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A small list of Training soft skills. 1.

Ethical Leadership & Conflict Management:

Environmental resource management is "a purposeful activity with the goal to maintain and improve the state of an environmental resource affected by human activities". It is not, as the phrase suggests, the management of the environment as such, but rather the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Environmental resources management aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for equitable use by future human generations, and also, maintain ecosystem integrity as an end in itself by taking into consideration ethical, economic, and scientific (ecological) variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify the factors that have a stake in the conflicts that may rise between meeting the needs and protecting the resources. Significance Environmental resource management is an issue of increasing concern as reflected in its prevalence in seminal texts influencing global socio-political frameworks such as the Brundtland Commission's Our Common Future which brought to the fore the integrated nature of environment and international development and the Worldwatch Institute's annual State of the World (book series) reports. Scope: Improved agricultural practices such as these terraces in northwest Iowa can serve to preserve soil and improve water quality Environmental resource management can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. Environmental resource management involves the management of all components of the biophysical environment, both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the biophysical environment. The essential aspects of environmental resource management are ethical, economical, social and technological which provide for formulation of principles and help in making decisions. The scientific and technical nature makes environmental resource management profession to operate in a humanistic and rational mode in the world. Aspects Ethical Environmental resource management strategies are intrinsically driven by conceptions of human-nature relationships. Ethical aspects involve the cultural and social issues relating to the environment, and dealing with changes to it. "All human activities take place in the context of certain types of relationships between society and the bio-physical world (the rest of nature)", and so, there is a great significance in understanding the ethical values of different groups around the world. Broadly speaking, two schools of thought exist in environmental ethics: Anthropocentrism and Ecocentrism each influencing a broad spectrum of environmental resource management styles along a continuum. These styles perceive "different evidence, imperatives, and problems, and prescribe different solutions, strategies, technologies, roles for economic sectors, culture, governments, and ethics, etc". Anthropocentrism Anthropocentrism, "an inclination to evaluate reality exclusively in terms of human values", is an ethic reflected in the major interpretations of Western religions and the dominant economic paradigms of the industrialised world. Anthropocentrism supports an understanding of nature as existing solely for the benefit of man and as a commodity to be used for the good of humanity and improved human quality of life. Anthropocentric environmental resource management is therefore not the conservation of the environment solely for the environment's sake, but rather the conservation of the environment, and ecosystem structure, for human sake. Ecocentrism Ecocentrists believe in the intrinsic value of nature while maintaining an understanding that "human beings must use and even exploit nature to survive and live".[ It is this fine ethical line that ecocentrists navigate between "fair use and downright abuse".[ At an extreme end of the ethical scale, ecocentrism includes philosophies such as ecofeminism and deep ecology which evolved as a reaction to the dominant anthropocentric paradigms. "In its current form, it is an attempt to synthesize many old and some new philosophical attitudes about the relationship between nature and human activity, with particular emphasis on ethical, social, and spiritual aspects that have been downplayed in the dominant economic worldview".

