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Some typical values for this case are given in Figure A10, and are applicable to domestic consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-pha

Type of application Roads and highwaysstorage areas, intermittent work Heavy-duty works: fabrication and assembly of very large work pieces Day-to-day work: office work Fine work: drawing offices high-precision assembly workshops Power circuits Type of application

Pumping station compressed air Ventilation of premises Electrical convection heaters: private houses flats and apartments Offices Dispatching workshop Assembly workshop Machine shop Painting workshop Heat-treatment plant (1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included), flux 5,100 lumens (Im), luminous efficiency of the tube = 78.5 Im / W. Fig. A9: Estimation of installed apparent power

Number of downstream consumers 2 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 49 50 and more Fig. A10: Simultaneity factors in an apartment block Number of circuits Assemblies entirely tested 2 and 3 4 and 5 6 to 9 10 and more Assemblies partially tested in every case choose Fig. A12: Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 60439)

Lifts and catering hoist (2) (1) In certain cases, notably in industrial installations, this factor can be higher. (2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current of the motor, increased by a third of its starting current. Fig. A13: Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function

Fig A14: An example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration p

mers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). In the case of consumers using electrical heat-storage units for space heating, a factor of 0.8 is recommen

Factor of simultane ity (ks) 1 0.78 0.63 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.4

Factor of simultane ity (ks) 1 0.78 0.63 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.4

(1)

For the most powerful motor For the second most powerful motor For all motors

1 0.75 0.6

nits for space heating, a factor of 0.8 is recommended, regardless of the number of consumers.

Maximum demand (often referred to as MD) is the largest current normally carried by circuits, switches and protective devices; it does not include the levels of current flowing under overload or short circuit conditions, Assessment of maximum demand is sometimes straightforward. For example, the maximum demand of a 240 V single-phase 8 kW shower heater can be calculated by dividing the power (8 kW) by the voltage (240 V) to give a current of 33.3 A. This calculation assumes a power factor of unity, which is a reasonable assumption for such a purely resistive load. There are times, however, when assessment of maximum demand is less obvious. For example, if a ring circuit feeds fifteen 13 A sockets, the maximum demand clearly should not be 15 x 13 = 195 A, if only because the circuit protection will not be rated at more than 32 A. Some 13 A sockets may feed table lamps with 60 W lamps fitted, whilst others may feed 3 kW washing machines; others again may not be loaded at all. Guidance is given in {Table 6.1}. Lighting circuits pose a special problem when determining MD. Each lamp-holder must be assumed to carry the current required by the connected load, subject to a minimum loading of 100 W per lampholder (a demand of 0.42 A per lampholder at 240 V). Discharge lamps are particularly difficult to assess, and current cannot be calculated simply by dividing lamp power by supply voltage. The reasons for this are: 1. - control gear losses result in additional current, 2. - the power factor is usually less than unity so current is greater, and 3. - chokes and other control gear usually distort the waveform of the current so that it contains harmonics which are additional to the fundamental supply current. So long as the power factor of a discharge lighting circuit is not less than 0.85, the current demand for the circuit can be calculated from: current (A) =

For example, the steady state current demand of a 240 V circuit supplying ten 65 W fluorescent lamps would be: I=

Switches for circuits feeding discharge lamps must be rated at twice the current they are required to carry, unless they have been specially constructed to withstand the severe arcing resulting from the switching of such inductive and capacitive loads. Table 6.1 - Current demand of outlets Type of outlet 2 A socket outlet Other socket outlets Lighting point Shaver outlet, bell transformer or any equipment of 5 W or less

Household cooker

When assessing maximum demand, account must he taken of the possible growth in demand during the life of the installation. Apart from indicating that maximum demand must be assessed, the Regulations themselves give little help. Suggestions for the assumed current demand of various types of outlet are shown in {Table 6.1}.

