
in

and quantities as a basis


cases.

for

other

The same wrong

is

true

of these children

and young and


re-

people as of more favored ones, that any injury from


nutrition
affects

the

whole

after-Hfe

lessens the chance of their

growing up to be
this

spectable citizens.

So

fully

is

understood abroad
it

that several foreign countries see to

that school

children are fed at State expense rather than run the


risk of

having to care for them later as vicious or

in-

competent persons.

Seven cents a day, or nine


for those*" of

at most, should serve

whom

the world has nothing

more

to

hope; while

for the others seventeen cents

may be
all.

allowed for the older and fifteen for the younger


ones, rather than a

mean

of twelve or fourteen for


is

Sharp separation of the inmates into groups


called for

thus

feeding,

however undesirable

it

may

be

from certain other

ethical standpoints.

FOOD FOR CRIMINALS AND PAUPERS


For young children maintained
table charge, soup

63

at city or chari-

must take the place

of milk to a

certain extent.

A sufficient milk diet


is

will,

as

we have

seen, cost 12 to 16 cents per day; so that in cases

where only 9 cents


tion.

allowed this

is

out of the ques-

glance at the following table will show

how
in

various soups
rice

may

be substituted.

Starchy grains, as
of

and barley, take the place

the

sugar

milk.

From
child of 5

Ufifelman's table, page 19,

we

find that a

needs

in

grams
Proteid,

Grams.

Grams.

Fat, Carbohydrates, i-^i^^- <-aiones.

Grams.
145

56
3 pints of

43 43
1.3

1224
871

ordinary milk, costing


46
13

10 or 12 cents

67.7
71.0
1:^8.7

Bread, 4.5

oz., 1.7 cents

358

59
2 pints
2

44.3

1229
743

"

barley soup, " pea

5
5

cents "
**

36.2
13.0

27.7
1.3-

85.0
71.0
....

358
130
1231

1/2 oz. butter,

0.5

14.0

49.2

43.0

156.0

Bread and soup, then, may be substituted


or two

at

one

meals for bread and milk, as giving the


fluid as well as

needed

proportional ingredients.

Of
of.

course tea and coffee are not to be thought

Cocoa
milk
tion
is

is

too expensive, although a flavor of

it

in

hot

much

to be preferred to the day-long decoc-

of

shells

so

popular with institution cooks.


soft,

Gingerbread, both hard and


of the sugar outside.
If

cookies with

much
well

possible,

some

rice

cooked, not mushy, but with separate grains, should

64

THE COST OF FOOD

take the place of so


used.

much

potato.

Rice-milk

may be

One pound

of rice contains

69%

starch and

yields 1600 calories at a cost of five or six cents.

One pound
yields only

of potatoes contains
at a cost of

19%

of starch

and

320 calories

two or even three

cents for the portion used.

It requires

some

or 6

pounds

of potatoes to give the fuel value of one

pound

of rice.
stale rolls

Potato puree and

rubbed up as a milk

puree make an acceptable variety.


use veal as soup-stock
insist that suitable veal

The Germans

much more than we do, and is much more digestible than

beef,

which

is

rarely used in their dietaries for chil-

dren.

A common
20 grams
the day.
of

division for the mid-day

meal

is

16 to

albumen and 32 to 40% of the cost for The quantity miay be 150 grams rice-milk,
After

or 300 grams soup with 35 to 45 grams meat.

the age of two years, 10 pfennigs (2.5 cents) per day

are allowed.

ACTUAL BILL OF FARE,


[Cost
9.5 cents

ORPHAN ASYLUM

per person daily

average

for six months, 1899.]

Sunday
Breakfast: Liver, bread, coffee or tea.

Dinner:

Corned

beef,

stewed

fruit,

hominy, and

dessert.

Supper:

Bread, gingerbread, tea or milk.

FOOD FOR CRIMINALS AND PAUPERS

65

Monday
Breakfast: Sausage, bread, coffee or tea.

Dinner:

Roast

beef, rice, potatoes,

and gravy.

Supper:

Biscuit, butter, tea or milk.

Tuesday
Breakfast: Oatmeal, bread, coffee or tea.

Dinner:

Hash,

slaw<5

potatoes, and gravy.

Supper:

Bread, molasses, tea or milk.

Wednesday
Breakfast: Scrapple, bread, butter, and coffee.

Dinner:

Pork, beans, potatoes, and dessert.


Bread, butter, tea or milk.

Supper:

Thursday
Breakfast: Gravy, bread, butter, and coffee.

Dinner:

Brunswick stew, slaw, and potatoes.

Supper:

Apple butter, bread, tea or milk.


Friday

Breakfast: Oatmeal, butter, bread, and coffee.

Dinner:

Roast

beef,

hominy, potatoes, and gravy.

Supper:

Bread, butter, milk or tea.

Saturday
Breakfast: Bread, butter, coffee or tea.

Dinner:

Ham, cabbage

or turnip, and potatoes.

Supper:

Apple butter, bread, tea or milk.

66

THE COST OF FOOD

PROPOSED MENU FOR

HOME, TO COST

II

CENTS

[Prices Ruling in 1898.]

Sunday
Breakfast: Boiled
rice

or hominy with

molasses,

bread, cereal coffee or milk.

Dinner:

Roast beef and gravy, potatoes, pudding,


bread.

Supper:

Bread and butter, milk, apple sauce.

Monday
Breakfast: Oatmeal

with milk

and sugar, bread,

cereal coffee or milk.

Dinner:

Beef soup with vegetables, cold slaw


bread.

(?),

Supper:

Bread and butter, milk, prune sauce.


Tuesday

Breakfast

Salt fish

and cream, bread, cereal coffee

or milk.

Dinner:

Baked beans, bread,

pickles, pudding.

Supper:

Bread, gingerbread, cheese, milk.

Wednesday
Breakfast
:

Corn cake and


milk.

butter, cereal coffee or

Dinner:

Corned beef and vegetables, bread.


Bread, apple butter, milk.

Supper:

FOOD FOR CRIMINALS AND PAUPERS


Thursday
Breakfast: Oatmeal

6/

and

molasses,

bread,

cereal

coffee or milk.

Dinner:

Beef stew, bread, pudding.

Supper:

Bread and butter, sugar-buns, milk.


Friday

Breakfast: Corn

mush with milk and


fish

sugar, bread,

cereal coffee or milk.

Dinner:

Fish chowder or baked


bread.

and potatoes,

Supper:

Bread and butter, baked apples, milk.


Saturday

Breakfast

Hash, bread, cereal coffee or milk.

Dinner:

Pea or bean soup, bread, stewed


Bread and butter, cookies, milk.
General Directions

fruit.

Supper:

Breakfast:

When

it

can be done with economy, sub-

stitute

hash or stew.
rice (with or

Dinner:

For puddings, use


raisins),

without

bread and apple, tapioca, corn-

starch, bread, etc.,

making

variety.

Supper:

Use Graham bread

occasionally.

INSPECTION OF AN INSTITUTION AS TO FOOD-SUPPLY


I.

If for well

persons, note appearance of inmates:

character of flesh (solid and muscular or flabby);

68
color,
if

THE COST OF FOOD


normal; complexion,
''

if

clear

and normal, or
ears, or eyes.

blotched and

broken out

''

on

lips,

Note

eyes,

if

clear
if

and

alert,

or dull and heavy; note

movements,

full
if

and vigorous, or languid; watch


is

a meal to see

the food

relished or rejected.
If

If

complaints, see what they are.


dition of the patients
is

a hospital, the con-

not so good a guide, except


This
is
is difficult

as to relish

and gain

in condition.

to get

at,

and considerable diplomacy

often needed

to accomplish anything like a fair judgment.


2.

Inspect

the kitchen just before the


this for the three meals,

food

is

served.

Do

and stay during

the serving and note what comes


Points: (a) thorough cooking;
(ft)

away uneaten.

cleanly condition of utensils


attractive serving (hot or cold);

(c)

{d)
{e)

note indigestible gravies or sauces


''

quantity;

is it

sufficient?

{f)

"

method

of cooking.

3.

Larder and storehouse: Note quality and cleanPersonnel: Are the employees interested to do

liness, especially variety.


4.

the best they

know how? Are


it

they intelligent? Are

they teachable?
5.

Cost:

Is

excessive?

Can

equally nutritious

and

attractive fare be served for less

money?

FOOD FOR CRIMINALS AND PAUPERS

69

TABLE

VII

DIETARY OF THREE INSTITUTIONS FURNISHED FROM THE SAME MARKET

A
Inmates.

A2
Officers.

B
Inmates and Employees

C
Inmates and Employees.

Number
Cost (cents) per person daily. ** *' " Proteid * Fat ** * Carbohydrates "
*

1754
7.34 122

107 40.6

375 12.9 IIO.O


114.

194
18.8

* Calories

*'

*'

69 624 3700
65.58
157-24

Oz. per person Distributed as follows

449.0 3327 75.52


10.80
.86 .28

138.0 180.0 471.0 417I.O


94.71
17.21 1.06
-35

Meat and Eggs Cheese


Milk
Flour,

fish (fresh

and

salt)

10.23
.01

45.30
1.03 .20

2.84
.

23-33
1.78

Butter and lard cornmeal, crackers.


rice

24.06
.34

8.80
.52 .76 03

Oatmeal, hominy, Peas, beans

1.34
.03

16.20 1.80 12.20 1.20 .70


.20

28.46
1.77 13.54 1.72
.78

Tapioca, sage, corn-starch...

Sugar
Dried fruits Potatoes Fresh vegetables

3.90
.29

3-05
31

-34 3.53 .76

15.64 6.33
4.76

29.85 39-33
1.

13.50 12.87
.85

12.02 19.96
.21

Apples Molasses
*

.96 16

.70

No

data given as to

number

of guests in

column A*.

VIII

FOOD FOR THE PERSON

IN

A HOSPITAL

"Just as metal has to be extracted from the ore before it is any use, so by the process of digestion the nutritive constituents have to be extracted from a food before they can be absorbed.**

Maly.

vital

careful preparation of food is now recognized to be of importance to an invalid and a valuable assistance, in many cases, to the physician in hastening the recovery of a patient." Helena V. Sachse.
"

The

While we may blame


we
are obliged to

a well

man

for setting his

appetite above his intellectual or business interests,

humor

a sick

man

as far as his

physical welfare will permit.

The

nutritive constituents are extracted


it is

from

or-

dinary food only when

mingled with and saturated

by the digestive juices sent out from the various


glands in response to the stimulus of odor, flavor,
the juices do not
''

and texture,

real or imagined.

If

flow, then the food

remains inert and no real

feed-

ing " can take place.


in

Predigested foods are offered

this

emergency, but belong to the dispensary

rather than to the kitchen.


It is to

most persons

a shock

and an excitement
70

FOOD FOR THE PERSON


to find themselves in such an
as a hospital
first

IN

A HOSPITAL

/I

unaccustomed place

and with so many other people, and the


is

point to be gained
;

to

make them comfortable


them
suitable
it.

and contented

the second, to give

food, presented in such a

way

that they will relish

The
food

''

relish "

goes a long way toward making the

''

suitable."

A contented frame

of

mind and

faith

in the

nurse and in what she brings increases the

secretions and relaxes the nervous tension, so that

the energy of the

body may be given

to digesting

and assimilating the food.


Therefore, before considering what to give the
patients

who

are conscious, a few words on

how

to

serve

it

are appropriate:

First, that

food which

is

served hot should be hot


is

and not lukewarm; that which


be cold.
If

to be cold should

the hospital appliances are not favorable

to this, then they


of
it

must be so arranged

as to admit

before any success can be hoped

for.

Too large portions should not be given at once, as

an appetite for more


to thoroughly digest

will

tend to cause the patient


is

what

taken; and
it

it

must
is

al-

ways be borne
but what
it is

in

mind

that

is

not what

eaten

is

assimilated that nourishes the body,

and

more important
than anywhere

to bear this in
else,

mind

in a hos-

pital

since

exercise

and

dis-

tracting occupation are wanting and the action of

the system

is

apt to be sluggish.

72

THE COST OF FOOD


Novelty
in

food does not


little

commend

itself

to people

who have had


best that

variety in their lives; they relish

to which

they have been accustomed.

Neatness and attractiveness go a long way toward

making food
used as

palatable; therefore, this aid should be

far as possible, especially since

ways

of serv-

ing can be varied


diet.

more

readily than the articles of

A few^
in

pretty dishes to carry to those to

whom

food

thick crockery

would be

utterly repellent

serve to distract attention from the act of eating.

Even
it

if

there are only a few such dishes in the ward,

will

be an occupation for the patient to guess to


they
will

whom
pital

be given at any particular meal.


time and thought, and a hosif

Of course,
nurse

this takes

is

often overworked; yet,

she real-

izes the great

importance of

this part of the

means
will

used for recovery, she

will find will

time for

it.

She

soon learn to

whom

it

make

a difiference and to

whom

it is

a waste of time to offer such attentions.

DIET IN GENERAL
Surgical patients and those
''

who

are simply to be
sufficient

fed well " should


is

have good and

food,

and that which

easily digested.
air,

Since they are no

longer at work in the open


should not be fed upon fried
lings,

even strong

men

pork and heavy dump-

but they miss the accustomed flavor of hearty

FOOD FOR THE PERSON


food,

IN

A HOSPITAL

73

and bacon may be given occasionally, and,

twice a day,

meat or

fish of

some kind with

potato,

bread, and butter. These four articles


bread, and butter

meat, potato,
In their

make up the

diet of a large part

of hospital patients in the

common

wards.

own homes they


it is

are not accustomed to soups, and

a part of their education while they are in the

hospital to teach
If

them the value


they

of food so prepared.

they find themselves comfortable and growing


diet,

stronger on such

will believe in

it.

No

better school of diet could be found than an intelli-

gently

managed

hospital.

Even though
him

the patient

stays but a

week or ten
and
diet

days, he should have gained


in his after
life,

something which
for cleanliness
It
is,

will benefit

must always be

insisted upon.

therefore, of the utmost importance that the

nurses should be as perfectly trained in the serving


of food

and

in the

general principles of diet as in any

other portion of their duties, for no medicine or


disinfection can take the place of nutritious food as

a factor in recovery.

Instead of combating the


yielding weakly to them, a
in

whims

of patients or
of

knowledge

what

is

best
''

general practice, and experience of


''

how

to

ad-

minister

food, should be shared by house officers

and nurses.
First.

There are

at least five

requirements

Production of good flavor and odor.

Here

again

is

the difficulty of dealing with a mass of peo-

74
pie,

THE COST OF FOOD


for

while

garlic
it.

is

dear to one man's soul,

another loathes

Certain carefully prepared com-

binations must be decided upon, and in special cases the coveted flavor added after the food reaches the

wards.

The

success of certain of the

New England
though
All strong

Kitchen dishes shows that

this is possible,

only after careful study and experiment.

odors should be avoided

those

which may reach

from one bed to another.

Irritating spices, such as

solid particles of pepper, cloves, etc., should not

be

used in food for the wards.

Second. Each article should be prepared in such a

way

as to

make

Httle tax

upon the

digestive system,

because digestion uses up energy which should go


to recuperation.

This

is

a most important point.


a limited
of this
is

The human body can at best produce only amount of energy, and if an undue portion
consumed
there
is

in

preparing the food taken for absorption,


process of repair which, in the

less left for the

hospital, uses the surplus otherwise given to

work.

This surplus energy

is

small at most, probably only


its

about one-third the total of which the body at


is

best

capable of producing.

As

the flow of blood which carries the nutritive


all

material to

parts of the

body

is

usually sluggish,
it

because of the passive repose of the patient,


essential that
it

is

should be sufficiently rich in nutritive


sensitive are the living cells that they

value.

Yet so

FOOD FOR THE PERSON

IN

A HOSPITAL

75

are paralyzed by too great a concentration, just as a

plant or tree
this

is

killed

by too much

fertilizer.

For

reason food should be given in small quantities

at frequent intervals,
at
''

when

it is

so prepared as to

go

once into the circulation.


" as

Eggs and soup do not

stand by
Third.

does the hearty diet of the well person.


food properly prepared from cheap
it

If

material can replace an expensive one,


used, since

should be

more people can have the


is

benefit of care

when

the expense per capita

low
of

in

any public

in-

stitution,

and since principles

sound economy

should rule in the use of trust funds.


Fourth.

As

a rule,
is

it is

the heat-giving and energy-

giving food which

most required, with that which

spares the precious albuminous tissue, rather than

so

much albumen
is

as

is

often given.

In

some

cases

of loss of blood or lack of flesh, rapid utilization of

nitrogen

desirable,

and then eggs and steak may


stufifing.

be needed as a process of
less

This

is

more or
of

dangerous on account

of the extra

work given

to such organs as the kidneys,

and the production


is

heat and energy in this

way

wasteful compared

with that produced by legitimate foods.


Fifth.

Soups, broths,

fruit soups,

sweetened drinks,

which are ninety-five to ninety-eight per cent of


water;
fruits, jellies,

and porridge, which are eighty

to ninety per cent water, should form the


of

main

diet

many

hospital patients for several reasons:

76
(a)

THE COST OF FOOD


Each mouthful contains so
little

food that

it

can be readily mixed with the natural juices before

more
ful

is

taken, and so the nutrition in the

first

spoon-

may

penetrate to the finger-ends and encourage


call for

and stimulate the nerves to


the last spoonful
is

more even before


often the secret

taken.

This

is

of increasing a patient's appetite.


(b)

The heat imparted


it is

to

the

contents of the

stomach, while

not sufficient to affect the whole


is

body to any great degree,


tion.
(r)

stimulating to diges-

In most cases recovery

is

hastened by the rapid

removal of the accumulation of waste material.


this the

For

blood must be dilute


in its passage.
this.

in

order to take up
If it is

more substances
solution
(rf)

a saturated

it

cannot do

The more or

less feeble

and sluggish

cells

can-

not take as

much nourishment
dilute.

at a time as active

ones do, and the solution by which they are sur-

rounded should be
(e)

To keep up

the water lost by evaporation and

otherwise, and to furnish

enough so

that there will

be an excess available for


the surface cool, this
{f) It is
is

sufficient

evaporation to keep

often the best antipyretic.

often easier to administer nourishment in

liquid form.

