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Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M.

Salem
1

DESIGN OF AIR DUCT
DESIGN CONDITIONS:


Inside room conditions
Temperature ------------------------------------------------------ DB C
o
22

------------------------------------------------------ WB C
o
16

Outside room conditions
Temperature ------------------------------------------------------ DB C
o
34

------------------------------------------------------ WB C
o
27

Temperature of supply air ---------------------------------- C
O
15
Mass of outside air,m
o
----------------------------------
S
m of % 10

Mass of recirculated air, m
R
-------------------------
S
m of % 90

Air Properties
From ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART, M.E.T.C, page 75
Outside room conditions, WB C DB C
o O
27 & 32 @
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
2

kg
kJ
h
kg
m
kg
kg
W
O O
da
v
O
6 . 85 ; 898 . 0 ; 0199 . 0
3
= = = u

Inside room conditions, WB C DB C
o O
16 & 22 @
kg
kJ
h
kg
m
kg
kg
W
O O
da
v
O
45 ; 848 . 0 ; 0089 . 0
3
= = = u
Mass of supply air, m
S

( )
( )
s r pa
s
S s r pa S s
t t c
Q
m t t c m Q
-
= ; - =
Where:
S
m = mass of supply air
pa
c = specific heat of air, K kg kJ 0062 . 1
r
t = inside room temperature, C 22
s
t = supply air temperature, C 15
Therefore,
( )
sec
66 . 32
15 - 22 0062 . 1
037 . 230 kg
K
K kg
kJ
kW
m
O
O
S
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Mass of outside air, m
O

R o S
m m m m m + ; = =
4
1

Where:
S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

R
m = mass of recirculated air,
S
m of % 90
Therefore,
( ) ( ) sec 266 . 3 9 . 0 1 sec 66 . 32 9 . 0 1 kg kg m m
S O
= = =

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
3

Volume flow rate of outside air, V
o

O O O
m V u =

Where:
O
m = mass of outside air, s kg 266 . 3

O
u = specific volume of outside air, kg m
3
898 . 0
Therefore,
sec
93 . 2 898 . 0
sec
266 . 3
3 3
m
kg
m kg
V
O
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Mass of recirculated air, m
R

O S R R o S
m m m m m m ; = + =

Where:
S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

O
m = mass of outside air, sec 266 . 3 kg
Therefore,
sec 39 . 29 sec 266 . 3 sec 66 . 32 kg kg kg m
R
= =
Volume flow rate of recirculated air, V
R
i R R
m V =

Where:
R
m = mass of recirculated air, s kg 39 . 29

i
= specific volume of inside air, kg m
3
848 . 0
Therefore,
sec
93 . 24 848 . 0
sec
39 . 29
3 3
m
kg
m kg
V
R
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
4

Temperature of air entering the AHU, t
2

From the figure, considering point 2

By temperature balance,
S
R O o
S R O o
m
t m t m
t t m t m t m
4
2 2 4
;
+
= = +

Where:
O
m = mass of outside air, sec 266 . 3 kg

O
t = temperature of outside air, C
O
34

R
m = mass of recirculated air, s kg 93 . 29

4
t = inside air temperature, C
o
22

S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

Therefore,
( )( ) ( )( )
C
kg
C kg C kg
t
O
O O
56 . 23
sec 66 . 32
22 sec 93 . 29 34 sec 266 . 3
2
=
+
=
Capacity of AHU, Q
AHU
( )
1 4
- = h h m Q
S CDA

Where:
S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

4
h = enthalpy of air entering the AHU, kg kJ

1
h = enthalpy of air leaving the AHU, kg kJ


Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
5

Enthalpy of air entering the AHU,
2
h

From the figure, considering point 2

By heat balance,
S
R O o
S R O o
m
h m h m
h h m h m h m
4
2 2 4
;
+
= = +


Where:
O
m = mass of outside air, sec 266 . 3 kg

O
h = enthalpy of outside air, kg kJ 6 . 85

R
m = mass of recirculated air, s kg 93 . 29

4
h = enthalpy of recirculated air, kg kJ 45

S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

Therefore,
( )( ) ( )( )
kg
kJ
kg
kg kJ kg kg kJ kg
h 8 . 49
sec 66 . 32
45 sec 93 . 29 6 . 85 sec 266 . 3
4
=
+
=
Enthalpy of air leaving the AHU,
3
h