Economic A water harvesting system collects rainwater from the Rock of Gibraltar into pipes which lead to tanks excavated inside the rock. The economy functions within, and is dependent upon goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. The role of the environment is recognized in both classical economics and neoclassical economics theories, yet the environment held a spot on the back-burner of economic policies from 1 50 due to emphasis from policy makers on economic growth. With the prevalence of environmental problems, many economists embraced the notion that "if environmental sustainability must coexist for economic sustainability, then the overall system must be one which permits the identification of an equilibrium between the environment and the economy". As such, economic policy makers began to incorporate the functions of the natural environment or natural capital particularly as a sink for wastes and for the provision of raw materials and amenities. Debate continues among economists as to how to account for natural capital, specifically whether resources can be replaced through the use of knowledge and technology, or whether the economy is a closed system that cannot be replenished and is finite. Economic models influence environmental resource management in that management policies reflect beliefs about natural capital scarcity if natural capital is believed to be infinite and easily substituted, environmental management would be irrelevant to the economy. For example, economic paradigms based on neoclassical models of closed economic systems are primarily concerned with resource scarcity, and thus prescribe legalizing the environment as an economic externality for an environmental resource management strategy. This approach has often been termed 'Command-and-control'. Colby has identified trends in the development of economic paradigms, among them, a shift towards more ecological economics since the 1 0s. Ecological A diagram showing the juvenile fish bypass system which allows young salmon and steelhead to safely pass the Rocky Reach Hydro Project in Washington Fencing separates big game from vehicles along the Quebec Autoroute in Canada. "The pairing of significant uncertainty about the behaviour and response of ecological systems with urgent calls for near-term action constitutes a difficult reality, and a common lament" for many environmental resource managers. Scientific analysis of the environment deals with several dimensions of ecological uncertainty. These include: structural uncertainty resulting from the misidentification, or lack of information pertaining to the relationships between ecological variables; parameter uncertainty referring to "uncertainty associated with parameter values that are not known precisely but can be assessed and reported in terms of the likelihoodof experiencing a defined range of outcomes"; and stochastic uncertainty stemming from chance or unrelated factors. Adaptive management is considered a useful framework through which to deal with situations of high levels of uncertainty though it is not without its detractors. A common scientific concept and impetus behind environmental resource management is carrying capacity. Simply put, carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of organisms a particular resource can sustain. The concept of carrying capacity, whilst understood by many cultures over history, has its roots in Malthusian theory. An example is visible in the EU Water Framework Directive. However, "it is argued that Western scientific knowledge ... is often insufficient to deal with the full complexity of the interplay of variables in environmental resource management. These concerns have been recently addressed by a shift in environmental resource management approaches to incorporate different knowledge systems including traditional knowledge, reflected in approaches such as adaptive co-management community-based natural resource management and transitions management. among others. Sustainability: Sustainability and environmental resource management involves managing economic, social, and ecological systems within and external to an organizational entity in order for it to sustain itself and the system it exists within. In context, sustainability implies that rather than competing for endless growth on a finite planet, development will improve quality of life without necessarily having to consume more resources. In order to sustainably manage the state of environmental resources affected by human activities organizational change is needed to instill sustainability values within an organization, in order to portray these values outwardly from all levels and to reinforce them in its surrounding stakeholder community. The end result should be a symbiotic relationship between the sustaining organization and community, along with the environment. There are many drivers that compel environmental resource management to take sustainability issues into account. Today's economic paradigms do not protect the natural environment, yet they deepen human dependency on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecologically, massive environmental