FOOD FOR THE PERSON

IN

A HOSPITAL

^^

HOUSE-DIET OR NORMAL DIET

The foregoing
fare for the

will

enable us to consider a

bill
is

of

house

in general.

Since

economy

im-

perative, as

many

of the dishes as possible, should be


for the

cooked

in bulk,

enough

whole house, leaving

the extras to be given for each of the five tables

usual in a hospital, of which the patients'


portant.

is the

most im-

The
are

officers' table

needs both easily digested and

hearty food, since hard work, long hours, and anxiety

making

a drain

upon the system, while coolness


not be

and nerve are

essential; therefore food should

irritating or indigestible.

The

nurses'

table

must

meet the same requirements.


other hand, have hard

The employees, on the


must be

work and should have hearty


will

food and that which

stand by, but

it

consistent with strict economy.

Next
mal

in

importance to the
is

full

house-diet,
for those

''

norare

diet,"

the convalescent

diet,

who

sufficiently

recovered from acute disease to take

normal
but

diet with the elimination of the hearty dishes,


a;re

who

not able to take

full

quantity.

This
list

should be

made up from such

dishes

on the

for

the day as can be taken from the normal diet and

supplemented from the special


daily as prepared.
It

list

which
in

is

posted

must be borne

mind by both

house

officers

and nurses that a separate order means

yS

THE COST OF FOOD

increased cost, not so

much

in the article of

food or-

dered,

but in

the
it

time of the high-class service


properly, and in the interruption
of the service.
is

needed to prepare
of the general

movement

In hospitals the cost of food

most important
care-

part of the total expense, and


fully regulated.

it

shouM be most

That
for

is,

for the patients to

whom
Cream,
needful

food

is

life

and

whom
should

aversion to food means

death,

no

expense

be grudged.
really

eggs,

beef-juice,

chops,

anything

should be supplied, but for those patients to

whom
is

corned beef and cabbage represent luxury,


necessary to stimulate an
is it

it

not

artificial appetite.

Neither

necessary that the strong and hearty attendant


fruit

should have the


private patients.

and delicacies given to paying


is

There

a lack of moral sense in


of trust funds for

the

community which permits the use


from those

for very different purposes

which they

were devised.

When

one

recalls

the early struggles and

self-

denial of the

man

or

woman who

has

left

$10,000 or
it

$50,000 to aid in the relief of suffering humanity,


is

not with entire equanimity that the expert called

in to

examine the dietary


20

finds that 23.6 oz. of meat,

37

oz. milk,

oz. potatoes, 2.6 oz. butter

and

5 oz.

of sugar are

on record as being purchased which,

with other things, bring up the cost to 50 cents or


over; nearly twice the

amount and

cost needful.

FOOD FOR THE PERSON

IN A

HOSPITAL

79

New
of

England

thrift is

passing with the disappear-

ance of the careful housewife, and a great impatience

any restraint
authorities
for

in

food

is

evident on

all sides.

So

that

cannot be held especially blamein the cost of

worthy

an increase

carrying on this
justly

side of the work,


criticised for

any more than they may be

spending thousands for modern sur-

gical

equipment; one room to-day costs as much as


fifty

a whole hospital

years ago.

What

authorities

should do

is

to put the

same grade

of intelligence at

work on
side,

the food side as

on the medical and surgical


fair

and to be sure that a

equivalent

is

obtained
it

for the trust funds


is

expended.

In the above case,

quite impossible that such large amounts, together

with the other very liberal supplies, could have been


eaten w^ith safety by the inmates,

some

of

whom

would have been made

ill

by

half

the quantities.

All large estabUshments have leaks

which need con-

stant attention.

There

is

one feature of modern hospital developcareful consideration.

ment which demands

While
into

we

are crowding well people in great

numbers

hotels and apartment-houses, while large restaurants

and dining-rooms are increasing, the successful

treat-

ment more

of the sick

and insane

is

demanding more and


since the waste
likes

isolation in small

groups and even individual

service.
is

This

is

far

more expensive,

necessarily greater

and since the individual

So

THE COST OF FOOD


Again, pay-wards
all in-

are catered to to a greater extent.

and cottages are now connected with nearly


stitutions,

and in these, patients demand the same


probably more than any
If it

sort

of food as that to which they have been accustomed.

This

fact,

other,'

has led to
to

the increased cost of food.

seemed necessary

employ a chef to cook

for these,

why should

not

nurses and house doctors have the same quality?

When

one sees and handles tempting food, one


if

feels

aggrieved

forbidden to taste.

Hence

it is

not un-

natural that employees should use the top of the

eight-quart can of milk for their


toll of

own
it is

cofTee, or take

the fruit and delicacies going past them.

Un-

less
will

they can be

made

to feel that

dishonest, they

continue to do

it if

the stores are not under lock

and key.

A
sive,

small establishment

is

in this

way more expenin a large one,

because

it is

not possible, as

it is

to have a separate table for the different grades.

For example,

in

an institution with looo patients

there will be four grades of employees:


1st.

House

officers

and heads

of departments.

2d.

Nurses and second

assistants.
etc.

3d. Engineers,

workmen,

4th.

Scrub-women,

janitors,

choremen,

etc.

Each

of these grades can

have a separate eatingbill

room with
25, 30,

different hours

and

of fare costing 15,


20, .30, 35,

and 50 cents per day, or

and 7s

FOOD FOR THE PERSON


cents per day, as the case
will

IN A HOSPITAL
be, but the

may

average

not be above 20 or 30 cents.

In a small hospital with the cottage system, where


all

have the same food, the expense

will

probably be

ten cents per capita higher.

The only thing


stitution to

for the

governing head of an
its

in-

do

is

to have

accounts so kept that

he can study
what,
all

its

own

special conditions
it is

and decide
In one

things considered,
it

best to do, and then

to give orders to have


case, $12,000
little

strictly carried out.

was saved

in a year

by

this

means.

relaxing of the strictness, however, in deference

to the

common demand soon


the

allowed the expense to

creep back.
In
to

present

transition

stage

from the old

the
is

new, culinary and housekeeping managein

ment

much

the

same condition

in

households

large and small.


ers are suitable

Neither the apparatus nor the help-

and adapted to the work they should


department up to the standard of

do to bring
the best

this

modern equipment.

Here

is

a field for in-

vention and organization open to


ness training.

women

with busiit?

Will they take advantage of


is

The same struggle


leges

going on

in schools

and

col-

struggle caused by the decided change in


of the people without a correspond-

tastes

and habits

ing change in the means of meeting them.

Every-

where improvements are made

in building; labora-

82

THE COST OF FOOD

tories are added, libraries are put up, lecture-halls

are better lighted and heated, and

some

feeble atinstitution

tempts are made to ventilate them.


is

The
last

lauded as being up to date.

The

place to feel

this

wave

of progress

is

the culinary department.

Old worn-out ranges, low unventilated kitchens,


grease-soaked sinks and tables are retained.

When

the therapeutic value of food

is

more

fully

recognized,

there

will

be

greater

willingness

to

authorize the expense required in providing and pre-

paring the best.

If

the surest

means
is

of securing imtis-

munity from attacks of disease


sues, then the best

well-nourished
is

handmaid
will

of medicine

that

nourishment which

be accepted by the tissues,


al-

and thus aid

in

vanquishing the enemy which has

ready a foothold.
fession

The members
for them.

of the medical profull

have yet to appreciate to the

what the

scientific

cook could do
* says:

The

difficulty lies

with the opinions of the general public, as Mrs.

Campbell
" It
is

always easier, even for otherwise

intelli-

gent

folk,

to swallow something from a bottle or


to

box than

obey natural law.

When

old Plum's
hills

brother Darius died, they

flocked in

over the

to

the funeral, and one of the cousins asked what Darius

had died

of,

and Aunt

Prissy,

who had provided him


Sanitarium.

*The Linborough

FOOD FOR THE PERSON IN A HOSPITAL


pie three times a day for forty-five years,
reply,
*

83

made

the
all

Darius died because his digeesters was

wore

out.'

And

again she says

" I can study degenerates right here

that
all

is

what

you are

all at, I

believe; a population that has chosen

patent medicine instead of

common

sense,

the dis-

eases born of old English obstinacy and

New Eng-

land folly."

To adapt
is

the food to the conditions of environment


fate.

to

go a long way toward conquering

To recognize the essentially animal character of the human body, while not ignoring the temporary
power
of the

mind over matter,

is

essential to a

sound

therapy of food.

IX

FOOD FOR MIDDLE LIFE AND OLD AGE


" Discerne of the

coming on

of yeares,

the same things

still,

for age will not be defied."

and thinke not to doe Bacon.

we agree to the definition of food given on 13, we shall be prepared to accept the statement that when the enthusiasm of youth abates and the acj:ive movements decrease; when we allow the
If

page

children to go up-stairs for a forgotten handker-

when we contentedly sit on the piazza and see the young people start off to the mountain or the lake, we are not in a condition to utilize the same amounts of food as when we were younger and more
chief;
restless.

Appetite usually outstays physiological need, and

when

the art of the cook adds flavor and daintiness

of serving to the food, the

danger

is

tenfold.

Under
and of

the present condition of abundance

of food

money to spend, more middle-aged persons eat too much than too little; eat too concentrated food and
drink too
little

water.
fifty

list

kept for some years of persons of


is full

to

sixty dying suddenly

of cases like the follow84

FOOD FOR MIDDLE LIFE AND OLD AGE


ing:
"

85

He seemed

to be in ordinary health during

the forenoon, and at


State

noon lunched

heartily in the

House

Cafe; at 1.30 he complained of not feel-

ing well.

... At

2.30 he was dead."

The

case of a well-known and favorite author was

reported thus: " At noon to-day he attended a lunch-

eon to bid farewell to some friends about to leave


for the Mediterranean.

He was
ill,

cheerful and gave

no indication
on a walk.
a house,
.
.

of illness. After the luncheon he started


.

He

felt

asked leave to
in a

lie

down

at

and was found dead

few minutes."

The reporter never seems


efifect.

to connect cause

and

The mere number


press

of years

is

not so important as
if

the physiological age of the person,


it.

we may

so ex-

Whenever, from any cause, the individual


time to take precautions

ceases to eliminate the excess and begins to store up

substance,
strain

it

is

lest

the

cause a weakness in some organ or tissue.

Overwork bears the blame for the breakdowns so common. Overwork is almost impossible to the well-nourished person. The well-fed, constantly
driven horse turns back one ear at the snap of the
whip.

The

brain

is

the most sensitive of

all

organs

to the poison of imperfectly digested food or inflamed


tissues.

For modern science makes

it

clear that

it is

not only possible but probable that decompositions

may

easily

go on

in the

body which

yield

more or

86
less toxic

THE COST OF FOOD


substances to the circulating blood.
kill;

These

substances do not necessarily


alkaloids, they

like

extracted

may

stimulate the nervous action and

stimulate beyond the power of nutrition.


ness, anxiousness, sleeplessness

Wakeful-

may

all

be caused by

mal-nutrition arising from imperfect assimilation of

abundant food-materials.

Digestion

in

its

correct
pre-

sense only renders the food absorbable.

If this
it

pared food cannot be taken by the

tissues,

may

un-

dergo decomposition and thus become a source of


danger.

The mature person


week
s

is

not dependent upon


It is

food eaten to-day for to-day's strength.


day's or last

yester-

meal which

is

held in reserve.

The warnings
the individual
is

of nature pass unheeded, because

deaf and blind to


firm belief that
it

them, having
differstill

grown up with the

makes no

ence what, when, or where he

eats.

Because he

takes pleasure in his food, he dismisses the physician

whom

he has called in to prescribe for his


I

stiff

joints
as-

or irregular heart.

well

remember with what


discovery
that
a

tonishment

made

the

fancied

heart-disease which

disappeared before

made climbing stairs distressful a more abstemious diet, and was,


up
at fifty

therefore, not a sign of breaking

a cor-

responding

relief
I

Personally,
diet
is

believe a

more nearly vegetarian


it

better, partly since

gives less chance of

those inventions of

some

diabolical

cook

in past ages,

FOOD FOR MIDDFE LIFE AND OLD AGE


handed down because
of

8/

man's

sins,

the rich gravies

and sauces with which so many meats are served, and


partly
since

the kidneys

so

frequently

show the

strain of previous excess

and are not able to eliminAgain, when food of vegeit

ate so

much

nitrogen.

table origin fails to digest,

does not give

rise to

toxines, so far as our present

knowledge goes.
understand

By

vegetable

food

most

persons

white

bread, potatoes, rice,

etc., all

starchy foods.

These

are not always well endured, and frequently give rise

to acid conditions which result in various inflammatory diseases.


Fruits, especially those picked green
in cold storage, alTect

and transported
in the
terials

some persons
prob-

same way.

There

are,

however, abundant maIt is

without using an excess of these.

able that about half of the calories, half the starch,

and two-thirds the proteid that he could well


at twenty-five
sixty.
Investigations by Forster

utilize

or

thirty,

may

fully serve a

person at

show the following proportions


Fat,

for

Proteid,

Carbohydrates,

Grams.

Grams.

Grams.

n^^^^;^c. Calories.

Old men Old women

.,.

92 80

45

49

332 266

2149
1875

As

the taste becomes blunted and the circulation

slows down, smaller quantities

may

well be supple-

mented by more frequent


though
It

eating, as in childhood,

for a different reason.

would probably ansv^er very well to give the

88
old and the

THE COST OF

P^OOD
of food; the old,

young the same kinds

because

it

furnishes heat which their lack of motion

makes

it

difficult to

obtain; the young, because

it

fur-

nishes heat to use up in


of sugar

mere motion. Both are fond

and

of fruit.

Eggs

are

good

for both, but

rice for the old

must be replaced
its

for the child

by
the

whole wheat with

ash and phosphates.

To

aged

is

permitted the use of stimulants as tea, and

of blood-vessel extenders as wine,

which must be

for-

bidden to the young because they not only do not


require but are positively injured by such artificial
excitants.

Nine out

of ten will say that they

would rather

live

a shorter time and enjoy the years they have.


the pity of
stiiT in
it is,

But

they do not enjoy

life;

they become

the joints and irritable in mind,


life

making mis-

takes in family

and

in business,

and

in their efforts

to rid themselves of the consequences of folly

become

mentally weakened and too often morally so blinded


that death seems preferable to
life.

We

are apt to

think only of the grosser sins as causes of nervous

depression and mental breakdowns, and to pass by


the
of

more common

sins against the

fundamental law

life

nutrition.

As men grow
life

wiser, as they value effective

human

more nearly

as they value a machine, they will

banish at least one-third of the concoctions with

which men are tempted to their undoing.

Temper-

FOOD FOR MIDDLE LIFE AND OLD AGE


ance
else,

89

in eating is quite as

necessary as in anything

and with the network of trolley-cars jarring our

nerves and taking from us the need of exercise,


are in danger of

we

becoming very
is

ineffective.

great trouble

that

we

are not willing to concan.

fess to

any weakness.

We can eat what any one


we Americans

We

can do anything;

are superior to

laws.

We

are not growing old.

We

are afraid of
.of truth.

thinking about our food.

This has a basis

Many

persons cannot themselves hold a balance of


as to

judgment

what they

shall eat

without danger

of diverting the nervous force from

its

proper work.

But the greatest danger


still

lies in

the creduUty which


try

lingers in the

pubHc mind, the willingness to

any quick and sure remedy.


haps,

Quack foods

are, per-

more pernicious than quack medicines.


one
is

Pos-

sibly the

the corollary of the other.


of the physiological

To one
laws of

who knows anything


nutrition,
it

is

disheartening to hear a group of


life,

friends in middle

who

are gaining in weight and

beginning to suffer twinges of rheumatism, discussing this or that antiacid medicine


water.
;

a special mineral
at

Each favors

a sea

voyage to be undertaken
is

great sacrifice,

when

the remedy

clearly just a little


absti-

self-control, a passing

by of a course or two, an

nence from a few favorite dishes.

X
DIETARIES OR KNOWN AMOUNTS OF FOOD: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF

THE PURVEYOR
"
is

What

strikes us rather as the special evil of the generation

an increase of the force of whim, of the inclination; that is, to gratify impulse without reference to old restraints and of a certain reaction against goodness because the value placed on it is seen to be gathering strength the almost limitless freedom which money in large amounts can give." London Spectator,
.

July 1901.

The

terms diet and dietaries are used, except in


in the sense of daily fare

Chapter VIII,

regulated with

reference to the preservation of health, and not with

reference to the restoration of health once

lost.

In

popular thought, the latter meaning


the only one.
If

is

almost always
is ill
;

one

diets,

it is

because he

has

transgressed one or several of the laws of nature and

must be punished.
to
dietetics

Therefore any hint of attention


putting
one's
inclinations
in

implies

prison, implies a restriction to which, as free-born

Americans, we cannot submit.

This use of these


in

terms must be driven out by education

hygiene

in

the public schools and by the public press.

Health,
of

and not convalescence, must be the goal


ambition.

man's

90

DIETARIES OR

KNOWN AMOUNTS OF FOOD


we mean
that

By a
group

dietary, then,

amount and com-

bination of food which will keep the given person or


of persons in full health,
If
if,

to begin with, they


!

are normal.

they are

(as,

alas

too

many

are)

abnormal to begin with, then the other or medicinal


sense has to be mingled with our thought.
striction in the following chapters
cost of a
is

The

re-

put upon the

good and

sufficient dietary

mainly for well

persons.

This item

is

dwelt upon because so large a propor-

tion of the average

income

is

spent for food and so

few providers keep

tally of the cost as


is,

they buy from

week

to week; that

of the cost of the nutritwe por-

tion of

the food.

They may know how much money


it.

they spend, but not what they obtain for

We

base our estimates on what


is,

is

known

as a

standard dietary; that


foodstuffs
families,

the

amount
for

of the different

which have

sufficed

various races,

and individuals under known conditions.


foodstuffs,

These

although found

in

many com-

binations under
in

numerous forms, are yet very few

number and

are for the most part capable of ap-

proximate estimation.
In each land there are half a dozen foods which

may be
names

substituted for as

in

other lands.

many known by different Food synonyms, they might


of

be termed.

