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Anthropology is a social science that is concerned with human culture as well as the physical and social characteristics that

create that culture. Often it will compare one group of humans to another or even compare humans with animals. Anthropology is derived from two Greek terms: "anthropos" man or by extension by human "Logos" study of or science of History of Anthropology Anthropology human beings have been observing and recording the behavior of others since the dawn of civilization. Some credit Herodotus and Tacitus with being the first anthropologists. However, it wasnt until the late eighteenth century that a codified study of other cultures began. Traditionally, anthropology has been about Westerners studying the culture of less technologically advanced peoples. In some instances the study of anthropology led to racist theories about the overall advancement of difference groups. Focus of Anthropology Anthropology is interested in the overall culture of a group of people. This includes social institutions, art, history, mythology, and common mores, among other traits. Anthropologies now study societies all over the world, but look for overarching themes that are reinforced through case studies. It also includes archeology, and due to a great amount of substantive speculation is thought to be a softer science than sociology. The Field of Anthropology Relatively new discipline Study began only in late 1800s Incorporates other disciplines: sociology, psychology, political science, economics, history, human biology, philosophy and literature.

The two major goals of anthropology 1. To understand uniqueness and diversity 2. To discover fundamental similarities There are four sub disciplines bridge science and humanities: Physical anthropology Study of human biology in the framework of evolution. Subfields: Paleoanthropology - human evolution Anthropometry - measurement of body parts Primatology: study of nonhuman primates Osteology: study of skeletons

Primarily concerned with humans as a biological species Most closely related to natural sciences Major research areas: Human evolution Modern human variation Subdisciplines: Palaeoanthropology, primatology, forensics, genetics

Archaeology Study and interpretation of material remains recovered from earlier cultures. Information about culture comes from artifacts and material culture left by early hominids. Archaeologists seek out and examine the artifacts (material products) of past societies. Archaeology is not treasure-hunting (a la Indiana Jones). Subdisciplines of archaeology: Prehistoric, historic, Classical, Biblical, underwater Modern trash

Linguistics Study of the origin of language and speech. The use of language is a unique human characteristic. Relationship between culture and language: How do members of a society perceive phenomena? How does the use of language shape perceptions?

Subfield of anthropology, philosophy, and English Main research areas: How language is used Relationship between language and culture

How humans acquire language Fields of linguistics: Structural, historical, sociolinguistics

Cultural anthropology The study of all aspects of human behavior. An interest in traditional societies led early anthropologists to study lifeways that are now all but extinct. These studies produced ethnographies that emphasized religion, ritual, myth, use of symbols, subsistence strategies, technology, gender roles and child-rearing practices.

Sometimes known as ethnology, cultural anthropology examines contemporary societies and cultures throughout the world. Participant observation: Ethnography Ethnographic data

Holism and Applied Anthropology Training in all four fields required Links to other social sciences Sociology, psychology, economics, political science, history Applied Anthropology Sometimes called the 5th field Offers practical solutions to cultural problems