degradation and climate change threaten the stability of ecological systems that humanity depends on. Socially, an increasing gap between rich and poor and the global North-South divide denies many access to basic human needs, rights, and education, leading to further environmental destruction. [ [ The planet's unstable condition is caused by many anthropogenic sources. As an exceptionally powerful contributing factor to social and environmental change, the modern organisation has the potential to apply environmental resource management with sustainability principals to achieve highly affective outcomes. To achieve sustainable development with environmental resource management an organisation should coincide with sustainability principals, such as: social and environmental accountability, long-term planning; a strong, shared vision; a holistic focus; devolved and consensus decision making; broad stakeholder engagement and justice; transparency measures; trust; and flexibility, to name a few. [ Current paradigm shifts: In order to adjust to today's environment of quick social and ecological changes some organizations have begun to experiment with various new tools and concepts.[ [ Those which are more traditional and stick to hierarchal decision making are having difficulty dealing with the demand for lateral decision making that supports affective participation.[ Whether it be a matter of ethics or just strategic advantage organizations are internalizing sustainability principles.[ [ Examples of some of the world's largest and most profitable corporations who are shifting to sustainable environmental resource management are: Ford, Toyota, BMW, Honda, Shell, Du Pont, Swiss Re, Hewlett-Packard, and Unilever. An extensive study by the Boston Consulting Group reaching 1,5 business leaders from diverse regions, job positions, expertise in sustainability, industries, and sizes of organizations, revealed the many benefits of sustainable practice as well as its viability.[ It is important to note that though sustainability of environmental resource management has improved, corporate sustainability, for one, has yet to reach the majority of global companies operating in the markets.[ The three major barriers to preventing organizations to shift towards sustainable practice with environmental resource management are: not understanding what sustainability is; having difficulty modeling an economically viable case for the switch; and having a flawed execution plan, or a lack thereof.[ Therefore the most important part of shifting an organization to adopt sustainability in environmental resource management would be to create a shared vision and understanding of what sustainability is for that particular organization, and to clarify the business case.[ Stakeholders: Public sector :A conservation project in North Carolina involving the search for bog turtles was conducted by United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission and its volunteers The public sector comprises the general government sector plus all public corporations including the central bank.[ In environmental resource management the public sector is responsible for administering natural resource management and implementing environmental protection legislation.[ The traditional role of the public sector in environmental resource management is to provide professional judgement through skilled technicians on behalf of the public.[ With the increase of intractable environmental problems, the public sector has been led to examine alternative paradigms for managing environmental resources.[ This has resulted in the public sector working collaboratively with other sectors (including other governments, private and civil) to encourage sustainable natural resource management behaviours.[ Private sector: The private sector comprises private corporations and non-profit institutions serving households.[ The private sector's traditional role in environmental resource management is that of the recovers of natural resources.[ Such private sector recovery groups include mining (minerals and petroleum), forestry and fishery organisations.[ Environmental resource management undertaken by the private sectors varies dependent upon the resource type, that being renewable or non-renewable and private and common resources (also see Tragedy of the Commons).[ Environmental managers from the private sector also need skills to manage collaboration within a dynamic social and political environment.[ Civil society Civil society comprises associations in which societies voluntarily organise themselves into and which represent a wide range of interests and ties. These can include community-based organisations, indigenous peoples' organisations and non-government organisations (NGO). Functioning through strong public pressure, civil society can exercise their legal rights against the

implementation of resource management plans, particularly land management plans.[ The aim of civil society in environmental resource management is to be included in the decision-making process by means of public participation.[ Public participation can be an effective strategy to invoke a sense of social responsibility of natural resources.


Leadership Development:

Leadership development refers to any activity that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization. These activities have ranged from MBA style programs offered at university business schools to action learning, high-ropes courses and executive retreats. Developing Individual Leaders Traditionally, leadership development has focused on developing the leadership abilities and attitudes of individuals. Just as people are not all born with the ability or desire to play football (soccer) like Zinedine Zidane or sing like Luciano Pavarotti, people are not all born with the ability to lead. Different personal traits and characteristics can help or hinder a person's leadership effectiveness and require formalized programs for developing leadership competencies Yet everyone can develop their leadership effectiveness. Achieving such development takes focus, practice and persistence more akin to learning a musical instrument than reading a book. Classroom-style training and associated reading is effective in helping leaders to know more about what is involved in leading well. However, knowing what to do and doing what you know are two very different outcomes; management expert Henry Mintzberg is one person to highlight this dilemma. It is estimated that as little as 15% of learning from traditional classroom style training results in sustained behavioral change within the workplace. The success of leadership development efforts has been linked to three variables:

Individual learner characteristics The quality and nature of the leadership development program Genuine support for behavioral change from the leader's supervisor

Military officer training academies, such as the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, go to great lengths to only accept candidates who show the highest potential to lead well. Personal characteristics that are associated with successful leadership development include leader motivation to learn, a high achievement drive and personality traits such as openness to experience, an internal focus of control, and self-monitoring. Development is also more likely to occur when the design of the development program:

Integrates a range of developmental experiences over a set period of time (e.g. 6 months). These experiences may include degree feedback, experiential classroom style programs, business school style coursework, executive coaching, reflective journaling, mentoring and more. Involve goal setting, following an assessment of key developmental needs and then evaluate the achievement of goals after a given time period. Experiential learning: positioning the individual in the focus of the learning process, going through the four stages of experiential learning as formulated by David A. Kolb: 1. concrete experience 2. observation and reflection 3. forming abstract concept . testing in new situations. Self efficacy: The right training and coaching should bring about 'Self efficacy' in the trainee, as Albert Bandura formulated: A person's belief about his capabilities to produce effects Visioning: Developing the ability to formulate a clear image of the aspired future of an organization unit.