6.2.2 - Diversity A domestic ring circuit typically feeds a large number of 13 A sockets hut is usually protected by a fuse or circuit breaker rated at 30 A or 32 A. This means that if sockets were feeding 13 A loads, more than two of them in use at the same time would overload the circuit and it would be disconnected by its protective device. In practice, the chances of all domestic ring sockets feeding loads taking 13 A is small. Whilst there maybe a 3 kW washing machine in the kitchen, a 3 kW heater in the living room and another in the bedroom, the chance of all three being in use at the same time is remote. If they are all connected at the same time, this could be seen as a failure of the designer when assessing the installation requirements; the installation should have two ring circuits to feed the parts of the house in question. Most sockets, then, will feed smaller loads such as table lamps, vacuum cleaner, television or audio machines and so on. The chances of all the sockets being used simultaneously is remote in the extreme provided that the number of sockets (and ring circuits) installed is large enough. The condition that only a few sockets will be in use at the same time, and that the loads they feed will be small is called diversity.

By making allowance for reasonable diversity, the number of circuits and their rating can be reduced, with a consequent financial saving, but without reducing the effectiveness of the installation. However, if diversity is overestimated, the normal current demands will exceed the ratings of the protective devices, which will disconnect the circuits - not a welcome prospect for the user of the installation! Overheating may also result from overloading which exceeds the rating of the protective device, but does not reach its operating current in a reasonably short time. The Regulations require that circuit design should prevent the occurrence of small overloads of long duration. The sensible application of diversity to the design of an installation calls for experience and a detailed knowledge of the intended use of the installation. Future possible increase in load should also be taken into account. Diversity relies on a number of factors which can only be properly assessed in the light of detailed knowledge of the type of installation, the industrial process concerned where this applies, and the habits and practices of the users, Perhaps a glimpse into a crystal ball to foresee the future could also be useful! 6.2.3 - Applied diversity Apart from indicating that diversity and maximum demand must be assessed, the Regulations themselves give little help. Suggestions of values for the allowances for diversity are given in {Table 6.2}. Distribution boards must not have diversity applied so that they can carry the total load connected to them. Example 6.1 A shop has the following single-phase loads, which are balanced as evenly as possible across the 415 V three-phase supply. 2 x 6 kW and 7 x 3kw thermostatically controlled water heaters 2 x 3 kW instantaneous water heaters 2 x 6 kW and 1 x 4 kW cookers 12 kW of discharge lighting (Sum of tube ratings) 8 x 30 A ring circuits feeding 13 A sockets. Calculate the total demand of the system, assuming that diversity can be applied. Calculations will be based on {Table 6.2}. The single-phase voltage for a 415V three-phase system is 415/ 3 = 240 V.

All loads with the exception of the discharge lighting can be assumed to be at unity power factor, so current may be calculated from l=

Table 6.2 - Allowance for diversity Note the following abbreviations : X is the full load current of the largest appliance or circuit Y is the full load current of the second largest appliance or circuit Z is the full load current of the remaining appliances or circuits Type of final circuit

Lighting

Cookers

Instantaneous water heaters Thermostatic water heaters Floor warming installations Thermal storage heating

Standard circuits

Sockets and stationary equip. Water heaters (thermostatic) No diversity is allowable, so the total load will be: (2 x 6) + (7 x 3) kW = 12 + 21kw = 33kw This gives a total single-phase current of I = 33 x 4.17 = 137.6 A Water heaters (instantaneous) 100% of largest plus 100% of next means that in effect there is no allowable diversity. Single-phase current thus

Cookers 100% of largest 80% of second 60% of remainder Total for cookers Discharge lighting 90% of total which must be increased to allow for power factor and control gear losses. Lighting current

Ring circuits First circuit 100%, 50 current is 30 A 75% of remainder Total current demand for ring circuits = Total single phase current demand = Since a perfect balance is assumed, three phase line current =

1.1 - This Electrician's Guide 1.2 - The lEE Regulations 1.3 - The rationale for this guide

10 x 65 x 1.8 A 240

= 4.88A

Assumed current demand At least 0.5A Rated current Connected load, with minimum of 100 W May be neglected 10A + 30% of remainder + 5A for socket in cooker unit

d to them.