But many combinations

two or more are more

92
easily

THE COST OF FOOD


made which may be
substituted the one for the

other, provided only that

change of food

is

not

made

suddenly.

Acclimatization consists largely in modi-

fication of food habits.

In practice
in the
is

we

allow about ten per cent for waste


if

body through non-assimilation, and

there

a liberal diet with

much

choice of dishes, ten per

cent

more

for kitchenif

and table-waste.

For example,
or of

we

wish to be sure that our group

of students really

have one hundred grams of proteid

fat in their daily food,

we must provide one make out


That
is,

hundred and twenty-five grams of each.


It

should be easy for any one to

a die-

tary from Bulletin No. 28, U. S. Office of Experi-

ment
raw

Stations, for
materials.

any given
science

cost.

for the

The

of

it

how
is

to

cook,
for
is

flavor,

and combine them

there
Hence

the field

fancy, for art, for invention.

At present cooking
scientific

an

art,

crude and variable, and


it.

accuracy

cannot be demanded of

the wide margin

which must be allowed for spoiled and rejected food.

For

this reason,
is

also,

no

definite
for.

menu can be
Because
it is

given such as
refused, the

constantly asked
is

whole subject
"
''

usually relegated to the


is

mental dump-heap.
other man's poison

What
is

one man's meat

is

an-

yet true, and also that one

cook can make into

delicious, nutritious dishes


civilized

what

another would make unfit for

man.

DIETARIES OR KiVOWN AMOUNTS OF FOOD

93

Only the raw food-materials can be treated with


any degree of accuracy.
a

This degree

is

surer, within

limited

range,

than

was

formerly

supposed.

Analyses of various food-materials have

now been

made

so abundantly that an average can be drawn

sufficient for the

month

or year.

One

day's ration

might not be so closely calculated, and


ful

it is

not needat the

that

it

should be.

These analyses are now


will
all

service of

any one who

take the trouble to study


sides a certain familiarity

them.

Until

we have on

with these exact figures, there will be

bandied about

from household magazine to newspaper assertions


of facts

on the one

side

and denials on the other


in either.

which destroy the confidence of the public

For

instance,

in

Boston's

most respectable
9,

daily

(The Advertiser) of August


a heading:
''

1901, there appeared

Feeding Four on 25 Cents a Day."

The
*'

article

began:

The

usual run of papers in cooking-magazines

are good, and

many

of

them are

excellent, giving

much-needed information, useful advice, and timely


facts,

but the average paper on


i?

economy

in feeding

a household
curate.
"

misleading and sometimes sadly inac-

For

instance, in a leading household


article of this
it

magazine

appeared an
other things,

sort,

in which,

among
said
it

was stated that one woman

was possible

to feed a family of four or five, health-

94
fully

THE COST OF FOOD


and appetizingly on 25 cents a day, while an-

other said she could not set an ordinary table undei'

50 cents a day.

Now

the question

is,

could the
five

woman who
so?
I
it is

thought she could feed four or

on
do

25 cents a day, and give them


"

sufficient food,

do not know what the original

article did say,

but

probable that the 25 cents per day was for one

person, not for the four.

We

are accustomed to

speak of the lo-cent, or the 25-cent, or the $i-a-day


dietary,

meaning the expense per day

for

one per-

son.

Here
is

the need for exact and complete state-

ment

evident.

The newspaper

writer w^as quite

correct in assuming that for six cents per day per

person grain mushes must make the bulk of the food,


for

our lowest allowable sum

is

ten cents per day per

person.

The
**

article

goes on:
of

And most
of

these

statements

won't

hold.

Without wishing too sharply


ments
Miss
it
,

to criticise the state-

the

teacher

of

the

Cooking-school,
her statements.
of our class

is

impossible to accept
'
:

some

of

She said

Three

of the students

wxre chosen to give

a breakfast at grad-

were allowed $3 to buy the materials, and we had 24 guests. We had the best of everyuation.

We

thing,

and

it

cost us just $2.80.

Here

is

the

menu

we

served:

DIETARIES OR

KNOWN AMOUNTS OF FOOD

95

Strawberries with Cream.

Hominy
Broiled Shad
Sliced

with Cream.
French-fried Potatoes

Cucumbers
Cofifee.

Rolls

"

'

4-emember strawberries cost 25 cents a quart,

and we required three quarts.

We

served two large

shad, and $2.80 covered the breakfast, including the

smallest details.'
*'

Here

it is

not the cost of the meal that awakens

surprise, but

one

of the items.

Miss

says

that 24 guests,

and presumably the three students


all,

who got up

the breakfast, 2y in

were served with

three quarts of strawberries.

Will any one

who
it

re-

members what

a quart of strawberries shrinks to by


into

the time the berries are hulled try to divide

nine portions, and say

if

the result constitutes what

any one could conscientiously term a helping of


strawberries?
'*

Here the snapshot


needs correcting.
as the wTiter had in

of the
*'

daily-news purveyor
of strawberries such
''

quart

''

mind which
is

shrinks,'' etc., pur-

chased
if

when

the fruit

dear, does not yield

much,

any, over a pint, but the " quart " of selected native

berries such as
at this

would be used by these young cooks

time of year would measure very nearly the


Six portions are allowed for a
this,

estimated quantity.

quart by the caterers, and in a case like

where

..

96

THE COST OF FOOD


enjoined, eight portions to a quart
all.

economy was
ment
of

was

not so very niggardly after


it,

Just for the amuse-

the author determined the quantities,


"^

mainly according to Miss Huntington's

estimates

and the food values


sults,

of the

menu

as given.
table, are

The
most

rein-

shown

in the

accompanying

structive

and completely vindicate

this class-work.

TABLE

VII

BREAKFAST FOR 24 PERSONS


Lb.
Strawberries, 3 quarts.

Oz.

Grms.
2264 2038
724 2722
105

Cost.

Prot.

Fat. Carb.

Cal.

Supar

$0 7S
.225 .03 .187 .72 .04 .01 .15 .20 5 .12

20

14

^i lbs

....
I

72
z

Hominy
Thin cream, Shad
Fat
Rolls, 3 doz. home-made. Butter for fish and rolls.
3

cups

2 12

46'
18

French-fried Potatoes ....

4
4

390 3-2
28s 2.8

27 134 130 1.6

138 864 438 32.5

775 3537 2246 X460

372
1620

1260

4h
12

340

Cucumbers
CoflEce

285.0

"28!6
432
9

8160 5382 180


1768 730

Sugar,

Cream

2 lbs. 4 oz iv cuds

?2.8

'"362"

"3
093

67

16.7

$2,788

778

703

3839
160 --

28736
1197

For one person

The standard

ration ...

32.4 33-3

22.9

So that the three


fair

little

cooks could have made a

breakfast without seriously robbing the guests.

Since fat and starch or sugar are to a certain extent interchangeable, the slight lack in fat
dietary,
is,

in

our

made up
is

in carbohydrates,

and since an exact

division

neither necessary nor desirable, one of the

other meals could easily remedy any deficiency.


*

The

Dietary.

See Bibliography.

DIETARIES OR

KNOWN AMOUNTS OF FOOD


is

97
It

This particular case


is

of

no special importance.
it

given in detail simply because

illustrates so ad-

mirably the following points, which the author wishes


to emphasize
1st.

Popular
to teach

disbelief in

and

distrust of the efforts


in catering.

made
their

more exact methods

2d. P^ailure

on the part of the teachers to bring


of the aver-

methods within the comprehension

age reader.
3d.

General ignorance of the nutritive value of

food materials as purchased.


4th.

Common
The
in

neglect of the element of waste in

preparation and in assimilation.


5th.

results tabulated furnish

an illustration of

one way
practical.

which the teaching may be made more

XI
DIETARIES COSTING FROM TEN TO FIFTEEN CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON
*'

their means."

The Golden Rule is let Hayward.

all

men's dinners be according to

The
for his

business-man

who

frequently pays one dollar


for his dinner,

luncheon and two dollars

and

who knows

that his ow^n table costs

him one hun-

dred dollars a month for a family of three, receives


with incredulity the statement that ten cents per

person per day


fifty

will give,

anywhere

in

America within

miles of a railroad, sufficient nutrition for a


diet.

wholesome

The woman who has


sighs

tried to cut

down her
is final:

ex-

penses by saving in the food-material purchased

and shakes her head.

Her dictum

" It

cannot be done."

And

yet

we know
life

that

it

can and has been done;


in the case of
it

that efficient

can be maintained
It is

many persons
sary.

for this sum.

the will to do
will,

and

the motive, which sustains the

that

is

neces-

Appetite

is

largely a matter of habit

and

of mental
98

An examination
same kind
1910, the 15

of the same markets for the

of foodstuffs

showed that

in

August,

and 25 cent per day per person

dietary given on pages 109,


cost 18

no,

132,

would

and 27 cents

respectively.

This accords

with
that

all

other recent investigations,


really

namely,

the

staple

articles

bought with
are

time

and care

plus

knowledge

not

so

greatly increased in cost.


is

When
and

the question
cost to-day

of the $1.00 a

day dietary the


it

is

increased to at least $1.50

may

easily
like

go to $2.00.
corn meal,

The common food materials


rice,

macaroni, dried

fruits,

flank

and

bone,

are not used.

They

are consid-

ered too
It

common and

therefore '^unclean.''

was intended
it

to recalculate the dietaries,


all

but

seems not necessary in view of

the

conditions revealed in recent investigations.

DIETARIES COSTING TEN TO FIFTEEN CENTS


orientation.

99

The man who has


is

his eyes fixed

on a

good

for

which he

wilHng to subordinate every-

thing else can maintain health without the luxuries


of the table.
best,

He

finds that food

which

will

serve him
is

and

is

not tempted by that which

useless.

Alas! Iiow few have the knowledge, the strength of

purpose, and the healthy body to enable them to do


this.

There

is

abundant testimony to the clearness

of brain and strength of muscle gained by living

" close to nature "


soil.

on the perfected products of the


abundant testimony as to
this

There

is

also

failure
will,

in

attempting to do

by persons without the

the knowledge, or the physical stamina to succeed.

There

will,

therefore, always be
select, the

two

parties: the

one small and

other large and vociferous;


at less

the latter claiming that

life

than

fifty

cents per

day for food

is

not worth living.

It is just as

impossible and just as unwise for a per-

son drunken with beef and highly seasoned food to


stop short and try to live on shredded wheat and
milk, as for the toper to

change
in

his habits to total

abstinence.
calls

Every
its

cell

the body in either case

out for

accustomed stimulant, and the strugsufficient to use

gle

is

more than
a

up

all

the energy,

which the body can develop.

As

mere matter

of scientific fact

we must
ivill

assert

that, given a

normal digestion with the


self, it is

to do the

best thing for one*s

possible so to select and


lOO

THE
it

CO^^T

OF FOOD

prepare food that

need not cost over ten cents per

person per day.

To

substantiate

this,

we

offer the following facts:

First, the staple diet of the

world

is

made up
is

of of
for

one or more
a

cereals.

These furnish an average

600 calories per pound.

Two

pounds

ample

the needs of the


cents.
fruit,

workingman

at a cost of three to five

Part of the cereal

may be

replaced by meat,
costing, in
all,

sugar, milk, and

some vegetables,
will lessen
fat

six to

seven cents; this

the quantity of

starchy food and increase

and nitrogen.

With

ten kinds of cereals, ten other foods, and

forty flavors,
if

hundreds of combinations are possible


skill

only any inventive

were exercised

in the pre-

paration and serving.


of

In this direction the


lacking.
boiled,

women
limited

America are singularly


roast, baked,

The same
is

round of

and

served with the

same excess
it is

of crude flavor

week
is

after week, so that

no wonder that variety


it is,

constantly called for

variety of badness
If

too, as a rule.

we could only apply the same sagacity and business acumen to the food-supply of the young engineer as we do to his mechanical training! But, alas! we have mind as well as matter to deal
with and, worse than
past.
all

tradition, the fetish of the

One person

likes caraway-seeds,

another
likes

will

not eat cookies so flavored,


dislikes are

and these small

and

permitted to overbalance health.

DIKTARIKS COSTING TKN TO FlFTKExV *CKM ^

lOI

'

We
plants,

take no warning from other animals and from


all

of

which

fail

of

their

best

end when
in

overfed.

Nature does not make an exception

favor of man.

The

individual

may thrive
all

like a forced

plant, but not so the race.


infertility of

In

the discussion of the

the higher branches of the


is
!

human

race,

how

little

attention

paid to the weakening effect of

pampered appetite

We
flavor

are always asked to give a

menu

for the use of

these simple foods.

How

is

it

possible

when

the

depends on a score of variables


in

time and deof water, salt,

gree of heat

the cooking,

amount

and condiment added, combinations made, when


acceptability

depends quite as much on the way


is

the prepared food


is

served, the

company

in

which

it

eaten, the

temper of the individual


itself ?
is

at the

time of

eating, as

on the food

The

object of this

book

not so

much

to give ineffectual

formation as to stimulate research.

more

preparation of the food-supply must be secured by


original research.

Most
present

of the
is

work put upon food preparation


"'

at

against rather than for health.

Unfor-

tunately the practice of cookery does not repose

upon recognized

principles, but

on

recipes,

many

of

which are based upon


* "

flagrant error." *

The

Spirit of

Cookery."

p.

156.

102

THE COST OF FOOD


one
of the best evidences of a

It is possible that

development of better " taste " and better ideals in


art will
less

be found

in better furniture

and pictures and

money

spent in crude food.

How

can

we be
is

otherwise than materialistic so long as our food


gross and handled in so repulsive a manner?
there

so

Was

ever

so
its

barbarous a sight as the modern


red-hot range,
its

kitchen, with
its

its

perspiring cooks,

slovenly maids,

ill-smelling cold storage?


call

May
the

ask each reader to

up

in his eye the

picture which to

him

is

most

typical of that for


city dweller

which

word food stands?


and
is

For the

it

may

be a medley of half-clothed, dripping persons, greasy


dishes
pails of refuse, to the

presence of which

attention

loudly called as one passes the basement

windows
pression
streets

of hotel or restaurant.
left after

The most
will

vivid im-

a half hour's passage along the

of
fat,

any down-town section

be that of

burned
sorts.

hot, steam-carried vapors of indescribable

Even worse
all

are the meat-shops, the

windows

displaying in
tures which

their repulsive nakedness the creakills for his

man

own

use

fish,

flesh,

and fowl; even barrels of potatoes, beets, and cabbages, with remains of their recent contact with the
soil,. are

not

much improvement. What wonder

that

we

try to forget the crude materials in

French names,

grotesque shapes, or excessive garnishing.

What

wonder

that to be

hungry

is

a rare sensation, that a

DIETARIES COSTING TEN TO FIFTEEN CENTS


loathing for food
spices in
is

I03

overcome only by wines and

good company!
is

What wonder

that any

dark place
rites of

held to be good enough to perform the

transformation for such horrors!


fresh,

Even the

juicy fruits with their tempting

display of color are paraded in line with the clouds


of street-dust,

and

stirred constantly

by the ubiqui-

tous feather duster.

In the country the gross treatment of food follows


city

ways, and the universal pig evidences the waste


failure to provide satisfactory viands.

and

All

indications
its

point

to

the low estimation in


is

which food and


trast to the

preparation

now

held, in con-

time when kings and statesmen were

prou*d to have dishes

named
Is

for them.
it,

Is

it,

then,
for

a subject

tO'

be shunned?

then,

no matter

concern what manner of food


ing race?

is

offered to the
its

comouter

Has
is

it

no

effect

on the soul that

envelope
is

so vilely treated?

right point of view

essential to

our discussion, and certain dogmatic

may serve to orient us at the start in order that we may proceed on harmonious lines. Suppose we state it in the form of a creed: 1. I believe that man is what he eats "; i.e., that the kind of food going to make up the physical body
statements
''

reacts

upon the nervous system,

affecting

mind and

character.
2. I

believe that

man

is

''

the noblest work of

I04

THE COST OF FOOD


" only

God

when he

uses his body as a

means

of ex-

pression of high ideals, and not as a means of grati-

fying
3.

momentary
I

desires.

believe that " he that ruleth his

own

spirit is

greater than he that taketh a city "; to control one's


appetite in view of the aims in
life

which one holds


life

up

to the inner vision; to so order one's


fair

that one
is

has a

chance of attaining one's ideals

man's

prerogative, and differentiates him from the beast


of the field.
4.
I

believe that man's efficiency in this world,


is

if

not his happiness in the next,

mainly due to the

precautions he takes to use suitable food and to

avoid dangerous combinations.


5.

believe that
all

''

the duty that Hes next "

is

the

instruction of

the people in food values and the

inculcation of a respect for the

body and the

office of

food as a means to an end, and that end

the highest
is

duty of man.
6.
I

believe that temperance in the use of food


in

even more essential than

anything

else

which

tempts man's appetite.


7. I

believe that

good food

habits can be formed

in

childhood which

will carry the

man through

life

in as

great a degree of safety as other good habits

early

formed may

do.

Self-control,
ciently taught.

self-limiting

factors

are

not

suffi-

In the rage for freedom, for self-ex-

DIETARIES COSTING TEN TO FIP^TEEN CENTS


pression,

105

many

are apt to include

Nature's laws
off.

among

the trammels to be thrown

Such con-

sider the unrestricted choice

of food as freedom.
wilfully laid to

The consequences some other door.


If this

of this

freedom are

kind of rashness

killed, it

would not so much


not
is

matter; but with philanthropic, sentimental helps at

hand,

life is

prolonged to the misery of others,

if

to the individual suffering.