Among key concepts in leadership development one may find:

A good personal leadership development program should enable you to develop a plan that helps you gain essential leadership skills required for roles across a wide spectrum from a youth environment to the corporate world. Developing Leadership at a Collective Level More recently, organizations have come to understand that leadership can also be developed by strengthening the connection between, and alignment of, the efforts of individual leaders and the systems through which they influence organizational operations. This has led to a differentiation between leader development and leadership development. Quinn 's book of the same title. Leadership development can build on the development of individuals (including followers) to become leaders. In addition, it also needs to focus on the interpersonal linkages between the individuals in the team.

In the belief that the most important resource that an organization possesses is the people that comprise the organization, some organizations address the development of these resources (even including the leadership). In contrast, the concept of "Employeeship" recognizes that what it takes to be a good leader is not too dissimilar to what it takes to be a good employee. Therefore, bringing the notional leader together with the team to explore these similarities (rather than focusing on the differences) brings positive results. This approach has been particularly successful in Sweden where the power distance between manager and team is small. Succession Planning The development of "high potentials" to effectively take over the current leadership when their time comes to exit their positions is known as succession planning. This type of leadership development usually requires the extensive transfer of an individual between departments. In many multinationals, it usually requires international transfer and experience to build a future leader. Succession planning requires a sharp focus on organization's future and vision, in order to align leadership development with the future the firm aspires to create. Thus successive leadership development is based not only on knowledge and history but also on a dream. For such a plan to be successful, a screening of future leadership should be based not only on "what we know and have" but also on "what we aspire to become". Persons involved in succession planning should be current leadership representing the vision and HR executives having to translate it all into a program. According to Meir Jacob and Amit Cohen (1 5) three critical dimensions should be considered: 1. Skills and knowledge 2. Role perception and degree of acceptance of leading role 3. Self-efficacy (Albert Bandura). These three dimensions should be a basis of any leadership succession programme.
3. Building Customer Loyalty:

Customer service
Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase. According to Turban et al. (2002), "Customer service is a series of activities designed to enhance the level of customer satisfaction that is, the feeling that a product or service has met the customer expectation." The importance of customer service may vary by product or service, industry and customer. The perception of success of such interactions will be dependent on employees "who can adjust themselves to the personality of the guest," according to Micah Solomon. From the point of view of an overall sales process engineering effort, customer service plays an important role in an organization's ability to generate income and revenue. From that perspective, customer service should be included as part of an overall approach to systematic improvement. A customer service experience can change the entire perception a customer has of the organization. Some have argued that the quality and level of customer service has decreased in recent years, and that this can be attributed to a lack of support or understanding at the executive and middle management levels of a corporation and/or a customer service policy. To address this argument, many organizations have employed a variety of methods to improve their customer satisfaction levels, and other key performance indicators (KPIs). Customer support Customer support is a range of customer services to assist customers in making cost effective and correct use of a product. It includes assistance in planning, installation, training, trouble shooting, maintenance, upgrading, and disposal of a product. Regarding technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods, it is termed technical support. Automated customer service Customer service may be provided by a person (e.g., sales and service representative), or by automated means. Examples of automated means are Internet sites. An advantage with automated means is an increased ability to provide service 2 -hours a day, which can, at least, be a complement to customer service by persons. Another example of automated customer service is by touch-tone phone, which usually involves a main menu, and the use of the keypad as options (i.e. "Press for English, Press for Spanish", etc.) However, in the Internet era, a challenge has been to maintain and/or enhance the personal experience while making use of the efficiencies of online commerce. "Online customers are literally invisible to you (and you to them), so it's easy to shortchange them emotionally. But this lack of