( )
S
T
S T
m
Q
h h h h m Q - ; -
4 3 3 4
= =

Where:
T
Q = total heat load,
T
kW 228 . 476

S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

4
h = enthalpy of inside air, kg kJ 45

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
6

Therefore,
kg
kJ
kg
kW
kg
kJ
h
T
42 . 30
sec 66 . 32
228 . 476
- 45
3
= =

Thus,
( ) TOR or kW
kg
kJ kg
Q
AHU
98 . 179 9 . 632 42 . 30 - 8 . 49
sec
66 . 32 =
|
.
|

\
|
=
Volume of supply air, V
S
1
= m V
S S

Where:
S
m = mass of supply air, s kg 66 . 32

1
= specific volume of supply air, kg m
3

From ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART, M.E.T.C, page 75
kg kJ h DB C
O
42 . 30 & 15 @
1
=
kg
m
3
1
824 . 0 = u

Therefore,
( )( )
sec
9 . 26 824 . 0 sec 66 . 32
3
3
m
kg m kg V
S
= =

AIR DUCT SIZING

DESIGN CONDITIONS:
Volume flow rate of supply air ------------------------------ sec 9 . 26
3
m
Duct dimensions ---------------------------------------------- W = 4H
No. of units ------------------------------------------------ 2
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
7

No. of branch take-off --------------------------------------------- 5
No. of outlet per branch take off------------------------------------ 4
Method of calculation------------------------------------------------------
Fitting Data

Elbow, inner & outer radii ratio -------------------------- 2 . 0

Angle, turns and branches-----------------------------------
O
90




Volume flow rate of supply air per branch take-off, Q
B
sec
38 . 5
5
sec 9 . 26
3 3
m m
off Take Branch o Number
V
Q
S
B
= = =


Volume flow rate of supply air per outlet, Q
O
sec
345 . 1
4
sec 38 . 5 -
3 3
m m
Outlets of Number
off Take Branch per Air Supply of Rate Flow Volume
Q
O
= = =


Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
8

Duct Sizes
For the main duct, from the fan outlet to point O,






From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of, s m Q
FO
3
9 . 26 = and a
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
436 . 1
.
= .
From equation 6-8, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 108
( )
( )
25 . 0
625 . 0
.
30 . 1
b a
ab
D
f eq
+
=

Where:
a = H = height of the rectangular duct, m
b = W = width of the rectangular duct, m

Substituting, H W 4 = to the equation above
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
9

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
H
H
H
H
H
W H
HW
D
f eq
0677 . 2
5
4
30 . 1
5
4
30 . 1 30 . 1
25 . 0 25 . 0
25 . 1 625 . 0
25 . 0
625 . 0
2
25 . 0
625 . 0
.
= = =
+
=
Thus,
equation working D H
f eq
=
.
4836 . 0
For the height,
FO
H
( ) m m H
FO
694 . 0 436 . 1 4836 . 0 = =
For the width,
FO
W
( ) m m W
FO
78 . 2 694 . 0 4 = =
For the size of duct,
FO
A
2 2
1930 93 . 1 78 . 2 694 . 0 mm m m x m W x H A
FO FO FO
= = = =

Run O to A, two branch take off supplied






From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of, s m Q
OA
3
9 . 26 = and a
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
436 . 1
.
= .
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
11


Therefore,

( ) m m H
OA
694 . 0 436 . 1 4836 . 0 = =
( ) m m W
OA
78 . 2 694 . 0 4 = =
2 2
1930 93 . 1 78 . 2 694 . 0 mm m m x m W x H A
OA OA OA
= = = =
Run A to B, two branch take off supplied






From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of,
( )( ) s m s m Q
OB
3 3
52 . 21 4 38 . 5 = =
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
306 . 1
.
=