4.17 A 240

or diversity

Type of premises Small shops, stores, offices 90% total demand Hotels, guest houses 75% total demand 100%X + 80%Y + 60%Z 100%X + 80%Y + 60%Z

Households 66% total demand 100% up to 10 A + 50% balance 10 A + 30% balance + 5 A for socket

100%X + 50%(Y+Z) 100%X + 100%X + 100%Y + 100%Y + 100%X + 100%Y + 25%Z 25%Z 25%Z 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%X + 50%(Y+Z) 100%X + 75%Y + 40%Z

100%X + 40%(Y+Z)

100%X + 50%(Y+Z)

100%X + 40%(Y+Z)

100%X + 75%(Y+Z)

= 2 x 3 x 4.17 =

25.0 A

81.1 A

= 7 x 30 x 75 = 100

UK

Schneider

Examples

Example 1 (from 2005 NEC Handbook Annex D Example D6)

Ranges all of the same rating 24 ranges each rated 16 KW. Maximum demand for 24 ranges at 12-KW ratings is 39 KW. 16 KW exceeds 12 KW by 4. 5 per cent x 4 = 20 per cent 39 KW x 20 per cent = 7.8 KW 39 + 7.8 = 46.8 KW Total demand is 46.8 KW (Verified using Section 2 of Calculator)

Ranges of unequal rating 5 ranges at 12 KW 2 ranges at 12 KW 20 ranges at 13.5 KW 3 ranges at 18 KW 5 x 12 = 60 KW 2 x 12 = 24 KW 20 x 13.5 = 270 KW 3 x 18 = 54 KW total 30 ranges 408 KW

408 / 30 = 13.6 KW (average per Note 2 to Table 220.55 From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 30 ranges of 12 KW rating is 15 KW + 30 ranges = 45 KW. 13.6 exceeds 12 KW by 1.6. Round off to whole number or 2. 5 per cent x 2 = 10 per cent ( 5 per cent increase for each KW over 12 KW) 45 KW x 10 per cent = 4.5 KW Total Demand is 45 KW + 4.5 KW = 49.5 KW (Verified using Section 3 of Calculator)

Ranges of unequal rating 5 ranges at 12 KW

2 ranges at 12 KW 20 ranges at 13.5 KW 40 ranges at 18 KW 5 x 12 = 60 KW 2 x 12 = 24 KW 20 x 13.5 = 270 KW 40 x 18 = 720 KW total 67 ranges 1074 KW

1074 / 67 = 16 KW (average per Note 2 to Table 220.55 From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 67 ranges of 12 KW rating is 25 KW +( 67 x 0.75 ) = 75.25 KW. 16 exceeds 12 KW by 4. 5 per cent x 4 = 20 per cent ( 5 per cent increase for each KW over 12 KW) 75.25 KW x 20 per cent = 15 KW Total Demand is 75.25 KW + 15 KW = 90.3 KW (Verified using Section 3 of Calculator)

Ranges all of the same rating 5 ranges each rated 16 KW. Maximum demand for 5 ranges at 12-KW ratings is 20 KW. 16 KW exceeds 12 KW by 4. 5 per cent x 4 = 20 per cent 20 KW x 20 per cent = 4 KW 20 + 4 = 2 KW Total demand is 24 KW (Verified using Section 2 of Calculator)

Ranges of unequal rating 1 range at 16 KW 1 range at 17 KW 1 range at 10 KW

1 x 16 = 1 x 17 = 1 x 10 = total

16 KW 17 KW 10KW 3 ranges 43 KW

From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 3 ranges of 12 KW rating is 14 KW. 14.3 exceeds 12 KW by 3. (round up) 5 per cent x 3 = 15 per cent ( 5 per cent increase for each KW over 12 KW) 14 KW x 15 per cent = 2.1 KW Total Demand is 14 KW + 2.1 KW = 16.1 KW (Verified using Section 3 of Calculator)

Ranges of equal rating using Column B and C of Table 220.55. 50 ranges at 6 KW

From column B demand for 50 each 6 KW ranges is 20 per cent of total load. 50 x 6 =300 KW; 20 per cent of 300 is 60 KW.