Appetite for liquor


spices,

guarded against; appetite for sweets,


food
is

and

rich

passed by in the nursery and in school as of

no moment.
his

The

child

must eat something, and so

crying brings the coveted tidbit of which he

should never have


taste in food
is

as

known the taste. A cultivated much or more needed than a culJust as in furnishing a house
it

tivated taste in art.


is

not the

money

spent, but the

good

taste in the ar-

rangement

of the whole, as well as in the choice of


it

the individual articles, so in food for the table

is

not the amount of


terial

money spent, but the sort of mapurchased and the way it is treated after it is

purchased which determines the effectiveness of the


expenditure.

How
name

shall

we

characterize that

to win, a prize to strive for,


it

man who with a it may be a for-

tune or a reputation,
exploration,

may be
life,

laboratory research or

deliberately
if

cripples himself, imperils

his usefulness

not his

brings sadness and care

io6

THE COST OF FOOD

into the lives of those he loves most, yet allows himself

to be allured by the pleasures of the palate, or

even merely ignores the laws of health?

TABLE

IX
as to their

The Thirteen Chief Foods considered

Nutritive and Economic Values

Is.-

Nuts (peanuts, edible portion). Sugar (granulated) Cornrieal (bolted)

9.i
12.9

25.8

38.6
2.2
1

8.9

Wheat flour Rye flour


Rice

(roller process)

"5
12.7 12.4 13-2 55 45 67.1 87 44.5 60

"3

.1

7t
7.8 22.3 16
12 1.8

Legumes

(dried)

24.4 100 75.1 74.6 78.5 79 59-1

2560 1857 1655 164s 1630 1630 1590

Meats (about)
Fish (fresh) Potatoes Milk
30

15-3
5

3-3
7

Bananas
Fruit (apples, grapes, etc.).

40 25

13.7 12.9

325 325 290 285

Wheat Wheat

flour at 2 cents

per pound
'*

furnishes

3000
*

Cornmeal

at

"

flour at

4
5
i

Rice at Potatoes at

" "
" " "
*'

"

"
'*

" " " "


4*

"
ti

calories
ii

for

3.6 5.4
7.2

((

"
*
*'

" "
'*

'
*

"
*'

9.?
9
15

Legumes
Milk
at

at

8
3

"
** '*

*'

"
'

"
it 14

ti
41
4

Potatoes at

'*

* "
*'
'*

i8 j8

Nuts (kernels) at 16 cents Cheese (American pale) at

**

14

t<

" "
i(
( *'

19

44
44 44
44
44

20
21

Fruit at 2 cents per pound Milk at 3^ (7 cents a qt.) Beef (medium fat) at 15 cents (isjC bone) Beef (sirloin) at 25 cents per pound Eggs at 25 cents per dozen

4.
44
44.

*'
*'

3 47

**
(

44

44

44

"

69
lis

It is

the boast of civilization that

man

has con-

quered the forces of nature, harnessed the lightning,


etc.,

but he has done

it

by learning the laws under

DIETARIES COSTING TEN TO FIFTEEN CENTS

I07

which these forces work and adapting

his

machine to

those laws, not by running counter to them.


yet

And
for

we

see an engineer

who understands
to
efficient

this full well

violating every law which Nature has laid

down

the

guidance of
is

man

manhood.
none.
persist

Be-

cause. he

not called upon to pay the penalty imis

mediately, he professes to think there

So long do

folk-lore

and tradition

after

science has illuminated the page.

To work up

a dietary in any given case, begin with

the quantities costing ten cents, and substitute from


the tables, foods of equal physiologic value (so far as
is

known) up

to the Hmit of

money
^

in hand.

For

instance

DIETARY A
Cost.

Cereals (dry),

lb

02

per lb., J^ lb. Vegetables at ic. per lb., 2 lbs Dried fruits at i6c. per lb., i oz Sugar, 3 oz., etc

Meats

at 6 to 8c.

04
.02

01
01

.10

DIETARY B
Cost.

Bread and other preferred


Meats,
I

cereals,

lb

06
.25

lb
i

Fresh vegetables, Fresh fruit, i lb


Sugar, 3
oz., etc

lb

08 08
03
.50

I08

THE COST OF FOOD


a vegetarian diet
is

The nearer
easier will
it

approached, the

be to furnish an inexpensive table, but


will

the greater

wisdom

be required in choosing both


of preparation.

the food

itself

and the manner


it is

For

most
earn

of the poorer class, to

easier

and wiser
in the

for the

mother

go out two or three days


This

week
if

to

money

with w^hich to supply meat, even


left

the

children are

to themselves.

may seem rank

heresy, but to choose wisely

means more knowledge

than the foreign mother possesses, confronted as she


is

by dozens

of foods of

which neither she nor her

grandmother have had that experience which counts


for

knowledge.
a matter of practice,
it

As

may be

interesting to

see what could be furnished for ten cents by aid


of vegetarian

cook-books and native

wit.

Any

cook-

ing-class

to bring

may discover some down the cost of a


will

very appetizing dishes


fifty-cent

menu.

Two
at ran-

examples
lie in

be sufficient to show what possibilities

this direction.

These were taken almost

dom from

a considerable number.

The only conbeef,


in the 25-cent,

trolling factor

was that the dinner should include

since that meat formed the main dish

50-cent and $1 dietaries, on pages 132, 141, and 142,


in

connection with which these are to be studied.

DIETARIES COSTING TEX TO FIFTEEN CENTS

ICQ

TABLE X
Dietary No.
for average family of
six,
1

1$

cents per person per day


Grams

Lbs.

Oz.

Gms.

Cost.
Prot.

Gal.

Fat.

Carb.

Breakfast.

Baking-powder

biscuit
I

$0.10
"^\
2

Ham (lean)
Butter Potatoes Milk for coffee
SuG^ar for coffee

453

15

72.2 81.5
.2

447

.025

2491 1123 333

i6o 6o

.02 .01

16

650
7

.007

60
653

246
4965

0.312 175.94 168

Dinner^
Beef-shank stew Potatoes Turnips
Suet pudding:
Beef-suet
I
1

3
I
I

1360

0.24
.01 .02

18s 8

53
.4 5

"69"
28
53

1251

325
138

.015

4-5 7-5

24.7

477

qt. flour

cup molasses Soda, sweet sauce


Supper.
Milk,
T

03 .028 .02 .01

'66'" 220
6

428"

"3
ID

50
741

2040 2056 463 298


7048

0-373 271

314.6

pint

0.03^
.10

Bread (home-madeXand butter Stewed pears


Totals:

^5 61 4

18

126.5
5

.04^

22.7 319 216

325 2734 902

0.175

80

H9'5
168

557.7
653 741 557.7

4021

Breakfast

Dinner Supper
Tea, coffee, etc

.312 176 373 271 0.175 80

314.6 149-5
632.1

4965 7048
4021

0.86
.04

537

195^.7 16034

0.90
.I3

Per person

89.5

105.3

325.3

2672

453.6
I

grms =

lb.

grm. proteid and carbohydrates grm. fat = 9.3 calories.

4.1 calories.

no

THE COST OF FOOD


^TABLE XI
Dietary No. 2

for average family of

six,

1$

cents per person per day


Grams,

Lbs.

Oz.

Gms.

Cost.
Prot.

Cal.

Fat.

Carb.

Breakfast.

English monkey: I cup bread-crumbs 1 cup milk I tablespoon butter I cup cheese
1

\ 2
2

200 252
14 57

$0,025
.02
.01 .01

19 8
14

2.S 10
12

\ 106 12.6
I

"34
95-5 922.5
2141 651 734

egg

Milk for coffee Sugar for the day Bread (home-made), a loaves, for toast and for dinner
Butter

6 8
28

56 160 225

.02 .01 .03

6 6

19 5 7

225

824 80

Doughnuts,

i rule

.10 .04 .025

78
2

426

70
16

18

0.290

151

1495 940
154 142
2

5677

Dinner.
Roast stuffed heart Salt fat pork
Potatoes
64 8 46 16 16

0.20
::::::
1.

.04 .05
03 13

346 20 25 6
55

2844

'378'
41

Onions
Carrots

1.6

420
2642

Rice pudding, hard sauce....


Supper.

105.5
405

350
769

0.45

446

8922

Baking-powder griddle-cakes without &%%^ eaten with butter and sugar Milk Stewed prunes with sugar.
.

0.08
12

.02

46.5 9
3

8s. 12

441 15

.025

150

2794 208 627

0.125

58.5
151

97.5
149-5 405 97.5

606
940 769 606
2315

3629
5677 8922 3629
18228

Totals; Breakfast

0.290
45 125

Dinner SuDoer
Tea, coffee, etc

446 58.5

0.865
.04

655-5

652

0.905
.151

Per person

109.2
1

X08.6

386

3038

XII

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

learned French judge, Henrion de Penesey, said to three of

the most distinguished


place, the chemists

men of science, the mathematician LaChaptol and Berthollet: "I regard the discovery of a dish a far more interesting event than the discovery of a star, for we have already stars enough, but we c*an never have too many dishes; and I shall not regard the sciences as sufficiently honored or adequately represented amongst us until I see a cook in the first class of the (French) Institute."

Twenty-five cents per day per person may be considered the cost of the wage-earner's dietary, since
for

an income of $800 to $1000 a year

this

means

for

the family of three or four adults and four children

equivalent to five

men

as dietaries are reckoned

about $450, or 45 to 56 per cent of the total income.


Statistics

show

this to

be an average the world over.

Nearly every family has one or more unproductive

members, and too often some one needing


that the

care, so

income must go as
is

far

as

it

can.

The
of

American wage-earner

not so far wrong in de-

manding

a liberal diet, but he lacks a

knowledge

cost of nutritive units which

would enable him to

live

112

THE COST OF FOOD

well on his means.

He

also allows his children to

acquire habits of indulgence which are not only bad


for

him but

for them.

Several twenty-five cent dietaries are given with


the conditions under which they were taken, and

others

may be
U.

found, especially in Bulletins 29, 32, 46,


S.

52, 55, 91,

Experiment

Stations.

study of

these will give any one


subject a working basis.

who

desires to look into the

There are two and

common ways
of
all

of taking a dietary

one, that of taking account of stock in the larder before


after,

and

purchases
;

made

the

differ-

ence and

sum being

the food used

the other, in ad-

dition, requires estimation

beforehand of what, for

the given experiment, should be used and the check-

ing up afterward of the excess or

deficit.

The

latter

was the method employed


Housekeeping, Boston
of the

in the

following problem

given to the class in dietaries at the School of


:

After a study of the needs

body

in infancy, in school-life,

and

in active

work, and after attempts were made to formulate a


ten-cent dietary on scientific principles in order to

secure a working basis, the class was required to


"

Make

out a week's

bill

of fare

which you yourselves

ivill

be zinlling to eat, to cost

not over 25 cents per pershall

son daily for raw food-material, and which


furnish,
in

the week, the right proportion of the

various food-substances."

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON II3


This
it is

is

not given as a model


in the

bill

of fare.

Indeed,

not possible

present state of vicious habits


for as

of eating to give a

model menu

many

as six-

teen persons, especially

women, and more

especially

women
The

students and teachers, which would be ac-

ceptable to them.
provider, after six

months

of experience,

had

learned what dishes would be tolerated and what

would be refused, and governed

herself accordingly.

Only two
"

of the victims found


all

any of the meals


they

wholly unsatisfactory, and

declared that

bought no more candy than

usual,''

which was very

gratifying in view of the

much

greater cost of their

usual fare.

Theoretical dietaries are often at fault in endeavoring to furnish at one meal an exact ratio of the
various food-elements and an exact fraction of the
total values.

Circumstances govern
instance,

this to a large

extent.

For

one morning after a hearty

breakfast, the class under experiment

went from one

recitation to another, or with only a laboratory exercise all the

morning.

This day a light luncheon of


if

easily digestible

food was clearly called for


be

any

work was

to

undertaken

in

the

afternoon.
in a field-

Another day the morning had been spent


windy weather.

excursion to a spice-mill in a neighboring city in cold,

The luncheon on

that day

must
Writ-

clearly furnish nearly the usual dinner ration.

14

THE COST OF FOOD


visit

ing Up notes of a

will

not

demand

as

much

.brain-energy as will a study-hour on a

new

subject.

Again, a warm,

muggy day

indicates a lighter

dinner than a clear, crisp one, while a cold morning


calls for

more

butter, cocoa, or

some food

rich in fat.

The menu should vary with


an institution
it

the season.

Even

for

should be considerably changed four

times in the year.

The

following results agree very nearly with the

estimates,

showing how

closely

the

student

who

planned the dietary had studied the daily routine and

how

accurately the teachers

knew

the quantities
for a
.

usually consumed.

The estimates were made

family of six and multiplied to suit the existing case.

One
in

or

more were absent from some meals,

so that

order to obtain from these figures an estimate of

quantity for two persons, one-seventh of the amounts

may

be taken

for

two hearty men, one-sixth.

If for

the typical family of the statistician,

father,

mother,

and four young

children,

two-sevenths should give


Substitutes of equal food
in larger quantities
less

the approximate amount.

value may, of course, be used wherever preferred.

Nearly every meat was consumed


than estimated
used.
;

of rice

and shredded wheat

was

Doubtless the absence of some

common
list
''

dishes
in class

is

due to the preparation of a " black


few days before.

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

I 1

MENUS FOR ONE WEEK FOR $0.25 A DAY PER PERSON


[Family of sixteen

all

women

students; 2d and 3d

week

in

April; Eastern city; season very backward.]

Breakfast:

Cream

of wheat,

baked beans, brown

bread, coffee, cocoa, or milk.

Luncheon
Dinner:

Brown and white bread sandwiches,


sHced oranges, cake, cocoa.

Soup,

saltines,

roast

fowl

(stuffed),

hominy, cranberries, lettuce salad with

French dressing, ice-cream, cake.


Breakfast:

One-half shredded-wheat biscuit, boiled


egg,

Graham

muffins,

apple

sauce,

coffee, cocoa, or milk.

Luncheon: Hashed chicken on


Dinner:

toast, fried

hominy,

cookies, apricots, tea.

Soup with

rice, rib-roll roast, Irish

potajelly

toes (mashed), tomatoes,

lemon

with bananas and nuts.


Breakfast:

One-half orange, wheat germ, creamed


codfish,

cornmeal

muffins,

coffee,

cocoa, or milk.

Luncheon: Vegetable soup, omelet, brown


cream.

betty,

Dinner

Spflit-pea soup, veal roast, Irish potatoes,

creamed onions, lettuce


Germea,

salad, saltines,

cottage pudding, chocolate sauce;


Breakfast:

cream

toast,

bacon,

baked

apples, coffee, cocoa, or milk.

ii6

THE COST OF FOOD


Irish

Luncheon:
Dinner

stew with dumpHngs,

fruit

salad,

cookies, cocoa.
:

Chicken soup, roast leg


toes, beets,

of

mutton, pota-

Norwegian

dessert.

Breakfast

One-half orange, vitos, hash, dry toast,


coffee, cocoa, or milk.

Luncheon: Creamed potatoes, sausage, raised


nut cake, prunelles,
tea.

rolls,

Dinner:

Soup, chicken-and-veal

pie, peas, orsinge

salad, saltines, cracker

pudding, cream.

Breakfast

One-half orange, oatmeal, creamed dried


beef,

corn cake,

cofifee,

cocoa, or milk.

Luncheon Fish chowder, rice-and-mutton croquettes


:

with
dates.

tomato

sauce,

salted

peanuts,

Dinner:

Tomato
aise

soup, baked haddock, Holland-

sauce,

mashed potatoes,

Lima

beans, lettuce salad, saltines, suet pudding,

lemon sauce.
orange,
pettijohn,
fish

Breakfast: One-half

hash,

date mufifins, cofifee, cocoa, or milk.

Luncheon: English
salad,
^

monkey on

toast,

vegetable

baking-powder

biscuit,

choco-

late.

Dinner:

Bean soup, Hamburg


toes,
saltines,

steak,

baked pota-

carrots and peas, lettuce salad,

chocolate pudding with hard

sauce.

. . . . .

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

17

TABLE

XII

FOODSTUFFS ACTUALLY USED IN HOUSE EXPERIMENT


Gram s.
Food
Materials.

Amount.

Cost.
Prot.

Cal.

Fat.

Carb.

Cereals.
at 5 c. per pound Pettijohn at 13 c. per pound.. Wheat germs at 12 c. per pound,. Vilos at 12 c. per pound Cr, of wheat at 13 c. per pound... Shredded wheat at 10 c. per

Oatmeal

9 9 9 9 9

oz. oz. oz. oz. oz.

$0.0312
.073' .067 .067 .073

41.

17.5

21.3
27 34-5

^:? 3.6
5-1
4

26.7
3-5 36.8 37.5
18

168.6 198 196.8 192.3 193.8


105 191

1040 953 953 950 9S

package
Ralston B.

Food
c.

Hominy
Rice at 9

at 3
c.

at 12 c. per per pound

lb..

si oz. 9 oz.

per pound

xlb. Jib.

X
.03

4-3

.045

357.8 179
44.9
1782.3

447 974 1650 815


8734

0.52

246.5

Fruits.

Oranges at 18 c. per dozen Bananas at i2i c. per dozen Apples at $1.50 per bushel Lemons at 20 c. per dozen
Cranberries at 12 c. per qt Prunelles at 14 c. per pound (taken as apricots) Apricots at 14 c. per pound )ates at 5 c. per pound Raisins at 1 1 c. per pound D. currants at 25 c. per pound.. ..
1

dozen

0.645
.0625
.27 25 .09 .07 .105

9 lbs. 2 oz.
z.\

dozen
fqt.
ilb. lib.

58.4 5.1 12.4 10.3


3

9-7 2.5 12.4 7.3 4.5


2.2

828.6 91.2 446.3 86.8 75.6


141.

3570 421 2007 407


32 X

10.6 19.6 3.6 1.7

2 lbs. \\ oz.

50Z.
3\ OZ.

.114 0343 .039

4.6 1.2
69

2X2 729.$ 108 52.7

3307 500 233


12478

1.6798

X40

2768

Sugar.

Granulated

Powdered

Lump
5 c.

at 5I c. per pound at 5 lbs. for 83 c


c.

IS lbs.
2
it)s.

c,\

oz.