Therefore,
( ) m m H
OB
6316 . 0 306 . 1 4836 . 0 = =
( ) m m W
OB
52 . 2 324 . 0 4 = =
2
59 . 1 52 . 2 6316 . 0 m m x m W x H A
OB OB OB
= = =

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
11



Run B to C, 3 Branch take off supplied,





From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of,
s m s m Q
BA
3 3
14 . 16 ) 3 )( 38 . 5 ( = =
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
186 . 1
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H
BA
5735 . 0 186 . 1 4836 . 0 = =

( ) m m W
BC
29 . 2 5735 . 0 4 = =
2
316 . 1 29 . 2 5735 . 0 m m x m W x H A
BA BA BA
= = =




Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
12

Run C to D, 4 branch take off supplied




From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet metal
ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by Stoecker &
Jones, page 107.
( )( ) s m s m Q
OC
3 3
76 . 10 2 38 . 5 = = & m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
966 . 0
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H
OC
467 . 0 966 . 0 4836 . 0 = =
( ) m m W
OC
868 . 1 467 . 0 4 = =
2
873 . 0 868 . 1 467 . 0 m m x m W x H A
OC OC OC
= = =

Run D to E, 5 branch take - off supplied





Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
13

From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet metal
ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by Stoecker &
Jones, page 107.
s m Q
CD
3
38 . 5 = & m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
756 . 0
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H
CD
3656 . 0 756 . 0 4836 . 0 = =
( ) m m W
CD
46 . 1 3656 . 0 4 = =
2
5338 . 0 46 . 1 3656 . 0 m m x m W x H A
CD CD CD
= = =

Branch outlet dimensions
Note:
Since the number of outlets in each branch take off are equal for the
whole system, only one branch take off will be considered in
computing for the duct dimensions and the values obtained will be
replicated in all seven (7) branch outlets.

Considering Branch Take off A,





Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
14

Run A 1, 4 outlets supplied
From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of, s m Q
A
3
1
38 . 5 =
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
756 . 0
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H
A
3656 . 0 756 . 0 4836 . 0
1
= =
( ) m m W
A
4624 . 1 3656 . 0 4
1
= =
2
1 1 1
5347 . 0 4624 . 1 3656 . 0 m m x m W x H A
A A A
= = =


Run 1 2, 3 outlets supplied
From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of,
( )( ) s m s m Q
3 3
12
035 . 4 3 345 . 1 = =
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
7 . 0
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H 33852 . 0 7 . 0 4836 . 0
12
= =
( ) m m W 354 . 1 33852 . 0 4
12
= =
2
12 12 12
4584 . 0 354 . 1 33852 . 0 m m x m W x H A = = =
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
15

Run 2 3, 2 outlets supplied
From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of,
( )( ) s m s m Q
3 3
23
69 . 2 2 345 . 1 = =
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
58 . 0
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H 28 . 0 58 . 0 4836 . 0
23
= =
( ) m m W 122 . 1 28 . 0 4
23
= =
2
23 23 23
314 . 0 122 . 1 28 . 0 m m x m W x H A = = =

Run 3 4, 1 outlets supplied
From figure 6-2, Pressure drop in straight, circular, sheet
metal ducts, REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONING by
Stoecker & Jones, page 107.
For a volume flow rate of supply air of, s m Q
3
34
345 . 1 =
m Pa P 5 . 1 = A ,
m D
f eq
43 . 0
.
=
Therefore,
( ) m m H 208 . 0 43 . 0 4836 . 0
34
= =
( ) m m W 832 . 0 208 . 0 4
34
= =
2
34 34 34
173 . 0 832 . 0 208 . 0 m m x m W x H A = = =
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
16


Air Velocity,
A
Q
A Q = ; =
Where:
= velocity of air, s m
Q= volume of supply air, s m
3

A = area of the air duct,
2
m
Branch take - off
From fan outlet to branch take off O,
FO
u

sec 937 . 13
93 . 1
sec 9 . 26
2
3
0
0
m
m
m
A
Q
F
F
FA
= = = u
Where:
FO
Q = 26.9 s m
3

FO
A = 1.93
2
m

Run A-B,
AB
u

sec 53 . 13
59 . 1
sec 52 . 21
2
3
m
m
m
A
Q
AB
AB
AB
= = = u
Where:
AB
Q = 21.52 s m
3