From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 50 ranges of 12 KW rating is 25 KW + 0.75 x number of ranges. 0.75 x 50 = 40; 25 KW + 40 = 65 KW Total Demand is 65 KW (Verified using Section 1 of Calculator) By Note 3 to Table 220.55 either Column C or Column B may be used. Minimum Demand is 60 KW. (Verified using Section 1 of Calculator)

Ranges of equal rating using Column A and C of Table 220.55. 10 counter top ranges at 3 KW

From column A demand for 10 each 3 KW ranges is 49 per cent of total load. 10 x 3 =30 KW; 49 per cent of 30 is 14.7 KW.

From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 10 ranges of 3 KW rating is 25 KW . Total Demand is 25 KW

By Note 3 to Table 220.55 either Column C or Column A may be used. Minimum Demand is 14.7 KW. (Verified using Section 1 of Calculator)

Example 8

Ranges of equal rating using Column C of Table 220.55. 50 counter top ranges at 12 KW.

From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 50 ranges of 12 KW rating is 25 KW + 0.75 x number of ranges. 0.75 x 50 = 37.5 25 KW + 37.5 = 62.5 KW Total Demand is 62.5 KW (Verified using Section 1 and Section 3 of Calculator)

Ranges of unequal rating in Columns A, B, and C. 2 ranges at 2 KW 1 range at 4 KW 1 range at 12 KW

4 KW 4 KW 12 KW 4 ranges 20 KW

From Column C Table 220.55 demand for 4 ranges of 12 KW rating is 17 KW. Ranges are in Table 220.55 Columns A, B, and C but are not all 8 3/4 KW or less therefore Note 3 cannot be used. Total Demand is 17 KW (Verified using Section 1 of Calculator)

Ranges supplied by 3-phase 208Y/120 volt circuit. Section 220.55 provides that the total load shall be based on the basis of twice the maximum number of ranges connected to any two phases. Given 30 each 12 KW ranges. number of ranges /3 = 10 ranges/phase

2 x number of ranges/phase = 20 Using Section 1 the total demand load for 20 each 12 KW ranges is 35 KW. The demand load for each two phases is 35/2 = 17.5 KW. The total demand load is 3 x 17.5 = 52.5 KW The line current is: I = 52,500 / (1.732 x 208) = 52,500 / 360.3 = 145.7 amperes

Ranges of unequal rating. 6 ranges at 3 KW 10 ovens at 5 KW 14 ranges at 6 KW 45 ranges at 12 KW 25 ranges at 15 KW 1 range at 20 KW All these values do fit into either Section 1, 2, or 3. We therefore have to decide on an alternate method. One method is to use 8.8 KW for any value below 8 3/4 KW giving the following: 30 ranges at 8.8 KW 45 ranges at 12 KW 25 ranges at 15 KW 1 range at 20 KW Total Demand is 105.8 KW (Use Section 3 of Calculator) A second method is to divide the problem into two categories. One for all the values 12 KW and lower and the other for values greater than 12 KW then add the two results. 6 ranges at 3 KW 10 ovens at 5 KW 14 ranges at 6 KW 45 ranges at 12 KW Using Section 1 the demand load is: 81.25 KW 25 ranges at 15 KW 1 range at 20 KW Using Section 3 the demand load is: 47.15 KW

Example 12 (fromexample Author) illustrates a possible solution. For installations such as this a legally This licensed and bonded professional electrical engineer should be consulted.