0.8732
.0206 1837 0937

7064.9
142 1190 1129

29004
581

per pound molasses at 30 c. per gallon.


at 7

10 oz. T% gal.

39
39

4882 4644
391

1-1713

9525.9

Flour and Crackers,


Bread at $4.80 per barrel 27 lbs. 4ioz. Pastry at $4.75 per barrel 4 lbs. lojoz. Corn meal at 2 c. per pound 3 lbs. II oz. Graham meal at 3 c. per pound 31b. Boston crackers at 8 c. per pound 14J oz. Saltines at 15 c. per pound I lb. 15 oz.
.

0.6692 .1127
.0731 .0225 .0725 .2906
I
.

1246.3 259.5

135.8 23.2
7.4 24.8 104

1537
45 45 87 1836

9337 8 1540.3 1259-9 242.5 29T.8


573

45114 7613 6102


1708 3684

2406

428

Meats and Fish.

1324s

65474

Fowl at 13 c. per pound Beef shank at 5 c. per pound Rib roll at 12^ c. " " Ham, steak at xx c. per pound . Loin of veal at 13 c. per pound. Leg of lamb at 13 c. " " Bacon at 15 c. per pound Salt pork at 10 c. per pound Sausage at 12 c. * "

I4i lbs. 9 lbs.


7 lbs. 3 lbs. 6 oz.

1.8367
45 .87-

.3628 .60x2 4 lbs. 10 oz. 9 lbs. I oz. 1. 17812

lib.

15

7ioz.
2 lbs.

0453 .24

882.6 391.2 620.2 290.8 354 652.7 59-8 3-9 117.7

787 2X6 429.4 195-9 191.9 578.3 280 176.9 400.4

9.9

10947 3645 7455 30x4 32x1 7884 2849 1663 4243

. .

. .

ii8

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE Xll Continued
FOODSTUFFS ACTUALLY USED IN HOUSE EXPERIMENT
Grams.

Food

Materials.

Cost.
Prot.
Fat.

Cal.

Carb.

Meats and /^/jAContinued.


Dried beef at 30
c.

per pound

ij lbs.

Haddock

at 6 c. per

pound..
'*
*'

"

Fresh cod at 6 c '" Salt cod at 12 c. "


Vegetables.

14I oz.

3375 .48 .255 .108


.6.9197

136.5

193-4 77^9

35.^ 7-2 2.2 1.6

4062

3296

Potatoes at 80

c.

per bushel

Tomatoes

at 8 c. per

can

27 lbs. si oz 2 cans

0.549
1733
45 .045

12.3
4

2268.6

834
172.8 372.3 131.2 76.5
102 122 15^9 85 198

Pease at 15 c. per can Split pease at 6 c. per quart Lima beans (dry) at 7^ c. per lb n\ oz. lbs. 4i oz. Carrots at 3 c. a pound Onions (10= i qt.) at 60 c. per peck 2 lbs. z\ oz 2qt. 3ilbs. Beets at 6 c. per quart Turnip ai 2J c. per pouod 8| oz. Lettuce at 3 heads for 25 c 15 heads iij oz. Pea-beans at 7^0. per pound

.0617 .0084 .0725


.12

3-5 8.5 2.7

.0136 1.25 .0617

6.7 6

2.8043

3637

Butter,
Butter at 25
c.

etc.

per pound...
(i

Milk

at 6 c. per qt.

qt.=2.3 lbs.)

i2lbs. 4J0Z 84 7 lbs. t


'

3.0701
2.31
4375

55^5 4723
1266

38iqt.
3lh lbs.
5

534-7

1918.4

^ I

Cream at 25 c. p.qt.(i qt.=2.i lbs.) Eggs at 17 c. per dozen (1=2 oz.)


Nuts.

42.7

316.3
316.3

76.9

dozen
6.6676

404.8
1767

6889

Peanuts (shelled; at 8 c. per lb.. " at 44 c. per lb .. Walnuts

lb.

oz.

0.135
.2475

197.

9 oz.

42

294 163.5

186
33

0.3825

457

Chocolate at 38 c. per pound. Cocoa (Bensdorf) at 58 c. per lb.. ... Lard at 10 c. per pound Beef-suet at 5 c. per pound Cheese at 15 c. per pound Olive oil at $2.50 per gallon Currant jelly at 30 c. per glass..
.

6 oz. 5 OZ-

0.1425
.1812 .0421 .02IS OS 3125
15

27.6 30.6
9 43-5

82.5 40.9
191 157

61 oz.
7 oz,

41b. ipt.
glass

54.2 481

Gelatine at 10 c. per box ... Yeast cake at 2 c. each (Heinz) catsup at 20 c. per bottle
.

box 2 oz.) \\ cake

.025
15 .285 .0541 .0223 .2018

Vanilla at

4 oz. bottle for 57 c

Vinegar

at 10 c. per quart Salt at 18 c. for 20 pounds Baking-powder at $1.90 for 5 lbs..

I bottle (2 oz.) 2^ ':ups 2 lbs, 7 J oz. 8 J oz.

cup

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

IQ

TABLE Xll Continued


FOODSTUFFS ACTUALLY USED IN HOUSE EXPERIMENT
1

Grams.

Amount.

Cost.
Prot.

Cal.

Fat.

Carb.

Soda at 8 c. per J pound Mustard at 40 c. per pound Red pepper and paprica White and black pepper
Celery-salt at 9

a OZ.

$0.01
.0125 .0125 045

|oz.
1 OZ, l\ OZ. h OZ. 1 OZ.

per bottle Poultry-dressing at 40 c. per lb


c.

.0187

0.9370

Coffee at 36

c.

per pound

((8fcups)
1

Tea

at 80 c. per

pound

a lbs. I OZ.

.72

OS
.77

Totals

-^-

99

23-59

9082
92

1222
123

33285

288653
29x5

= 297 297 -*- 3 = Q9 number of days


Meals

$0,238

336

The same quantity and


in a small family,

quality of food will cost,

twenty-eight to thirty cents.

From

a paper written by the author for the Report of the

State Board of Health,


*'

New

Jersey, 1893, entitled,

Dietaries for Wage-earners and Their Families/'

the following dietaries and remarks are quoted:


^*

In the accompanying tables will be found the

actual weights of a week's food for four families, selected


fully

from among some

fifty,

which have been care-

gathered in the past year.

These four were


approximate

chosen for the several points

t)hey illustrate, as well

as for the fact that they each closely

the estimated normal, in spite of the great variety.

The

family chosen for our type consists of the father,

I20

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE
No. 1

XIII
Total
lbs.

Lbs.

Bought.

Cost.

Total
Cost.

Beef (stew") Beef (roast) Beef (corned) ......

4.71 4.71

314
2.35 1.57 4.71

Mutton Sausage

Haddock
Total

345 .565 376 .188 .188 .280

21.19

1.942
.940

Butter
Total
EcTffS

4.70 4.70
2.50 18.00

.940
.520 .690

Milk
Total

20.50
14-33 4.70
,
.

.210

Flour

Oatmeal
Barley Corn-starch
Total
.

.78

1.57

.420 .230 .050 .080

21.38
IQ.23 2.35
.550 .280

.780

Potatoes

Sugar.
Total

21.58
2.15 1.27 2.20
53

.830
.080 .030 .040 .010 .310

Cabbacc Onions h........


Turnips
Carrots .....

Tomatoes
Total

5.59

11.74
.39

.470
.310

Tea
Total

39

.310

Total

101.48

$6,482

TWP:NTY-FIVE cents per day per person 121

TABLE
No. 2

XIII--Continued
Total
lbs.

Lbs. Bought

Cost.

Total Cost.

Beefsteak Beef Veal Sheep's liver

1. 51 1.92 1.92 1.20

Ham
Chicken
Codfish

5.76 2.02 1.44


.96

Mackerel
Total

.336 .190 .326 .096 .576 .360 .144 .130


16.73

2.168
.268 .120 .336 .096

Bacon Lard
Butter
Pies

1.92 1.20 1.02 2.16

Total
Eercs

6.30
1.44 8.04
.47

.820
.288 .307 .048

Milk

Beans
Total

9.95

.643

Flour

Oatmeal
Barley

5.76 1.44
.48 1.92

/I92
.048 .024 .096 .307

Hominy
Rice

3.84

Total

13.44
13.44 3.36 1.44 4.80
.,

.667
.192 .048 .072 .240

W. Dotatoes
S.

potatoes

Bread Sugar
Total

18.24
.84

.552
.038 .048 .096

Cabbage
Turnips

Tomatoes
Total

3.00 1.80
5.64

.182
1.

Unknown
Total
Total

sundries

100
1.

100

74.10

$6.12

122

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE
No. 3

XlU^Conitnuird

Lbs. Bought.

Total
lbs.

Cost.

Total
Cost.

Beef (neck and shin). Porterhouse steak.


. .

2.56 1.28
.96

Round

steak

Roast rib

3.20
.64 .96 32 .96

Mutton chop

Ham
Bologna sausage

Round

veal

.128 .150 .096 .320 .080 .190 .030 .096

Total.

10.880
.64

1.092
.080 .820 .070 .064

Lard. Butter.
.

2.56
.86 .64

Cream.
Pies.
.

Total.

4.700
2.88 9.38
.64
.310 .270 .100

1.034

Eggs...
Milk...

Cheese

Total.

12.900
15.68
.380

.680

Flour
Total.

15.680
18.00 8.90
.80 .32 .96

.380
.350 .450 076
.032 .060 .370

Potatoes

Bread Buns Ginger


Sirup

cakes..
,

Sugar
Total.

6.00
34.980
1.60
.12 .80

1.338
.089 .060 .038 .096 .060 .064 .076 .096

Cabbage Green onions Dry onions Asparagus Tomatoes (canned). Cucumbers Corn (canned)
Green peas
Total.

1.08
1. 14

1.28 8.38 1.74

8.598

.579

.. . . .

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

23

TABLE Xlll Continued


No.

^Continued

Lbs.

Total
lbs.

Bought.

Cost.

Total
Cost.

Apples

Bananas
Strawberries. Rhubarl} Raisins
Coffee.

2.88 1.92
.84

096 096
147

1.28 1.28 .64


32 .16

030 060 220


160 045

Tea
Chocolate
.
.

Catsup Ginger
Total. Total
No. 4

060 030
9.320
96.758
.944

I6.05

Round steak
Porterhouse steak.
Boiled

ham
. .

2.60 3.90 1.30 7.80


.72 .65

.260 .620 390

Total.

1.270
.130 .078 .780 .270

Bacon. Salt pork


Butter

Cream.

2.60 2.92

Total...

6.89
1.95

1.258
.200 540 .060

Eggs
Milk

Beans
Flour

(dry).
.

19.06 1.27

Total.

22.28
12.74 1.30 14.04
.360 .060

.800

Oatmeal
Total Potatoes.

.420
.360 .310

Sugar.

18.20 5.20
.

Total

23.40
1-95 1.69
.130 .190

.670

Dry onions
Corn (canned).
Total

3-64 3.90
.65 32

.320 .190 .230 .190

Bananas
Coffee

Tea
Total.

.610

Total.

82.92

348

124

THE COST OF FOOD

mother, and four children under ten years or two

under thirteen, the food required being that

of three for

grown persons
for

for seven days, or of

one person

twenty-one days; hence, to find the amount and cost

one person, the figures may be divided by twenty-

one.

Two
winter,

of the famiHes

Hved

in Philadelphia

and two
in the

in Chicago.

Two
fruit

of the dietaries

were taken

when

and vegetables were

scarce,

and

two

when they were plenty. In No. 4 the man was away from dinners, and although due allowance was made in the calculations, it is probable that the lower amount of meat in this
in the spring,

dietary was largely due to this fact.

Also, there were

bought

in this

week no
little

spices or other condiments.

The waste was


families,

or nothing in either of these

the

house-mother being intelHgent and

painstaking in each case, and in two cases advantage

was taken
and cost

of the large market.

Besides Table XIII, showing in detail the amounts


of each article,
in

an average has been made up


This
will give a basis of less or a

and shown

Table XIV.

comparison for those who have either a


expensive market, or
tables.

more

who

raise a part of their vege-

In Table

XV is given the relative cost of the foodThis shows the wide varia-

substances in per cents.

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON


tion possible in order to obtain substantially the
results.

12

same

Table

XVI

shows the number

of

pounds of food

purchased per day per person, and the cost per pound
of this food, as well as the cost per

day per person.


in its variety, its

No. 3
full

is

perhaps the best dietary

food value, and in the right proportion of the eselements.


little

sential

The meat

is

not excessive,

al-

though a

higher than the generally conceded

proportion.

As

to the cost of this quantity of nutritive sub-

stances,
families

we can only
is

say that the average of these

28.6 cents a day a person, or $2 a week.


true that a wise

While

it is

woman and

a skilful

cook

may make
at

this cost less, yet

from the best evidence

hand

this

good

living

sum seems a very good average of what may be obtained for in most parts of the

United States."

TABLE XIV
ESTIMATED AMOUNT AND COST OF ONE WEEK's PROVISIONS, AN AVERAGE DEDUCED FROM THE FOREGOING TABLES
[The family numbering two adults and four children under
ten years.]
Meat
Milk,
7

quarts

Eggs,
Butter

dozen

Flour and cereals Vegetables and fruits

pounds, at II. 4 cents a pound '* '* " " 3.2 " *' *' " 13.0 2.50 " " " "26.4 2.71 " *' " " 3.5 16.00
14.15

$i.6t
44
33

13.87

72
56

28.70
..

"
"

"
''

1.27
6

*'

'*

Sugar
Sundries unclassified

4.5

"

"

..-.
1
.

33 27
73

Tea, coffee,

pies, cakes, etc., etc

$5.99

126

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE XV
RELATIVE COST OF THE DIFFERENT FOOD-SUBSTANCES
No.
I,

Meat
Fats

30

percent. " 15.0

35

No. 2. percent.
"

18

13.0
10. o
....

No. 3. percent. " 17.0


"

No. 4. percent* " 24


24
15
....

Eggs and
IJeans

milk...

19.0

"

"

12.0
....

"

and cheese
58
12

Total animal

substance ..64 Grains Vegetables


Fruits.

"
**

47 12.0

63
14

"

"
"
'*

8.0
12.0

"
**

15.0

8.0
....

"

15.00

7.00

3.0
14.0

"
**

Sugar, tea, coffee,


etc

9.0

"
4a

22.0

'*

17

*'

Vegetable
substance.. 36
53 37

Total...... 100.00

"

100.00

"

100.00

"

100.00

**

TABLE XVI
No,
1.

No.

2.

No.

3.

No.
3,9 6.4 25.4
''

4.

Pounds per day per person Cost (cents) per pound


Cost (cents) per person per day

4.8

3.5

4,6

6.4

8.0

6.2

31.0

29.0

29.0

Frot^i

*'

Food

as a

Factor in Student-life

are

taken
(Table

examples of

six

months' accurate records


the
daily

XVII), and

of

accounts which
carried

enabled
(Tables

them

to

be so

successfully

out

XVIII and XIX):


shown

Several significant and interesting facts are

by an examination of Table

XX,

a comparison of a

wholesome and
diana,

sufficient dietary of a school in In-

where 600 students were boarded

at $1.40 per

week, with that of the University of Chicago, where


106 students were boarded at $3.50 per week.
source of advantage on the side of the school
a
is

One
that

much

larger

number

of persons are fed

and certain

expenses are proportionately reduced. In the second

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER IDAY PER PERSON

27

TABLE XVII
SUMMARY OF FOOD, MATERIALS,
COST,

AND COMPOSITION, AT KELLY


I,

HALL, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, OCT.


Total Pounds,

1893,

TO APRIL
Fat
net.

I,

1894

Cost.

Percent Proteld Waste. net,

Carb,
net.

Beef Other fresh meats


etc Milk, butter, eggs, sugar, etc.

Ham,

Grains Potatoes and vegetables Fresh fruit.'. " Dried Cakes, etc
I

10260 9110 2277 39179 14779 21399 12082 2143 390


19232

$772 19
734 349 2015 615 365 3^S
79 21 53

62 06 03

1165 1027 367 1305-8 1363.3


281. 107 35.1

1033 774 453.6


379'>.3

198.2
5

187 19

5.7 1-3

100 38

37.8
5689.1

54.2

4997-9 9374 2764 1536 1139.1 141-3

$5355 00
147 17

5365.5

19952.3

Coffee, tea

Sundries and unclassified groceries

498 25

6000 42

These figures divided by the number of days ^wt^ per person per day.

Pounds

Cost.

Proteid,

Fat,

Grams. Grams. Grams.


126
108
131

Carb., Calories

Food purchased
Nutrients remainingafter allowance for actual wastes

$25

402
381

3383
2953

102

place, very little service beside student help

is

furis

nished at the school, and a large item of expense thus removed.


stitution at the

Another difference

is

seen in the sub-

school of cheaper foods,

such as
for meat,

cereals, vegetables, sirup,

and butterine,

milk, cream, fruits,

and other more expensive foods,


of

though the actual amount

nourishment furnished

was

practically the

same

in

both cases.

The
taries,

ultra-hygienist will at once exclaim over the


in

pork products allowed


but

some

of the

quoted die-

man

has not yet discovered any food

S 5

128

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE
XVIII

ONE day's food, march 17, AT KELLY HALL, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, CALCULATED TO SHOW THE AMOUNTS AND PROPORTIONS OF THE VARIOUS CONSTITUENTS AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH THE AVERAGE FOR SIX MONTHS

Lbs.

50

90
45 4 77
3

Stew and cold meat White potatoes Sweet potatoes


Dried beef Flour and grain

21

10.

1.8
J.

19.1
4

1.6
.7

17.2
II. 7
3

26
70 83 4.7
3
5

34

"5
1.3 3-5
3

7-5 1.8 3.7


12

1.4

8.9

1-4 7-1 1.6

192
J3

Tapioca Milk

.8
4 .3

53.9 2-5 9.0


4

Cream
Butter

15 J5

83

6 9 50 7.2
4t

Sugar Prunes
Oranges, less Bananas, "
2o)C
50$^

96.

14.5

65

4.0
1-3
9

waste. .. " ...