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
17

AB
A = 1.59
2
m
Run B -C,
BC
u

sec 26 . 12
316 . 1
sec 14 . 16
2
3
m
m
m
A
Q
BC
BC
BC
= = = u
Where:
BC
Q = 16.14 s m
3

BC
A = 1.316
2
m

Run C - D,
CD
u

sec 325 . 12
873 . 0
sec 76 . 10
2
3
m
m
m
A
Q
CD
CD
CD
= = = u
Where:
CD
Q = 10.76 s m
3

CD
A = 0.873
2
m
Run D - E,
DE


sec 078 . 10
5338 . 0
sec 38 . 5
2
3
m
m
m
A
Q
DE
DE
DE
= = = u
Where:
DE
Q = 5.38 s m
3

DE
A = 0.5338
2
m


Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
18

Branch Outlets

Note:
Since the number of outlets in each branch take off are equal for the
whole system, only one branch take off will be considered in
computing for the duct velocities and the values obtained will be
replicated in all seven (7) branch outlets.

Run A - 1,
1 A


sec 06 . 10
5347 . 0
sec 38 . 5
2
3
1
1
1
m
m
m
A
Q
A
A
A
= = = u
Where:
1 A
Q = 5.38 s m
3

1 A
A = 0.5347
2
m

Run 1 - 2,
12


sec 802 . 8
4584 . 0
sec 035 . 4
2
3
12
12
12
m
m
m
A
Q
= = = u
Where:
12
Q = 4.035 s m
3

12
A = 0.4584
2
m



Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
19

Run 2 - 3,
23


sec 57 . 8
314 . 0
sec 69 . 2
2
3
23
23
23
m
m
m
A
Q
= = = u
Where:
23
Q = 2.69 s m
3

23
A = 0.314
2
m

Run 3 - 4,
34


sec 77 . 7
173 . 0
sec 345 . 1
2
3
34
34
34
m
m
m
A
Q
= = = u
Where:
34
Q = 1.345 s m
3

34
A = 0.173
2
m

Determination of Pressure Drops
Considering the Run
4 3 2 1
A A A A FOA






Run FO, Straight Duct
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
21

( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
FO FO
958 . 6 5 . 1 6387 . 4 = = A = A

Run O, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.20
( ) ( )
25 . 0 =
2
2
air OB
TOB
v
P

Where:
air
= density of supply air, kg / m
3

OB
v = velocity of air in run O, 13.937 m / sec

From table 6 2, Viscosity and Density of dry air at standard
atmospheric pressure, REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING
by: Stoecker & Jones, page 106
Temperature
O
C
Viscosity ,
Pa - s
Density ,
kg / m
3
10
20
17.708
18.178
1.2467
1.2041
Since the temperature of the supply air is at 15
0
C, by interpolation,

@ 15 C
= 1.2254 kg / m
3

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air OB
OT
75 . 29
2
2254 . 1 sec 937 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A


Run OA, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
OA OA
654 . 15 5 . 1 4360 . 10 = = A = A

Branch take off A, Turn
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
21

From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.20
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air AT
AT
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

AT
v = velocity of air in run OA, 13.937 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air OB
AT
75 . 29
2
2254 . 1 sec 937 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A


Run AA
1
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
AA AA
255 . 3 5 . 1 1703 . 2
1 1
= = A = A

Run AA
2
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
AA AA
6623 . 8 5 . 1 7749 . 5
2 2
= = A = A

Run AA
3
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
AA AA
4195 . 14 5 . 1 613 . 9
3 3
= = A = A

Run AA
4
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
AA AA
6951 . 18 5 . 1 4634 . 12
4 4
= = A = A


Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
22

Therefore,
( )
Pa P
Pa
P P P P P P P P P
FOBA
AA AA AA AA
AT OA OT FO FOA
1439 . 127
6951 . 18 4195 . 14 6623 . 8 225 . 3 75 . 29 654 . 15 75 . 29 958 . 6
7
4
4 3 2 1
= A
+ + + + + + + =
A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A = A