Ranges of unequal rating supplied by 3-phase 208Y/120 volt circuit. 6 ranges at 3 KW 10 ovens at 5 KW 14 ranges at 6 KW 45 ranges at 12 KW 25 ranges at 15 KW 1 3-phase range at 20 KW This problem does not fit nicely within the rules of Section 220.55 or Table 220.55 and accompanying Notes. Divide ranges to balance load and find how many are on each two phases. For the 3-phase range divide load by three and apply to each phase. Phases AB AC BC 2 - 3 KW 2 - 3 KW 2 - 3 KW 4 - 5 KW 3 - 5 KW 3 - 5 KW 5 - 6 KW 5 - 6 KW 4 - 6 KW 15 - 12 KW 15 - 12 KW 15 - 12 KW 8 - 15 KW 8 - 15 KW 9 - 15 KW 1 - 7 KW 1 - 7 KW 1 - 6 KW _________________________________________ 35 - 366 KW 34 - 363 KW 34 - 359 KW Select phases with maximum number of ranges which is AB. 2 x number of ranges/phase = 2 x 35 = 70 Double the number of ranges for each category and use 8.8 KW for any value below 8 3/4 KW. Using 24 - 8.8 KW, 30 - 12 KW, and 16 - 15 KW use section 3 to find demand. Demand is 81.38 KW using Section 3. 81.38 KW /2 = 40.69 KW The total demand load is 3 x 40.7 = 122.1 KW The line current is: I = 122,100 / (1.732 x 208) = 122,100 / 360.3 = 339 amperes

Example 12A done another way that gives same answer. (fromexample Author) illustrates a possible solution. For installations such as this a legally This licensed and bonded professional electrical engineer should be consulted.

Ranges of unequal rating supplied by 3-phase 208Y/120 volt circuit. 6 ranges at 3 KW 10 ovens at 5 KW 14 ranges at 6 KW 45 ranges at 12 KW 25 ranges at 15 KW 1 3-phase range at 20 KW This problem does not fit nicely within the rules of Section 220.55 or Table 220.55 and accompanying Notes. Divide ranges to balance load and find how many are on each two phases. Phases AB AC BC 2 - 3 KW 2 - 3 KW 2 - 3 KW 4 - 5 KW 3 - 5 KW 3 - 5 KW 5 - 6 KW 5 - 6 KW 4 - 6 KW 15 - 12 KW 15 - 12 KW 15 - 12 KW 8 - 15 KW 8 - 15 KW 9 - 15 KW 1 - 7 KW 1 - 7 KW 1 - 6 KW _________________________________________ 35 - 366 KW 34 - 363 KW 34 - 359 KW Step 1. Find average value of one range using Note 2 of Table 220.5: (30 x 12 + 45 x 12 + 25 x 15 + 1 x 20) / 101 = (360+ 540 + 375 + 20 ) / 101 = 1295 / 101 = 12.82 Note: 12 kw is used for values less than 12 kw per Table 220.55 note 2. Step 2. Next follow 220.55 second paragraph and example D5A in Annex D. Maximum ranges connected between any two phases is 35. 2 x 35 = 70 By table 220.55 column C demand is 25000 plus 3/4 KW for each range. Demand is 25000 + 750 x 70 = 25000 + 52500watts = 77500 Increase this amount by 5 per cent since average range value is 12.82 KW 77500 + (0.05 x 77500) = 77500 + 3875 = 81375 Step 3. By example Annex D example D5A:

The demand load for each two phases is 81375 / 2 = 40688 Ans: The total demand load is 3 x 40688= 122063 W The line current is: I = 122063 / (1.732 x 208) = 151125 / 360.3 =339 amperes References: Annex D example D5A For 208Y/120-V, 3-phase, 4-wire system, Ranges: Maximum number between any two phase legs = 4 2 4 = 8. Table 220.55 demand (for 8 each 12 kw ranges) = 23,000 VA Per phase demand = 23,000 VA 2 = 11,500 VA Equivalent 3-phase load (3 x 11500) = 34,500 VA Table 220.55 Note 2 Over834kWthrough27kWrangesofunequalratings.Forrangesindividuallyratedmorethan834kWand of different ratings, but none exceeding 27 kW, an AVERAGE value of rating shall be calculated by adding together the ratings of all ranges to obtain the total connected load (using 12 kW for any range rated less than 12 kW) and dividing by the total number of ranges. Then the maximum demand in Column C shall be increased 5 percentforeachkilowattormajorfractionthereofbywhichthisaveragevalueexceeds12kW. Section 220.55 second paragraph: Wheretwoormoresingle-phaserangesaresuppliedbya3-phase,4-wirefeederorservice,thetotalloadshall becalculatedonthebasisoftwicethemaximumnumberconnectedbetweenanytwophases.