It

4.85
12.

19.7

Eggs

Lamb
Turkey
Steak
-

8.2
5

26
14

6.2 1.3 3-1


38.68
119.

657.2 76

48.3

(Less

bread

turkey, lamb, left over)

and
7-9

2.06
36 62
.

23.6

Divided by 130
4-4

40.4
.310

95-4
733

Per person, nutrients.

.281

Gms. Gms. Gms.


126.5
114.

332.0
381

2946
2937

Daily average for the

months, nutrients

which,
flavor

for

the

money, gives the combination of


Like every other food-substance,

and nutritive value of well-cooked ham, bacon,


pork.
its

and

salt

source and handling must be satisfactory; but the

author firmly believes that there

is

to-day more

danger from the use of milk than from the use of

pork products.

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON I2g

The method
table:

of keeping daily accounts for the puris

pose of checking the cost

shown

in the following

TABLE XIX
SATURDAY, MARCH 17
Constants Breakfast
I

$13 51
$1 25

2.5

bunch bananas dozen oranges (K.)


farinose

30
22
i

5 lbs.

Fried potatoes 6 dozen eggs, scrambled (B. and K.). Beef, frizzled (F.) 15 lbs. potatoes (F.)

00 08 00
19
3 04

Luncheon

Irish stew (F.)

$000
(B.

Meat
60

in

brown gravy

and K.).

...
i i

00
28

16 loaf cakes

sweet potatoes, baked Fruit sauce


lbs.

00 00
2 28

Dinner
9 lbs. potatoes for soup 26 ** turkey, roast (F.) 14** steak (B.)

$0 12 2 60

41'*
50
3
* *

lamb, boiled (K.) potatoes


boiled
B.)

196 348
63

hominy Tapioca pudding (K. and


^*

Lemon sherbet Watercress

(F.)

06 60 80
25

10 53

Total for the day

$29 36

If

the quantity used

is

kept

down

to five or six per

cent of the total meat and used chiefly in the late

winter and spring,

when
it

the appetite begins to need

stronger flavors,

will

not

harm

the majority of

130

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE XX

COMPARISON OF A SCHOOL DIETARY WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO DIETARY

Quantity per Person per Day.

Percentage of Total Cost of EachArticle.

Lbs. Indiana.

Lbs. Chicago.

Percent
Indiana.

Per cent
Chicago.

Beef Other meats


Fish Flour and grain , Potatoes Vegetables (other than pota^

.476

.119
.785

1.085
.490 .057 .666
.135 .095

.442 .401 .052 437 .680

.17

.067 .125 .090


05

.128 .141 .022 .103

036

toes)

Beans
Milk

Cream
Sugar
Sirup Butter Butterine Dried fruits * Fresh

.119
.171
)

.219 .015 1.295 .120 .140 .017 .089 .014 .090


508

.008 073

.056 .017

.024 .002 .108 .041 .029 .006 .103


.011 .031

.134 .057
.070

Canned

**

259
f

.052
.013 .025 .013 .029 .083

Sundries Tea, coffee Cocoa, chocolate Eggs and cheese


Unclassified groceries

022
.026

.047

006 043
095 036

About 38 per cent of the Chicago Dietary is high-class food; 62 per cent of 25 cents = 15.5 cents, a price for which common food materials may be had.

healthy persons.

Those with deHcate digestions

will

avoid these products along with

many

other things.

Butterine and oleomargarine will also


a share of condemnation.
legislative sins of this
It is

come

in for

one of the greatest

country that the diet in so


is

many

State institutions

restricted

and made

less

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON


effective

I3I

by the prohibition
less cost

of the animal fats

which

can be suppHed at

and

in better condition

than^the third- or fourth-rate quahty of butter which


is

made

to take

its

place.

In the low-cost dietaries, dried fruits must be


to take the place in a

made
fur-

measure of the more expensive

green garden vegetables.

The former can be


is

nished for so small a cost that there


their absence.

no excuse

for

Where
of

there

is

a large family to be fed, a

much
unex-

better dietary can be

made

if

the special preferences


;

members

are considered alternately

also

if

pected variations occur.

Curiosity will be stimulated,

and curiosity
Table

is

one of the best appetisers.


is

XXI

to be studied in connection with


It

Tables X, XI,

XXI, XXII, XXIII and XXIV.


some beginners
it

may be
main

of assistance to

in dietary

studies to get a bird's-eye view, as


facts.

were, of the
are

The following general statements


purpose they are not accurate
;

made

for this

scientific

calculations.

In order to secure the necessary


i
lb.

fat for

the day,

of lard, very fat salt pork, suet, butter, or oleowill,

margarine

approximately, serve. Of shelled wal-

nuts, peanut butter, chocolate,

oHve

oil,

bacon and

flank of mutton, i

lb.

will

be required.
fat

While one

pound

will

be needed of ordinary
is

meats, sausage,

ham

(if

the fat

eaten), of cheese,

and doughnuts.

132

THE COST OF FOOD


larger

Of most Other foods


will

amounts

2, 4,

or 6

lbs.,

be required, so that they cannot be classed as

especially fat foods.

TABLE XXI

Dietary No.
for average family of
six,

2$

cents per person per day


Grams.

Cost.
Prot. Fat.

Cal Carb.

Breakfast.

Veal hash

$0.34
...

153

Corn

l)rcd.cl

Butter
Coffee, milk,

and sugar

.07 .025 .045

64
6

129 59 36
7

136 463 233

2385 2712 335 1018

$0,480 223

231

832

6450

Dinner,

Mock duck
Beefsteak
'^

lbs

$0,495
.04 .02 .025 .115

203
6
8

Baked

cauliflower.

298 1.2
4

115
15

4080
97 315

Potatoes

68

Bread and butter Xaoioca Duddinfi!"

9.8 45

24 50

54 177

494
1375

$0,695

271.8

373.6

429

6361

Supper,

Omelette. 6

ecrcrs

$0.10
.10 .02 .06 .015

Baking-powder
Butter

biscuit

48 72

42 39 24
5

29 447

Stew^ed Dears 2 lbs Suo^ar

4
124

"96"
120

803 2491 223 470 492

$0,295
6)

no
119.

692

4479
17290
2882

$1,470 618.8
103.

714.6 1953
325

Per Dcrson .

$0,245

For the day's ration


quantity less than
i

of carbohydrates

no food

lb. will

serve, viz., sugar, candy.

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON


rice, li of rye,

33

wheat, and corn flour, pearled barley,


raisins,

shredded wheat, crackers, dates and


prmnes and macaroni, i^
legumes.
toes,
lbs.

stoned

of

figs,

bread,

and

While
5 lbs.

of fresh beans, bananas,

and pota-

4 to

will be needed.
i

For the day's ration

of nitrogenous food,

lb.

of peanut butter or of soya

bean

will

probably serve, also a variety of dried bonebut at least li to li


lbs. of

less codfish,

round

of beef

and other meats, canned salmon, cheese, shelled nuts,

and dried legumes


is

will

be needed

if

one

article

only

made

to furnish the desired quantity.


it

Therefore,

will

be seen that mixtures of foods

rich in each constituent

must be made
lb.

in

order to
lbs.

make

a suitable diet: ^

butter at 7 cents, i^

of shredded

wheat

at 15 cents, i^ lbs. lean

meat

of

chicken at 40 cents, makes 62 cents; the cost of a


day's sustenance.

food

is

hardly a cheap food

if

the daily allowif it

ance of 3000 calories costs over 15 cents, or


not be so combined that the total cost
cents;
i

can-

is

under 20
flour at

lb.

eggs

at 12 cents, i^ lbs.

wheat

3 cents

meets these conditions.

XIII

FORTY TO FIFTY CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON


" Its character, however, was that it was in season; that it was up to its time; that it was in the spirit of the age; that there was no perruque in its composition, no trace of the wisdom of our ancestors in a single dish. Every meat presented its own natural aroma, every vegetable its own shade of color." Lady Morgan's sketch of a dinner by Careme at the Baron Rothschild's villa.

A
daily

GOOD way

to keep the run of a family dietary

is

to determine the necessary quantities of the articles of

and weekly consumption.

These should give f


is,

the quantity needed at ^ the total cost, that


to fifteen cents
;

at ten

then add the variety


all

in the variables

which should not

be

''

hearty " the same meal; for

instance, peas, macaroni,


sert
is

and custard.

Sweet des-

not needed after beets and fried bananas

served as vegetables.

To
of the

the person

making out the

bill

of fare, the

name

food should bring to mind the percentage com-

position as well as the shape, color, and flavor.

With an income
family of five

$3000 or $3500 per year a spending 25 per -cent of it on food and


of
all

having occasional guests, as

families should,

must

plan to spend only about forty cents per day per per134

FORTY TO FIFTY CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON


son.

35

This means about $2 per day for the family, or


year, with $75

$730 per

margin

for guests

and extras.

Xhis can only be done, without the family knowing


that they are in any
of care

way

restricted,

by the exercise
of

and thought, and by a careful watching

the markets by the provider.


season,

Food purchased
it

in its

when

it is

cheap because

is

abundant, and a

judicious treatment of inexpensive foods, with small

amounts only
ingly

of the dearer ones, will give a surprisof fare.

good

bill

Every thoughtful person must have wondered why


it is

that a table d'hote dinner can be served so cheaply.

It is

common
if

experience to enjoy a well-cooked,


fifty

well-served six-course dinner for

or sixty cents,

whereas
it is

one orders, a

la carte,

even four courses,

likely to

be nearly three times as much.

One
is

reason for the satisfied feeling with which one not


only leaves the table but passes the evening
that

the chefs at the restaurants famous for their table


d'hote dinners

know how

to blend flavors

and conis

sistency so as to get the fullest result; each dish

the complement or the background of the next.

Again, the condiments and sauces are of the savory

and not of the heavy,


that the cooking
is

irritating kind,

which means

French rather than American.

The

quantities served are just


therefore, nothing
for
is

enough and not too

much;
IS

wasted.

No

allowance
barely

made

that

setting

to

one

side

the

136

THE COST OF FOOD


is

tasted dish which

so frequently seen, and which has


Just this

been referred to as so demoralizing.

same

care must be given by the mistress or housekeeper


to insure Hving

on

forty cents a day.

It

needs only

a superficial acquaintance with

modern kitchens and


seldom held
to.

cooks to explain why

this figure is so

In order to bring out the principles upon which any


scientific

study of costs must be founded, the four

special dietaries

on pages
by

109,

10, 132, 141, are to

be

compared,

article

article.

The same general


In
all

plan
piece

runs through the four.

Beef products form the

de resistance for the dinner.


milk, sugar,

cases bread, butter,

and

coflfee are given,

but the quantities

vary somewhat, especially those of bread, butter, and


milk.

To show more
prices,

clearly the relation

between quanti-

ties of staple food materials furnished at different

Table

XXII

has been prepared.

It will

be seen at a glance that the number of

ounces of meat and eggs decreases as the price of the


day's food decreases.
of cereals
7.3

The

reverse

is

true in the case

and potatoes, with

slight variations.

For

cents,

even under the most favorable circum-

stances of prices and buying, the fat supplied must

come from
is

the meat, and must be

all

used.

Bread
It

and potatoes must make up the bulk of the food.


to be noted
that, of the luxuries, only

cream and

fresh fruit are absent,

from the 15-cent

dietary.

FORTY TO FIFTY CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

37

TABLE XXII
FOOD MATERIAL, QUANTITY FURNISHED AT VARIOUS PRICES PER PERSON PER DAY
Cost
Foodstuffs
$1.

50 cts.

25 cts.

No.

a.

7-3 ct-

oz.

oz.

oz.

OZ. 12

02.

Meat and
Eercs

fish

25.3 4.3

17.6 3.0
.5

13.3 2.66

10 2
.17
3

.01

Cheese

Cream
Milk
Butter, lard, etc. pork Flour, cornmeal, crackers
;

8.0 4.0 3.0 6.1


r-5

2.3

4.0
1.5

19

4.5
2.
I

2.8

5.0
I.O

1.36 7.7
.4

6.5
2.5

24.06

Oatmeal, hominy,
Pease, beans, dried

rice

0.34 1.34

Sugar Dried

<

4.0
12.5

0.5

1.7
5.3

Fresh Potatoes

fruits fruit

1,6 1.0

4.3
...

5.0
13.3

8.0
2.0

7.6
5.3

15.64 6.33 4.76

Fresh vegetables Molasses

10.6 0.1

The

dietary belonging with this section will be

found on page 141.

XIV
SIXTY CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON; INCOME,
"The
The
.
. .

$5000
it
it.

pleasure of eating

is

common

to us with animals;
is

merely supposes hunger and that which


pleasure of the table
is

necessary to satisfy

peculiar to the

human

species;

it

supposes antecedent attention to the preparation of the repast. Dishes have been invented so attractive that they unceasingly renew the appetite, and which are at the same time so light that they flatter the palate without loading the stomach."

Hayward.
how

If twenty-five or thirty cents


that double the

is

enough,

is it

amount

is

the rule?

Even on an

in-

come
sons:
1.

of

$3000 ?

There are several very evident rea-

Waste.

2.
3.

Hothouse, out-of-season products.

Rare foods, of which there are not enough to

go around.
4.
5.

Perishable food.

Fads, fashion in dishes.


Flavors, derived from expensive materials.
better mentally or physically for these
'Is

6.

Are we any
flavors

and stimulants?
Efficiency

life

more wholesome,
the

more

efficient?

is

the key to the whole.


small households
is

A large item of expense in

138

SIXTY CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON


maid's table.
in
If it is difficult

I.39

to keep

down
is

the cost

an institution where a separate meal


difficult

prepared,

how much more


for

when

the same food serves

both family and maid, and when the least curtailin the

ment
vants!

kitchen

is

a signal for a change in ser-

The cook does not count the

potatoes, nor

measure the strawberries, as the pioneer housekeeper


did; neither does she save the cold potato

and the
thrift de-

ends of the steak for hash, as

New
is

England

manded.

The moral
of

effect of this lax lavishness

upon

these inmates of our kitchens


the

a worse feature than


will

mere waste

money.

What

happen when

they marry and have


only $800 a year, or
responsibility
tastes

homes

less, for

own and have everything? Have we no


of their

toward those we employ and whose

and habits we form?


if

Even the busy woman,


conquered the A-B-C

once she gave time to

starting her accounts properly

and

if

once she had


fair

of dietaries, could keep a

oversight over her expenses without going to market


or examining the ice-box.
If sixty

cents a day furnishes

all

that the

most

fas-

tidious person can require,

how

is it

that $1 and even


It

$1.50 per day

is

ever spent on raw food?

can be
deli-

done only by using the most out-of-season


cacies,

such

as

strawberries

in

January,
etc.

or

rare

dishes as terrapin, choice game,

Of course,
up the ex-

condiments and wines can

easily bring

I40

THE COST OF FOOD

pense, as they do at banquets where $io and $20 per


plate

may be
is

charged, but

we

are speaking of food.

" It

one of the evils of the present day that


strives after the
I

everybody
will

same

dull style.

...

observe that

think the affluent would render


if

themselves and their country an essential service


they were to
fall

into the simple, refined style of liv-

ing, discarding everything incompatible with real en-

joyment/'Walker
the table

in

The Original^ 1835.

This hyperaesthetic sense as to the furnishing of


is

not to be imitated by the sensible young

men and young women for whom this little book is They mean to make themselves of use in written. the world, to be strong men and women with clear heads and happy hearts, and they know that unnatural greenhouse-grown fruits and vegetables lack

the Ralstonite's **glame,'' the vivified essence of air

and sun which does bring to the body


of the universal power.

its

own

spirit

There

is

more
is

in life

than meat.

''

He

that ruleth

his appetite

greater than he that buildeth a great

market/'
In order to bring out more clearly the relation
(or, rather,

the non-relation) of food value to cost,


is

the dietary illustrative of this section

flanked by

one belonging to the preceding chapter, and may be compared with the 15-cent dietary. No. 2, p. no.

SIXTY CENTS PER DAY PER PERSON

141

TABLE XXIII D ETA RY No.


I

50 CENTS PER PERSON PER

DAY
Grams.

Lbs.

Oz.

Gms.

Cost.

Cal.
Prot.

Fat.

Carb.

Breakfast,
127

$0.02
.07 .24 3

13

Thin cream
Eersrs (0)

3
60 48.3
39
2

Ham
Toast f I Butter
Coffee
loaf)

2.5 32.0 47

96.6 3-3

472

i^
1250 1070 651

340

"4
4 70 213

80
60
.

Sugar
Crcsitn (thin)
t

....

::i .025 .007 035

60
2

15

246 3to
5144

0.657

167

284.5

375

Luncheon.
Chicken, fowl " creamed Potato chips
2

0.30
.028 05

10

8-5
17 16

19.3

"5
1.8 I20.2
3

Asparagus salad French dressing Bread

30

200

Tea
Sugari
!

.02 .03

19

'ioS"
60

650 300 1290 210 1118 544


246

.007

0.815

194.5

238.0

332.3

4358

Dinner.

Salmon

(broiled)
. .

0.30
.085

Pease with butter Bread for the whole meal Beef (rib roast). .. Potatoes

400
3

.04 .60 .02

108 10 38 182
.8

101

'6-'

44 216

200
4

"*68"
125

1368 36 1088 2613


'315

Tomatoes (stuffed) Lettuce and cucumbers French dressing


Saltines

....

.067 .10
.08

20

37-3
120

14.3

Cheese
Coffee and sugar Relishes and garnishes

28 100

.025 03 .032 .15

2.9 24

.2

24
2

784 77 1118 110


\^^

30

60

246

1.529

385.7

507.4

553-3

8420
17922

Total

$3,001

747.2 1029.9 1260.6

For one person

50

124.5

171.6 210

2987

142

THE COST OF FOOD


TABLE XXIV Dietary No.
bl.oo per

person per day


Grams.
Oz.

Lbs.

Gms.

Cost.
Prot.

Cal.

Fat. Carb.