Considering the Run
4 3 2 1
B B B FOBB






Run FO, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
FO FO
958 . 6 5 . 1 6387 . 4 = = A = A

Run O, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TO
TOB
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
23

TO
v = velocity of air in run OB, 13.937 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TO
TO
75 . 29
2
2254 . 1 sec 937 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A



Branch take off A, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
A DST
A DST
AB
OA air OA
A DST
038 . 0
937 . 13
53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A


Run OB, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TOB
TOB
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TOB
v = velocity of air in run OB, 13.53 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TOB
TOB
04 . 28
2
2254 . 1 sec 53 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A


Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
24



Run OB, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
OB OB
204 . 27 5 . 1 136 . 18 = = A = A


Run BB
1
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
BB BB
5442 . 3 5 . 1 3628 . 2
1 1
= = A = A


Run BB
2
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
BB BB
9511 . 8 5 . 1 9674 . 5
2 2
= = A = A


Run BB
3
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
BB BB
708 . 14 5 . 1 8055 . 9
3 3
= = A = A


Run BB
4
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
BB BB
9838 . 18 5 . 1 6559 . 12
4 4
= = A = A


Therefore,
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
25

( )
Pa P
Pa
P P P P P P P P P P
FOBA
BB BB BB BB
OB TOB DSTA TO FO
B B B FOBB
1771 . 138
9838 . 18 708 . 14 9511 . 8 5442 . 3 204 . 27 04 . 28 038 . 0 75 . 29 958 . 6
7
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
= A
+ + + + + + + + =
A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A = A

Considering the Run
4 3 2 1
C C C FOCC






Run FO, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
FO FO
958 . 6 5 . 1 6387 . 4 = = A = A

Run O, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TO
TOB
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TO
v = velocity of air in run OB, 13.937 m / sec

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
26

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TO
TO
75 . 29
2
2254 . 1 sec 937 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A




Branch take off A, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
A DST
A DST
AB
OA air OA
A DST
038 . 0
937 . 13
53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A


Branch take off B, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
B DST
B DST
BC
OB air BC
B DST
03245 . 0
53 . 13
26 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 26 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A


Run OC, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
27

( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TOC
TOC
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TOC
v = velocity of air in run OB, 12.26 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TOC
TOC
0234 . 23
2
2254 . 1 sec 26 . 12
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A



Run OC, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
OC OC
754 . 38 5 . 1 836 . 25 = = A = A


Run CC
1
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
CC CC
623 . 3 5 . 1 4153 . 2
1 1
= = A = A

Run CC
2
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
CC CC
02985 . 9 5 . 1 0199 . 6
2 2
= = A = A

Run CC
3
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
CC CC
787 . 14 5 . 1 858 . 9
3 3
= = A = A


Run CC
4
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
CC CC
0626 . 19 5 . 1 7084 . 12
4 4
= = A = A


Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
28

Therefore,
Pa P
Pa
P P P P P P P P P P P
C C C FOCC
CC CC CC CC
OC TOC DSTB DSTA TO FO
C C C FOCC
0583 . 145
0626 . 19 787 . 14 02985 . 9
623 . 3 754 . 38 0234 . 23 03245 . 0 038 . 0 75 . 29 958 . 6
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
+ + + + + +
=
A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A = A

Considering the Run
4 3 2 1
D D D FODD






Run FO, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
FO FO
958 . 6 5 . 1 6387 . 4 = = A = A

Run O, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TO
TOB
v
P


Where:
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
29

air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TO
v = velocity of air in run OB, 13.937 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TO
TO
75 . 29
2
2254 . 1 sec 937 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A



Branch take off A, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
A DST
A DST
AB
OA air OA
A DST
038 . 0
937 . 13
53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A



Branch take off B, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
B DST
B DST
BC
OB air BC
B DST
03245 . 0
53 . 13
26 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 26 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A


Branch take off C, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
31

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
C DST
C DST
BC
OC air OC
C DST
001046 . 0
26 . 12
325 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 325 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A



Run OD, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TOD
TOD
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TOD
v = velocity of air in run OD, 12.325 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TOD
TOD
268 . 23
2
2254 . 1 sec 325 . 12
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A