Example 13

Dwelling Unit - 3 phase range calculation supplied by 3-phase 4 wire 208/120 volt wye. Given: 4-9kw 4-13.8kw 4-15kw Find: Calculate Total Demand

37950 W is the answer for demand load. Math: Step 1. Find average value of one range using Note 2 of Table 220.5: (4 x 12 + 4 x 13.8 + 4 x 15) / 12 = (48+ 55.2 + 60 ) / 12 = 163.2 / 12 = 13.6 Note: 12 kw is used for 9 kw per Table 220.55 note 2. Step 2. Next follow 220.55 second paragraph and example D5A in Annex D. Maximum ranges connected between any two phases is 4. 2x4=8 By table 220.55 column C demand is 23000 for 8 ranges of 12 kw. This must be increased 10 per cent since the average value of 13.6 is 1.6 kw above 12 kw. Demand is 23000 + (0.10 x 23000) = 25300 watts. Step 3. By example Annex D example D5A: The demand load for each two phases is 25300 / 2 = 12650 Ans: The total demand load is 3 x 12650 = 37950 W The line current is: I = 37950 / (1.732 x 208) = 37950 / 360.3 = 105.3 amperes References: Annex D example D5A For 208Y/120-V, 3-phase, 4-wire system, Ranges: Maximum number between any two phase legs = 4 2 4 = 8. Table 220.55 demand (for 8 each 12 kw ranges) = 23,000 VA Per phase demand = 23,000 VA 2 = 11,500 VA Equivalent 3-phase load (3 x 11500) = 34,500 VA Table 220.55 Note 2

Over834kWthrough27kWrangesofunequalratings.Forrangesindividuallyratedmorethan834kWand of different ratings, but none exceeding 27 kW, an AVERAGE value of rating shall be calculated by adding together the ratings of all ranges to obtain the total connected load (using 12 kW for any range rated less than 12 kW) and dividing by the total number of ranges. Then the maximum demand in Column C shall be increased 5 percentforeachkilowattormajorfractionthereofbywhichthisaveragevalueexceeds12kW. Section 220.55 second paragraph: Wheretwoormoresingle-phaserangesaresuppliedbya3-phase,4-wirefeederorservice,thetotalloadshall becalculatedonthebasisoftwicethemaximumnumberconnectedbetweenanytwophases.

Example 14

Commercial - 3 phase range calculation supplied by 3-phase 4 wire 208/120 volt wye. Given: 4-9kw 4-13.8kw 4-15kw

Find total load and apply demand factors given in Table 220.56 (4 x 9) + (4 x 13.8) + (4 x 15) = (36+ 55.2 + 60 ) = 151.2 KW Demand factor for 12 ranges from Table 220.56 is 65 per cent. 0.65 x 151.2 KW = 98.28 KW Ans: The total demand load is 98.28 KW The line current is: I = 98280 Watts / (1.732 x 208 Volts) = 98280 Watts / 360.3 = 272.8 amperes

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Electrical Engineering

DIVERSITY AND DEMAND:

General: The actual operating load rarely, if ever, equals the sum of all loads installed. The maximum operating load can be related to connected loads or to the sum of demand loads by the demand factor or the diversity factor. To avoid confusion designers must always keep in mind actual operating conditions in an installation. An electrical distribution system can be broken down into groups of smaller systems or branches, successively connected together forming the whole network or tree. Each of these branches can contain smaller branches and The operating load existing at any location in a system at a given point in time is the sum of the loads downstream existing at that point in time. Diversity Diversity occurs in an operating system because not all loads connected are operating simultaneously or are not simultaneously operating at their maximum rating. Coincident The inverse of diversity factor is known as the coincident factor. Examples of this occur in a building in the following manner: Motors are not usually operating at their nameplate rating, i.e. the mechanical load on the rotating shaft is less than rated. This could be due to operating variations in load as in an air conditioning system with variable air volume controls or due to conservative equipment selection by the designer. Some loads are cyclic in nature such as sump pumps, sewerage ejector pumps, air compressors, lifts, etc. The cyclic nature of these loads creates a probability that not all will be simultaneously operating. Some loads rarely operate except in unusual circumstances or for testing. An example would be sprinkler booster pumps or hose reel pumps. Otherequipmentoftenoperatesatlessthanmanufacturersnameplateratings. Time dependant The load is time dependant as well as being dependant upon equipment characteristics. The diversity factor recognises that the whole load does not equal the sum of its parts due to this time Interdependence (i.e. An example would be a conveyor belt made up of six sections, each driven by a 2 kW motor. As material is transported along this belt, it is first carried by section 1, then each section in succession until the final section is reached. In this simple example only one section of conveyor is carrying material at any point in time. Therefore five motors are only handling no-load mechanical losses (say .1 kW) keeping the belts moving whilst one motor is handling the load (say 1 kW). The demand presented by each motor when it is carrying its load is 1 kW, the sum

The diversity factor for this system is: DemandLoads 6 kW Maximum Demand 1,5kW The demand factor for this system is:

Maximum Demand 1,5kW ConnectedLoad12kW Lighting: In commercial or industrial buildings lighting demand is often assumed to equal 100% of connected load. However, some luminaires will not be operated. In installations provided with local switching (or occupancy sensing) lights in unoccupied areas may not be on. The extend of this diversity may be very small but nonetheless Small Power: For several years there has been a trend to anticipate the use of large quantities of electronic equipment in general office spaces. As a result design levels for small power loads have been rising. Experience has shown however, that demand loads have not grown as rapidly as connected loads. This may be due to several factors, among which are: Unrealised expectations in some cases the quantity of equipment anticipated is never actually installed. Under estimating or neglecting the effect of diversity and demand factors. Here again the design engineer must have an appreciation of realistic values for operating demand as a percentage of connected loads. Good record keeping and obtaining operational data from completed installations The capacity of air conditioning plant can be significantly affected by the small power loads. Reasonably accurate assessment of operating demand loads will enable an HVAC design engineer to properly select equipment for a project. Oversized equipment can be extremely difficult to control when operating at very small percentages of rated capacity. In some cases, as in Variable Air Volume systems, occupied spaces may be seriously overcooled Power Factor: In an operating system various loads comprising the system may have differing power factors. When totalling loads at any point in the system this must be considered and loads added algebraically. It is often convenient for initial analysis to work in real load (kW) only. Electric Heating: When a building is electrically heated the heating load must be considered independently from any unit load design guidelines and generally added to the maximum demand calculations. In an air conditioned building however, it is likely that maximum heating load will not occur simultaneously with cooling loads. Therefore, this diversity must be considered in determining maximum demand.

Voltage Variation: In general, all load evaluation is based upon nominal system voltage. The designer should always be aware of the effects of voltage drop or supply variations. Voltage drops within the range recommended by various codes and standards or Supply Company regulations will not usually present any problems.

Electrical Engineering

LOAD ASSESSMENT

Introduction Modern buildings are increasingly filled with more electrical apparatus. This includes air conditioning, and other equipment, used to maintain acceptable environmental and operating conditions for both the equipment and the The technology explosion is increasing demand for electrical power to support the equipment which has become an integral part of the way we all conduct business. This section reviews some of the basic considerations which must be made when evaluating the load Realistic estimates of operating requirements must be considered if a properly engineered electrical distribution Early Stages At the early planning stages of a project, whether it be a school, office building, hospital, airport or whatever, detailed information about the equipment which will be installed in a building is unlikely to be available. Planning For planning to proceed, utility companies need to be contacted and decisions made to enable major elements of plant and service equipment to be specified. The design engineer must be able to confidently produce load estimates based upon experience and a good database of actual operating loads for similar projects.