Brtak/ast,
Strawberries

Sugar

$0.40
5.6
159 127 230 505
.018
.03 .15 .24 .12 .12 .025

12

8 .5 61
47 24 72

83 t59

Cream of wheat Cream E^gs (9)


French
Butter
Coflfee
rolls (i

13 6

96.6 6.5
260

18
I

dozen)

60 44
8

3
I

465 652 472 618 836 J 465 700

Sugar Thick cream


Luncheon.

28.3 60

"5

.007 .075
1.

60
3

30.5 4S

3.3

246 309
5763

175

146

668.4

Chicken (broiled)
Butter, 2 tbs.*

"28"

1.

00

268
17 16 19

20
24

Potato ch ips Cold asparagus (salad )


.

0-5
2
oil)

.015 05

80
1.8 X20.2
3

"5
29.9

French dressing Bread


.

(i

cup of

:s?

....

....

200
2
I

oa

loS"
60 66

1300 224 1290 210 1118 544

Tea
Sugar
Gi ngerbread (thin)
453 250

03

.007 .10
.04

,6

32
a8i

124

246 260 852

X.642

336

503

6044

Dinner,
3

Halibut, creamed Bread for the whole dinner Filet of beef, piquant sauce. .... Potatoes

.10 .278

62.3 76.4
19

10 43 3

50.8
23^3 X08

370
765 544 ^300 315 170

200
3
I

.02

I.OO
.02

252
4.8
4

"68*
17.4

0-5

.10

Sweetbread
salad (No.
Saltines

30),

and cucumber mayonnaise


I

28
4

73 .025

475
Lady-fingers Coffee
2

79 2.9 12
7

194 122
It

05 .025 .007

17-5 24 214 80

3030 110 1956


4S"7

60

246

Olives, relishes,garnishes,etc

35

Total....

.*

3.18

498

635.8

663.0

10263

6.00

980
163

H61.8 1834.4 22070


193.6

Per person
Less
fat,

1. 00

305-7

3678

15

per cent of waste- oil, and sugar on plates,


24
139

29
164

46
259

552

3126

tbs.

tablespoonful.

XV
THE DIETARY COMPUTER
"The
manner
objects of cookery are the preparation of food in such a
that

men

shall derive the greatest nutritive


its

advantages from
"
all

consumption."

''

Spirit of

and aesthetical Cookery," p. 3.

Every bill of fare must be the result of the concurrence of kinds of practical considerations, and should never be a theofrom
lists."

retical prescription culled

Thudichum.

So much

difficulty

has been found in the practical

use of the figures giving composition and value of

food that the author has attempted to simplify one


part of the

work
a

in the following

manner

someall

what
1st.

after a dissected-map puzzle:

Make

list

of

common
line.

food-materials with

the facts needed on one

This

list

book or on
slip

sheets, or each substance

may be in may be on

a a

by

itself,

and the

slips

kept in a box with those

carrying the fractions next to be described.


2d.

Go through
as the

the

common
If it is

recipes in use, and


slip of

write the facts about each ingredient on a

the

same length
it

first.

a complicated recipe,

will

be well to have also a

slip

with the totals for


slips

the dish (Exhibit A).

When

a number of these

have been prepared, proceed to plan a breakfast,


143

144

THE COST OF FOOD

dinner, and supper or luncheon which shall consist


of the dishes dissected

and which

shall yield

the

standard amounts of the different ingredients.


is

This

shown by placing these prepared

slips

on a card,

with a rubber band on either side to hold them, in


the order of the
the
sult,
first

menu and adding up


slips until

the figures.

If

combination does not give the desired

refol-

rearrange the

one does.

The

lowing example

will illustrate:

TABLE XXV Exhibit A


DATA FOR AND COMPUTATION OF A DISH
Lbs.
,,

Grms.
453 453
14

Cost.

Prot.,

Fat,

Carb., Calories

Grms. Grms. Grms.


68 8.5

Veal
Potatoes...'

X
I

2.
i.

40 0.5
12

""68"'

651 308
III.

Fat
Veal hash Veal Potatoes Fat
:

...

....

4.

2 2

$0.30

136
17

80
I

"56"

.04 .OI

1302 636
445

48

.005

Total for 6 persons

I0.355

153

129

136

2383

A
First

family of six

is

to have a breakfast of cream of


rolls.

wheat with cream, bananas, boiled eggs, and

we need

to

know

the weight of each ingredient

to be used, the ounces

and pounds of the

cereal, fruit,

eggs, and cream, and from the values of the


of

pound
(See
p.

each the other figures

may be

derived.

27.)
ties

Eight ounces

is

| of a pound, but the quanti-

are so small that most inconvenient and confusif

ing fractions would ensue

the results were ex-

THE DIETARY COMPUTER


pressed in
dietary
1-7, 1-16,
is

145

1-64 of an ounce.

All scientific

work

expressed in grams.

This unit

is

only^ 1-28 as large,

and the decimal system renders


simpler, as will be seen (Ex-

the computation
hibit B).

much

3d.

card

'^

has been prepared with spaces into


slips to

which to sHde the

hold them firmly in one's

lap while playing the

game.

On

this card

is

printed

the estimated

amounts

for each

meal
Fat,

For

six persons.

Prot.,

Carb.,

Grms.
yield.
'*
.

Grms.

Grms.

Cal.

The breakfast should


"
"

200 300 100

260

650
750

5500

dinner supper

"

..
..

300
120

7500

"

**

500

3500

The
4th.

figures for breakfast

and supper are


for luncheon.
little

inter-

changeable.

Either
list

may be used

The

and

slips

once prepared, a

prac-

tice will

make any one

proficient in calculating the

daily dietary according to cost

and also according


is

to food values.

A
if

luncheon

like the following


is

not

uncommon
checking
it

(Exhibit C),

and there
is

no way of
Again,

up

the food value

unknown.

while most cooks object to being asked to learn a


lot of figures,
it

will

be found that the use of these

simple rules will soon teach food values, as well as

economy, and greater respect

will

be developed for

some now neglected


*

materials.
*'

Copyrighted under the name

The Dietary Computer."

146
It will

THE COST OF FOOD


be a simple matter to evolve any given die-

tary according to a stated cost, once the quantities

TABLE XXVI
Exhibit B

computation for one meal


Grms.
Cost.
Prot.,

Fat,

Carb.

Cal.

Grms.
13

Grms.
2-5
61 21

Grms.
96.6
6.5 76 47a 618

Cream Cream
5

of

wheat

127 230

$0.02

."5
.06 .15 .12 .12 .025 .007 .063

bananas 9 eggs French rolls,


Butter, 3 oz CoflEee, 1 oz

6 4-3

lb..

400 453 84
60

60

46 24 72

349 775 1465 700

Su^ar,

oz
4 oz.
.

Thick cream,

"3

60 3-3
138.3
43 30

246 309

For one person

$0.69
I0.115

Average
Estimated need.
I

83-7
83

i/io
1/16

pound pound pound

= =
=

453.6 grams,
45.3

"
"
facts.

28.3
is

One

divisor

used for the whole series of

TABLE XXVII
Exhibit C

luncheon for
Grms.
560 453 50
14

six persons
Prot.,

Cost.

Fat,

Carb.,

Cal.

Grms.
75.5 5-5

Grms. Grms.
160
1801

$0.48
.015
.04 .09 .015

Potatoes (baked, ^ waste)

47-5
12

210
247 445 461

27

Oranges ^^
Total

T360 112.5

1-3

97.6

in.
94.1
I5-7 20

0.64

173.3

284.6
47.4
83

3164
524
701

Divided by six Standard for light luncheon.

0.106

28.8 30

This difference may seem small, but it means in many cases the difference between an efficient day's work and wasted time, or if the work is forced, a strain from which recovery may be slow.

THE DIETARY COMPUTER


of each substance

I47

needed

for a

meal are determined.


of all our

Right here

is

the

weak point

cook-books
of a

and

all

our household accounts.

The quantity

dish used by any given family will

depend upon how

many

other things are served at the same meal, upon

the age, taste, and appetite of the


family, but in each case a fair idea

members

of the
after

may be gained

little

experience

if

one knows

in the first place

how

much is taken. The recipes from which


used
in

are calculated the dishes


culled

the

illustrative

menus were
in

from

many cook-books and were chosen


leg of lamb,''
of toast,''
as a basis
'' ''

preference to
"
''

others because these gave quantities.


rolled bread-crumbs,"

piece of

a few pieces

little

butter,"

is

not sufficiently definite

upon which

to build a scientific ration.


tried, and,
if

Each combination must be


dinary housewife

accurate

records are kept, variations will be easy.


is

The
if

or-

as afraid of figures as

she had

never been to school; pencil and paper should be


constant companions.

On
tail.

page 142

will

be found what

am
is

sure will

be considered a typical menu, worked out in de-

One

of the first things to

be noticed

the

num-

ber and variety of materials used and the number


of combinations made.
It

would be interesting to

know

the time which would be expended in preparsix.

ing and serving such a day's food to a family of

148

THE COST OF FOOD


fact
is

Another noticeable

the

amount

of fat

which

is

frequently in such form as to escape consumption.

The author has more than once


apparent excess
in the

called attention to

the loss of fat in American food as a reason for the

computations.
is

In the

menu
it

under consideration, three times


a

fat

served in such
is

manner

that

it is

safe to say that one-half of

not eaten.

The French

dressing-

and the mayonnaise

dressing share the same fate as the butter on the


broiled chicken, so that out of the reckoned total
of
1 1

64 grams of

fat,

at

least

175 grams ought

to be deducted as tributary to the grease-trap.

This shows that the author's


butter, mayonnaise,
in

bete noire

the drawn

and white sauces so much used


responsible for the excess

modern cooking

are

of fat material, as well as for


cost.

some

of the excess of
is

In this menu, the butter used in cooking

158 grams as against 84 grams on bread.

The proportion

of starch to sugar
far

is

817 to 726

grams, which goes

toward substantiating Prof.


;

Patten's charge already referred to (page 5)


indicates the tendency of

it

also

modern
menu,

diet.
it

As

to the cost of this

will

be seen that

three things are responsible, each quite unnecessary

and each
will

of rather
it

low food value.

If

the student

compare

with the 50-cent dietary on page 141,


the reasons for high cost
138.
If,

he

will see that all

may be
study

found

in the list

on page

further,

he

will

TlIK
carefully

DIKTARV COMPUTER
dietaries

I49

the various

given,

he

will

see

that the essentials of living are pretty

much

the

same whether they


waste
is

cost $i

or lo cents; that the

very

much

greater

when twelve

things are
it

served for a meal than


far

when

four suffice; that

is

more

difficult to calculate

exact amounts

for so

many

things,

and that small quantities cannot be

used to advantage.
of bread left over
is

For

instance, a quarter of a loaf

used for toast or bread-crumbs,


rolls,

but two pieces of toast with asparagus, or two


are not available.

leg of the broiled chicken or

two

stufifed

tomatoes are not worth saving, but a


is

portion of rice or beans


day's cooking.
pail that
It is in

always usable in the next

the matter of the garbagewill

most

of our

economy

come when

the
true

mistress herself attends to the food, and

when

refinement of living takes the place of the present

barbarous feeding.

The simplicity mean monotony.


flavors at the

of the

15-cent dietary need not

There are as
of the

many

standard
of the

command

one cook as

other, only the time of using


as in the case of strawberries

them may be
and other

different,

fruits.

The

family

who

counts

its

pennies need not be deprived


if

of the taste of these

it

chooses the right time.

Ginger, pepper, vanilla, onion, and celery are com-

mon

property.

Chicken and turkey at ten cents are

within the reach of every one.

On

our

list

only

150

THE COST OF FOOD

"

cream, tenderloin, and sweetbreads belong to the


really expensive class, as
in flavoring.

would wine,

if it

were used

Surely
these,

life
it is

may be made worth


only

living without

and

when one has

to allow barely 15

cents per day per person that they need to be wholly

banished.

Much

misconception

will

be done away

with

when

a study of these matters

becomes

either

fashionable or compulsory.

XVI
FOOD FOR INCIPIENT TUBERCULOSIS
In response
to

many

requests the following general

suggestions are offered to those seeking guidance in the


difficult

matter of nourishing food which shall not be of

prohibitive cost.

Individualism
definite

in

habit

and
in
all

taste

make

impossible
these

rules

as to food

cases,

therefore

suggestions are to be used as guides to be modified by


experience.
It is safe to say that the very fact of the

person finding

himself in danger from

most

diseases,

and

especially
in the

from tuberculosis, indicates a low


digestive

state of

power

and assimilative organs and


effort is to

fluids of the
is,

body.

The

first

"build up," that

to secure

an
of

excess of energy with which to


disease.
it

combat the microbes

To do
its

this the

food taken must be such that


little

can be made use of by the body with very

ex-

penditure of
addition.

own

slender stock, else there will be no


as

Such foods

milk,

cream,

butter,

eggs,

lightly-cooked meats, fruit sugars, well-cooked starch


in cereals
little effort

and crusty bread

are

assimilated with very

on the part

of the

body and thus are "nourish

152

THE COST OF FOOD

ishing" in that they give more than they take, and so

"build up" a fund of energy.

In case the provider

may spend
the better)

ninety cents to one dollar a day for ^raw food

materials (and except in case of starch, the less cooking


,

there

is

no

difficulty.

The problem
twenty-five cents

increases in seriousness as the limit of


is

reached.

For

less

than this

it is

nearly

impossible to provide easily assimilated food which shall

be

sufficiently

appetizing.

The

very fact of the low

condition of the body indicates a capricious appetite


as one cause of the under nutrition.

The

person

under

treatment

should

conquer
that

this

tendency as far as possible, should


is

realize

food

essential

and not a mere accessory


present
requisite

to the day's ex-

istence.

The

of

living
less

in

open

air

makes

the food question

somewhat

difficult,

but,

on the other hand, the prohibition of the greatest appetizer,

exercise,

renders necessary the daintiest serving,

the search for attractive combinations


of strong will

and the exercise

on the part of the


is

patient.

In a town where milk

four cents a quart and eggs

twelve cents a dozen, the patient will have no difficulty


in

adding the small amount of other things.

But with

safe milk at twelve cents a quart,

cream

at sixty cents,

eggs at forty-five cents a dozen, butter at forty-five cents

a pound,

how

shall the patient live?

The

requirements of food as purchased are about:

proteid food one pound, starchy food one half pound,

FOOD FOR INCIPIENT TUBERCULOSIS

53

sugar one quarter pound, fatty food one quarter to one


third pound.

Three quarts

of milk contains roughly:


fat,

one quarter pound proteid, one quarter pound


a
little

and
half
to

more than one quarter pound

sugar.
fat,

One

dozen large eggs

may

yield

one ounce

and one

three tenths ounce proteid.

To

take the place of milk, soups

may be

used, care

being taken that the cheaper parts of meat are sound.


Pillau or Pillaff, a rice with tomato,
relished.
is

usually

much

Pea and bean soups well made


sistency

of not too thick concellulose before the

and strained
is

to

remove the
also

cooking

finished

are

occasional

dishes.

It

is

difficult to replace the


It

yolk of the egg by any combination.


it

would seem that

must be had even

if

in limited

quantity.

Salads of perfectly cleaned vegetables with the plain

French dressing are appetizers, besides furnishing the


potassium
salts

needed and the


of

fat

in the

form
used.

of

oil.

Only a few drops

vinegar

should be

The

patient will soon learn to like these foods.

Sugar up
food as
suit.

to

four ounces a day

is

as inexpensive a

may be

had, and taken in small quantities, usually

It is

a lesser tax upon the digestion than starchy

food.

Well baked crusty bread and as much butter as needed


to

make up

the fat should enable any one living under

the right conditions to thrive.

154

THE COST OF FOOD


fried foods,

Avoid

and soggy foods, too many kinds


at

in

one day, and especially

one meal, thereby spreading

the attainable variety over the week.


If

one cannot get eggs and cream, nourishing food


prepared with a
little

may be
patient

time and trouble,

if

both

and cook
is

will co-operate.

Corn meal
a valuable

the
its

grain of this country, and


is

it

carries
it

fat,

starch

easily digested,

and

may
As a

be made a carrier for many other ingredients.


cereal

cooked with water long enough


cold,
it

to

make

it

smooth

and firm when


It

is

as delicious as blanc mange.

may be

eaten cold with cream or hot with syrup.


it

Occasionally

may be

fried,

but

it is

better broiled under


It

the gas broiler or heated brown in the oven.

may

have added suet or dried


be cooked in meat broths.
variety of

fruits or raisins or cheese, or

It

may be made up

into a

breads, which

will call for butter,

and so giv^

the needed fat.

Rice
that
it

may be
is

used with

all

the above additions, except

does not lend

itself to

breads.

Macaroni

another, not very cheap food, but ex-

cellent for variety.

The
the

circular of the Illinois State

Board

of Health

on

cause and prevention of consumption contains a


diet in consumption.

good discussion of

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Absorption. The process of conveying the digested, i.e., dissolved and dissolvable substances to the tissues. There are two routes: one quick, to the blood direct via the liver; the other
slow, by the lacteals and

lymph

circulation.

Albuminoids. Derivatives from albumen or allied substances are nitrogenous foods of lesser value because derivatives, and therefore a step lower in the scale. Gelatine is a familiar example. These are not found in quantity in natural food-products,
but occur in cooked foods. Anabolism. See Assimilation and Metabolism.
Assimilation.

See Nutrition for


protoplasm; that

its

broad meaning.
anabolism

'*

In a nar-

rower sense

it is

limited to the synthetic conversion of dead matis,

ter into living

in opposition to

katabolism, or disassimilation, the clianges leading to the destruction of the

complex substances

of living molecules."

Howell.
of their en-

Calories.

Heat

units in foods used as a

measure

ergy-giving power. As used in dietaries, i Calorie is that amount of heat which will raise the temperature of i kilo of water i C. I gram of proteid or carbohydrate is estimated to yield 4.1
Calories;
i

gram

of

fat, 9.3

Calories.

Carbohydrates.