Run OD, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
OD OD
304 . 50 5 . 1 536 . 33 = = A = A


Run DD
1
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
DD DD
9896 . 2 5 . 1 9931 . 1
1 1
= = A = A

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
31

Run DD
2
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
DD DD
856 . 8 5 . 1 904 . 5
2 2
= = A = A

Run DD
3
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
DD DD
9579 . 12 5 . 1 6386 . 8
3 3
= = A = A


Run DD
4
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
DD DD
7746 . 16 5 . 1 1831 . 11
4 4
= = A = A


Therefore,
Pa P
Pa
P P P P P P P P P P P P
D D D FODD
DD DD DD DD
OD TOD DSTD DSTB DSTA TO FO
D D D FODD
932 . 151
7746 . 16 9579 . 12 856 . 8 9896 . 2
304 . 50 268 . 23 001046 . 0 03245 . 0 038 . 0 75 . 29 958 . 6
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
+ + + + + +
=
A + A + A + A + A A + A + A + A + A + A = A



Considering the Run
4 3 2 1
E E E FOEE




Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
32



Run FO, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
FO FO
958 . 6 5 . 1 6387 . 4 = = A = A

Run O, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TO
TOB
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TO
v = velocity of air in run OB, 13.937 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TO
TO
75 . 29
2
2254 . 1 sec 937 . 13
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A





Branch take off A, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
33

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
A DST
A DST
AB
OA air OA
A DST
038 . 0
937 . 13
53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 53 . 13
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A



Branch take off B, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
B DST
B DST
BC
OB air OB
B DST
03245 . 0
53 . 13
26 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 26 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A


Branch take off C, Duct Straight Through

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
C DST
C DST
CD
OC air OC
C DST
001046 . 0
26 . 12
325 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 325 . 12
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A





Branch take off D, Duct Straight Through

Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
34

From Equation 6 16, REFRIGERATION and
AIRONDITIONING by Stoecker & Jones, page 114
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
Pa P
m
P
V
V V
P
D DST
D DST
DE
OD air OD
D DST
827 . 0
325 . 12
078 . 10
1 4 . 0
2
2254 . 1 sec 078 . 10
1 4 . 0
2
2
2
2
2
= A
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A


Run OE, Turn
From figure 6 8, Pressure losses in rectangular elbows,
REFRIGERATION and AIRCONDITONING by: Stoecker & Jones,
page 113
For a width to height ratio (W/H) equal to 4, inner and outer radius ratio
of 0.29
( ) ( )
25 . 0
2
2
=
A
air TOE
TOE
v
P


Where:
air
= density of supply air, 1.2254 kg / m
3

TOE
v = velocity of air in run OD, 10.078 m / sec

Therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Pa
m kg m v
P
air TOE
TOE
557 . 15
2
2254 . 1 sec 078 . 10
25 . 0
2
25 . 0
3 2 2
= = = A



Run OE, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
OE OE
854 . 61 5 . 1 236 . 41 = = A = A



Duct Design Example No.(1) By Badran M. Salem
35

Run EE
1
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
EE EE
295 . 3 5 . 1 1971 . 2
1 1
= = A = A

Run EE
2
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
EE EE
316 . 8 5 . 1 5437 . 5
2 2
= = A = A

Run EE
3
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
EE EE
6939 . 12 5 . 1 4626 . 8
3 3
= = A = A

Run EE
4
, Straight Duct
( ) ( ) Pa m Pa m m P L P
EE EE
8 . 16 5 . 1 20005 . 11
4 4
= = A = A

Therefore,
Pa P
Pa
P P P P P P P P P P P P P
E E E FOEE
EE EE EE EE
OE TOE DSTD DSTC DSTB DSTA TO FO
E E E FOEE
122 . 156
8 . 16 6939 . 12 316 . 8 295 . 3
854 . 61 557 . 15 827 . 0 001046 . 0 03245 . 0 038 . 0 75 . 29 958 . 6
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
+ + + + + + +
=
A + A + A + A + A A + A + A + A + A + A + A = A