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PROBLEMS WITH DEMAND LOAD CALCULATIONS: Thereisaproblemintodaysdesignofpowersystems,andthisproblemisnotbeingtalkedaboutorcoveredin any concerted way. Doing power and demand load calculations, is often not considered exciting. But, even though they are not sexy, simple power supply and demand load calculations are important and need to be done Please consider the following TheIEEERedBookdefinesdemandasatimeaverageload.(SeeANSI/IEEEStd141).Thisisagood definition for concept and ease of understanding. But, it does not help much during the actual design process. The problem is that during an actual design, of say a low voltage power supply system for a commercial structure, theengineer/designercannotdeterminethetimeaverageofmostoftheloadsbeingconnectedintothesystem. As an example, consider a typical HVAC load. The electrical engineer/designer does not know when the load is going to cycle on or off, or how long the load will stay on at any given time. So, the designer does not know enough about the load to do a time average calculation. So what is an engineer actually doing during the design process? Usually, he or she is trying to determine what theactualloadisduringtheworstcaseevent.Thisistheloadnumberwhichisthenusedtodesignthesystem. Note:ThisnumberiscommonlyreferredtoastheDemandLoad,eventhoughtheusagedoesnotagreewith Another consideration is the US National Electrical Code (ie: The NEC). The NEC does not define the terms DemandorDemandLoadatall.ItdoesdefineDemandFactorastheratioofthemaximumdemandofa system to the connected load. Again this does not help except in those few places where the NEC gives a useful number. Places like Art. 220.44 where it gives 10kVA + 50% as the demand factors for determining the load of general use receptacles. But, this is not a demand load. It is a rule of thumb approximation method for determining the load during use. It is not a bad rule. It gives usable numbers. But, it is not a time average of the load, and it is not a calculation of the load under worst case conditions. And, the larger problem is that the NEC does not give useful demand factor numbers for most of the loads designers find in commercial structures. Note: ThepointisthatdemandasdefinedbytheIEEEdoesnotagreewiththeloadcalculatedbythedemandfactors given in the NEC, and neither of these help engineer/designers determine the actual loads that they need to This puts an engineer/designer trying to do a design, which is correct from a calculated worst case load point of view, in conflict with the IEEE definition of the term demand load, and the NEC usage of the term demand factor. Again, during a design, what the engineer needs to do is determine what the actual load is during the worst case event. Then the equipment (eg: a panel) can be sized or designed based on that load. The worst case event is sometimes called the design event condition, because that is the condition or event on which the design is based. Toavoidtheconflictintheusageofthetermsdemandordemandload,letsdefineanewterm.Letscallthe worst case event the Design Event Basis,orDEB.Thisnamereflectswhatthedesigneristryingtodo.Asin,he or she is trying to define the event against which the design is based. And of course, the load that occurs during Now, the design process looks like: 1. Determine what the Connected Loads are. 2. Determine what the DEB Load is. 3. Determine what the Design Load is. 4. Size the equipment to be equal to or greater than the Design Load.

In using this term, there is no conflict with the IEEE definitions, and the DEB Load can be determined in accordance with the NEC rules. For most loads, the DEB Load can be determined using NEC Art. 220.60, for Noncoincident Loads. (And again for those pesky general use receptacles, we use NEC Art. 220.44.) Using knowledge gained during the design process, the designer determines which loads are on during the DEB, and those loads are counted toward the total DEB Load. While the loads which are off during the DEB are counted as zero. Art. 220.60 allows us to do all of this. Which means that determining the DEB Load in this way meets the NEC minimums. The point here is that the industry needs to change it usage of the terms Demand and Demand Load to something which engineers can actually use during the design process. We propose the terms DEB and DEB FormoredetailonhowtouseandcalculateDEBLoads,seethebookDEBLoadCalculations,fromeThis discussion should be submitted to the IEEE, but their web site doesn't seem to accept open letters of opinion. So, what do you think? Is this a problem for anyone else out there? Ralph M. White, PE

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