They contain
it

The term used for sugars, starches, gums, etc. no nitrogen. The term is a convenient one, since
cent of carbon alone
is

signifies that the per

available for

heat- or energy-giving, the

being only
molecule.

sufficient

hydrogen which the analysis shows to combine with the oxygen present in the

Cellulose. (C6Hio05)n forms the cell-wall of the plant as collagen or connective tissue forms the cell-wall of the animal. Only young and tender cellulose, as in lettuce, young peas and

g^een corn is digested in the human ^omach as a chemical means it can be converted into a "sugar.

rule.

By

15s

156
Collagen.

THE COST OF FOOD


The
chief constituent of the fibres of connective tis-

sue, of the organic matter of

bone

(ossein),

and likewise one


it

of the constituents of cartilage.


gelatine.

On

boiling with water

forms

Cookery
state

is

'*

ural food-products,

the adaptation to the purpose of nutrition of natwhich by themselves and in their original

would be either indigestible and unwholesome or unatand injurious to man." Thudichum. Digestion in its narrower sense means the solution of solids and the slight changes which some foods need (a rearrangement of the molecules for the most part) to render them capable of passing through the membranes into the blood-current by which they are carried to all parts of the body. Digestion is sometimes used broadly to cover absorption and assimilation. Products of living protoplasm capable of inducing Enzymes. changes in complex molecules, either favorable or unfavorable to further nutrition." Green. Fats. In food work includes all oils, as olive oil, corn oil, and
tractive
*'

the oils in asparagus, onions,


solid

etc.,

beside the animal

fats,
is

and

liquid.

Sometimes the term hydrocarbon

both used to

mean

that in these substances, unlike the carbohydrates, a por-

tion of the

hydrogen is available for energy and heat-giving; and since a pound of hydrogen gives four times as much heat when burned with oxygen as does carbon, it is evident why fats are worth more in the diet. Fermentation. " The decomposition of complex-organic materials into substances of simpler composition by the agency of protoplasm itself or of a secretion prepared by it." ^J. Reynolds Green, p. 9. resulting in an acid liquid. Acid Alkaline ^= resulting in an alkaline liquid. Food. '' What we eat and drink for the purpose of nourishing our bodies." Howell, p. 213. " Alimentary principles, as albuminoids, proFoodstuffs.

teids, fats,

carbohydrates, mineral

salts,

water, often called nu-

trients."

Howell.

Good Food, or not. The four tests: I. Chemical: What percentage of each nutritive constituent does the food contain^ "2. Physical: How much potential energy is it capable of
*'

yielding? "3. Physiological:

How

does

it

behave in the stomach and

in-

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
tcstines?
Is
it

I57
is
it

easily

digested,

and to what extent

ab-

sorbed?
"4.

Economic: Are the


See Fats.
"

nutritive constituents

contains obtained at a reasonable cost?"

which the food Hutchison, p. 4.

Hydrocarbons.
Indigestible.
is

By

this term, as

meant a food which by remaining long


fullness,

popularly and carelessly used, in the stomach may

produce heaviness,
physiologist

or even pain.

By

this

term the

means

that substance

which

will

not be so changed

as to be perfectly absorbed into the blood."

Hutchison.

See Assimilation and Metabolism. Metabolism. The cycle including both anabolism, the synthetic building up of tissue, and katabolism, the breaking down of that which has been formed. In other words, the chemical
Katabolism.
process of living.
Nutrients.
Nutrition.

See Foodstuffs.
"

living substance." " By this term

The power of converting dead food-material into Howell, p. 18. we designate the series of changes through

which dead matter


stance.

is received into the structure of living subbroadest sense it may cover the processes of digestion, respiration, absorption, and excretion."

In

its

Howell,

p. 9.

This furnishes the new material to take the place of the worn-out and used-up parts which are the life. Therefore food must contain this nitrogenous material not in the form of the broken-down substance, as urea or the mineralized ammonia, but in such form that it can be used to make new protoplasm. No one name can definitely express the great variety of compounds containing nitrogen, albumin, casein, gluten, with their derivatives. Protoplasm. " An arrangement of materials in a living cell in such a manner that continued life is possible. A convenient abProteid.

" Protein,"

nitrogenous foodstuff.

breviation for
cell

mass of living matter.' It means any part of a which shows the properties of life." Howell, p. 17. Ptomaines. Putrefactive products of animal substance which
'

give the reactions of vegetable alkaloids.

See Toxines. Often used as equivalent to the daily dietary. It meaus that which is served out rather than what is selected by choice. Starch is a general term for a variety of stored products of vegetable activity which can, under the influence of moisture
Ration (the daily).

158

THE COST OF FOOD

of both plant

and ferments, yield sugar in a short time. It is the reserve food and animal, dry, portable, and cheap. Animal
starch, the day's reserve food

we

all

carry,

is

called glycogen.

Poisonous proteids produced by bacterial action. All toxines are not ptomaines, although the latter are toxines.
Toxines.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abel, Mrs. M. H. Beans, peas, and other legumes as food. 32 pp. Wash., 1900. Government free. (U. S. Agriculil. O. Farmers* Bulletin, No. 121.) ture, Department of. Practical, sanitary, and economic cooking. 188 pp. D. RochAmer. Pub. Health Ass'n, 40c. ester, 1890. Atwater, W. O. Methods and results of investigations on the chemistry and economy of food. 222 pp. il. O. Wash., Experiment stations, Office 1895. Government, 15c. (U. S. Bulletin, No. 21.) of. Experiments on the metabolism of mat- & Benedict, F. G. ter and energy in the human body. 112 pp. O. Wash., 1899. Government, loc. (U. S. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 69.) & Bryant, A. P. Dietary studies in Chicago in 1895 and Government, 5c. (U. S. 1896. 76 pp. O. Wash., 1898. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 55.) Dietary studies of university boat crews. 72 pp. O. Wash., Government, 5c. (U.S. Experiment stations, Office 1900. of. Bulletin, No. 75.) & Rosa, E. B. New respiration calorimeter and experiments on the conservation of energy in the human body. 94 pp. il. O. Wash., 1899. Government, loc. (U. S. Experiment stations. Office of. Bulletin, No. 63.) & Woods, C. D. Chemical composition of American food materials. Wash., 1896. Government, 5c. 87 pp. il. O. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 28.) (U. S. Dietary studies in New York City in 1895 and 1896. 117 pp. O. Wash., 1898. Government. loc. (U. S. Experiment Bulletin, No. 46.) stations, Office of. Dietary studies with reference to the food of the negro in
;

159

l6o
1895 and 1896.
5c.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
69 pp.
il.

O.

Wash.,

1897.

Government,
Pa.,
sta-

(U. S.

Experiment stations, Office of.


Nutrition
investigations
in

Bulletin, No. 38.)

Bevier,

Isabel.

Pittsburg,

(U. 48 pp. O. Wash., 1898. tions, Office of. Bulletin, No. 52.) 1894-96.

S. Experiment
and analysis.
$7.50.

Blythe, a. W.

Foods

their composition

735 pp. il. O. N. Y., 1896. tion of food, pp. 2-32.

Van Nostrand,

Ed. 4. Adultera-

Brillat-Savarin, J. A. Physiology of taste. 347 pp. D. Phil., Lindsay & Blakiston, $1.75. 1854. Burnet, R. W. Foods and dietaries, a manual of clinical dietetics. Ed. 2. Also issued by 196 pp. D. Lond., 1890. Griffin, 4^-.
Blakiston, Phil., $1.50, net.

Chambers, T. K.
sickness.

Manual

of diet

and regimen

in

health and

310 pp. O. Phil., 1875. Child, Theodore. Delicate feasting.

Lea, $2.75. 214 pp. D. N. Y., 1890.


its

Church,

Harper, I1.25. A. H. Food

some account of

sources, constituents,

and uses. 252 pp. O. Lond., 1889. Chapman, 3J-. (South Kensington Museum science handbooks.) New ed. Scribner, $i.20, net.

Dietary studies of bicyclers. The effect of severe and prolonged work. (Bulletin, No. 98.) Dukes, Dr. Clement. School diet. Lond., 1899. Rivington. Food syllabus for study clubs. By Lake Placid Conference. State Library, Albany, N. Y. Frissell, H. B. & Bevier, Isabel. Dietary studies of negroes in Eastern Virginia in 1897 and 1898. 45 pp. il. O. Wash., Government, 5c. (U.S. Experiment stations. Office 1899. Bulletin, No. 71.) of. Gibson, H. B., Calvert, S., & May, D. W. Dietary studies at the University of Missouri in 1895. 24 pp. O. Wash., 1896.
,

Government. 5c. (U. S. Experiment stations. Office of. Bulletin, No. 31.) Goodfellow, John. Dietetic value of bread. 328 pp. D. Lond.,
Macmillan, $1.50. 1892. Goss, Arthur. Dietary studies in New Mexico in 1895. 23 pp. O. Wash., 1897. Government, 5c. (U. S. Experiment Bulletin, No. 40.) stations. Office of. Nutrition investigations in New Mexico in 1897. 20 pp. O.

Wash..

1898.

Government,

5c.

(U.

S. Experiment

stations.

Office of.

Bulletin, No. 54.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

l6l

Green, Mrs. M. E. (Green). Food products of the world. Ed. byG. G. Bohn. 249 pp. il. D. Charlotte, Mich., 1898. Green,
$1.50.

Grindley, H.

S.

and Others.

Nutrition investigations at the

University of Illinois, North Dakota Agricultural College, and Lake Erie College. Ohio, 1896 to 1900. 42 pp. O. Wash.,
1900.
of.

Government,

(U. S.

Experiment stations.

Office

Bulletin, No. 91.)

Halliburton, W. D. Chemical constituents of the body and food. (In Schafer, E. A., ed. Text-book of physiology. 1898. i;
1-79.)

Hart, Mrs. A. M.
Phil.. 1897.

Published by Macmillan, $8.00. Diet in sickness and in health.

219 pp. O,

Putnam,

$1.50.

Hogan.
Holt,

L. E.

How

to feed children.

1898.

Lippincott, $1.00.

Ed. 2. 236 pp. D. Phil., (Practical lessons in nur^ng.)


104 pp. S.

Care and feeding of children. ,JEdT2. .^^ Appleton, 50c. Huntington, E. A. The dietary. Pamphlet, 16 pp.
L. E.

N. Y., 1899.

26 Charter

Oak

place, Hartford, Ct.

Hutchison, Robert. Food and the principles of dietetics. 566 pp. N. Y., 1901. Wood, $5-oo, net, il. O. Jaffa. M. E, Nutrition investigations at the California agricultural experiment station, 1896-98.

39 pp. O.

Wash.,

1900.

Government,
Jordan,

5c.

(U-

S.

Experiment
1897.

stations,

Office of.

Bulletin, No. 84.)

W. H.

Dietary studies at the Maine state college

in

1895.

57 pp. O.

Wash.,
daily

Government,

5c.

(U. S.

Experiment Kellogg, J. H.

stations, Office of.

Bulletin, No. 37.)

The

ration.

Pamphlet, 15 pp.

Battle

Creek, Mich., 1899.

Good Health Pub. Co.

The new dietary. Pamphlet, 35 pp. Battle Creek, Mich., Good Health Pub. Co. LANGWORTHY, C. F. Eggs and their uses as food. 32 pp. O. Wash.,1901. Government free. (U. S. Agriculture, De;

partment

of.

Farmers* Bulletin, No.

128.)

Fish as food. 30 pp. O. Wash., 1898. Agriculture, Department of. (U. S.

Government;

free.

Farmers' Bulletin,

No. 85.) Miles, E. H. Muscle, brain, and diet: a plea for simpler foods. Ed. 2. 345 pp. O. Lond., 1900. Sonnenschein, 3,?. bd,

Oppenheim, Nathan.
N. Y., 1900.

Care of the child in health. Macmillan, $1.25.

308 pp. D.

l62

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Richards, Mrs. E. H. (Swallow). Plain words about food. Boston, 1899. Home Science Pub. Co., $1.00. 176 pp. D. (Rumford kitchen leaflets.) Simpson, Henry. Choice ol food. O. Manchester, Eng., 1889.
(Health lectures, ser. 3,) Stone, W. E. Dietary studies at Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., in 1895. 28 pp. O. Wash., 1896. Government, 5c. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 32.) (U. S.

Thompson, W. G.
VOORHEES,
E. B.

Practical dietetics, with special reference to

diet in disease.

802 pp.

il.

O. N. Y., 1895. Appleton, $5.00.

Food and nutrition investigations in New Jersey in 1895 and 1896. 40 pp. O. Wash., 1896. Government. 5c. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 35.) (U. S. Dietary studies at the University of Tennessee in Wait, C. E Wash., 1896. Government, 5c. (U. S. 1895. 45 pp. O. Experiment stations. Office of. Bulletin, No. 29.)

Nutrition investigations at University of Tennessee in 1896 and 1897. 46 pp. O. Wash., 1898. Government, 5c. (U. S. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 53.) Wiley, H. W., and Others. Foods and food adulterants. O. Wash., 1887-98. Government. (U. S. Chemistry, Division

of.

Bulletin, No. 13.)


:

Woods,

composition and cooking. 29 pp. O. C. D. Meats Wash., 1896. Government free. (U. S. Agriculture, Department of. Farmers' Bulletin, No. 34.) & Merrill, L. H. Cereal breakfast foods. Pp. 91-106 O. Orono, Me., 1899. (Maine Agricultural experiment sta;

tion.

Bulletin, No. 55.)

Nuts as food. Pp. 69-92. O. Orono, Me., 1899. (Maine Bulletin, No. 54.) Agricultural experiment station. Report of investigations on digestibility and nutritive value (U. S. of bread. 51 pp. O. Wash., 1900. Government, 5c. Experiment stations, Office of. Bulletin, No. 85.)

'

BIBLIOGRAPHY

163

RECENT BOOKS ON FOOD AND NUTRITION


Physiological Economy in Nutrition. R. H. Chittenden, Frederick A. Stokes Co., N. Y. The Nutrition of Man. A. Stokes Co., N. Y. The Science of Nutrition. Graham Lusk. W. B. Saunders Co. Practical Problems of Diet and Nutrition. Max Einhart.

Wm. Wood & Co. The Effect of Different Methods

of Cooking Meat. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Expt. Stations, Bulletin 193, Gov. Printing Office. Laboratory Manual. Food and Nutrition. Miss Isabel Bevier, Miss S. Usher, University of Illinois. Selection and Preparation of Food. Miss Isabel Bevier, Whit-

comb

&

Barrows.

A Theory A

of Protein Metabolism. Otto Folin. Reprinted from the American Journal of Physiology. Precise Method of Roasting Beef. University of Illinois Bulletin,

Vol. 19.

Chemistry of Flesh.

Emmett

&

Grindley.

The

Journal of Bio-

logical Chemistry, Vol. 3,

A New Method

Reprinted from American Journal of Physiology. Irving Fisher, Yale University. Report of Progress in Food and Nutrition. Report of Lake
Placid Conference.
1907.

No. 6, Nov. 1907. for Indicating Food Values.

INDEX

PACK

Air in school-room

29,31, 34
5. 6,

Appetite Bachelor, why he boards Bibliography


Bill of fare for child

36, 78, 98

59

I55"I57
26

for school

'*

42,43
95-97

for breakfast

"

"

for 25-cents

115,116
50
2, 5, 8,

Brain-worker, food of

Cheap food
College, duty of

100

49

Cost of food, factors in (See Food, cost of.)


Dietary computer
Diet, dietary
'*

7,

143-150
26, 28, 39, 72, 77, 100,

107

definition of
-

90, 91

Dietaries of definite cost

98-142
109,

"

10 to 15-cent
25 cent

no
141

117-132

50 cent

$100

142

tabular statements, 107, 109, no, 117-123, 126-128,


130, 132, 137, 141, 142, 144. 146

Definitions.
*

See Glossary
Diet, dietary

151-154
90, 91
22, 23, 25

Eggs as food Food, amounts cheap


'
'

of.

. .

19, 20, 39, 69,


2, 5, 8,

87 100
14

definition of

13,

165

l66

INDEX
PAOB

Food, choice of

iii,

"
' '

cost of,

iii,

iv,

7, 8, 9,

34, 37, 40, 41, 51, 56, 61, 62, 78, 80,

106, 107, 108, 125, 126

creed
electives in

105, 105 11
41, 48
1

' *

**
* *

fear of
for incipient tuberculosis

51-1 54

**
**

for the infant.


'* **

15-^7
child 18-21

young

**
**

*'
**

**
**
*'

child at school

29-36
37-45

active youth

**
**

*'
**

youth at college and brain-worker


traveller

45-51
52,53; 54
57,

**
*'

"
**
**

*
''

shopper

58
58

"

businessman

**
**
**

boarding-house for criminals and paupers


in

59

60-69
70-83
84, 89

for the hospital patient for

middle

life

and old age

habits in
**

104
58
41, 77
59, 62, 91, 98, iii,

hygienic
indigestible
in relation to cost of living

"

"
'*

134
103

"
** *

low estimation of on a journey study of


taste in

53,

54
13

106
15, 16, 22,

Food materials, analyses of


"
*

27
82

or composition of

64, 106

therapeutic value of
"

Food-supply, abundance of " no substitute


*'

1,2, 4
10
67, 68

for. ....
..

inspection of.

Glossary
Hospital, food in
Illinois State
. .

155 70-83
of Health circular
.

Board

154
60, 67, 69, 70

Institution, food of
*
*

cost of food of

69
-.

**

inspection of

^7

INDEX
Menu
* *

167
PAGE 64-67
42
56
92, loi

for child
* *

26, 63,

school

* *

* *

business
definite

man

* *

no
for
to

**
' *

2^ cents
15, 16,
,

115

show computation

146
1 7,

Milk as food
Over-eating, deaths from
Over-nutrition, dangers in

63

85,
4, 5, 54,. 86,

86

loi

Pauper, food for


Potential citizen, food for

60-69 60-69
163
33> 34, 35> 3<^
- .

Recent books on nutrition


School luncheon

Sugar as food
Tuberculosis, food in

18

Under- nutrition
University, duty of

151-154 33, 49, 62

49
iv

Valparaiso, Ind., food at


Vegetables, use of

40
86, 87

Vegetarian diet

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