visual and tactile presence makes it even more crucial to create a sense of personal, human-to-human connection in the online arena." Automated means can be based entirely on self service, but may also be based on service by more or less means of artificial intelligence. An automated online assistant with avatar providing automated customer service on a web page. Examples of customer service by artificial means are automated online assistants that can be seen as avatars on websites. It can avail for enterprises to reduce their operating and training cost. These are driven by chatterbots, and a major underlying technology to such systems is natural language processing. Instant feedback Recently, many organizations have implemented feedback loops that allow them to capture feedback at the point of experience. For example, National Express, one of the UK's leading travel companies, has invited passengers to send text messages whilst riding the bus. This has been shown to be useful, as it allows companies to improve their customer service before the customer defects, thus making it far more likely that the customer will return next time. Technology has made it increasingly easier for companies to obtain feedback from their customers. Community blogs and forums give customers the ability to give detailed explanations of both negative as well as positive experiences with a company/organization. A challenge in working with customer service, is to ensure that you have focused your attention on the right key areas, measured by the right Key Performance Indicator. There is no challenge to come up with a lot of meaningful KPIs, but the challenge is to select a few which reflects your overall strategy. In addition to reflecting your strategy it should also enable staff to limit their focus to the areas that really matter. The focus must be of those KPIs, which will deliver the most value to the overall objective, e.g. cost saving, service improving etc. It must also be done in such a way that staff sincerely believe that they can make a difference with the effort. One of the most important aspects of a customer service KPI is that of what is often referred to as the "Feel Good Factor." Basically the goal is to not only help the customer have a good experience, but to offer them an experience that exceeds their expectations. Several key points are listed as follows: 1. Know your product Know what products/service you are offering back to front. In other words, be an information expert. It is okay to say "I don't know," but it should always be followed up by "but let me find out" or possibly "but my friend knows!" Whatever the situation may be, make sure that you don't leave your customer with an unanswered question. 2. Body Language/Communication Most of the communication that we relay to others is done through body language. If we have a negative body language when we interact with others, it shows that we don't care. Two of the most important aspects of positive body language are smiling and eye contact. Make sure to look your customers in the eye. It shows that we are listening to them and hearing what they are saying. And of course smiling is more inviting than a blank look or frown. 3. Anticipate Guest Needs Nothing surprises your customer more than an employee going the extra mile to help them. Always look for ways to go above and beyond the expectations of your customer. In doing so, it helps them to know that you care and it will leave them with a "Feel Good Factor" that we are searching for. Standardization There are few standards on this topic. ISO and The International Customer Service Institute (TICSI) have published the following ones: ISO 00 :2000, on performance improvement ISO 10001:2007, on customer service conduct ISO 10002:200 , on quality management in handling customer complaints ISO 10003:2007, on dispute resolution The International Customer Service Standard (TICSS) There is also an Information Technology service management standard: ISO/IEC 20000:2005. Its first part concerns specifications and its second part the code of practice. Motivation & Techniques for Sales: Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation is the purpose or psychological cause of an action.

Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex. Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. "It's the difference between waking up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day." These inner conditions such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior. Types of theories and models Mono-motivational theories A class of theories about why people do things seeks to reduce the number of factors down to one and explain all behaviour through that one factor. For example, economics has been criticized for using self-interest as a mono-motivational theory. Mono-motivational theories are often criticized for being too reductive or too abstract. Conscious and unconscious motivations A number of motivational theories emphasize the distinction between conscious and unconscious motivations. In evolutionary psychology, the "ultimate", unconscious motivation may be a cold evolutionary calculation, the conscious motivation could be more benign or even positive emotions. For example, while it may be in the best interest of a male's genes to have multiple partners and thus break up with or divorce one before moving onto the next, the conscious rationalization could be, "I loved her at the time". Freud is associated with the idea that human beings have many unconscious motivations that cause them to make important decisions because of these unconscious forces, such as choosing a partner. Non-psychological theories Platonic theory of motivation In The Republic, Plato advances a tri-partite theory of the soul, which consists of three parts: reason, spirit and appetite. All parts of the soul have desires, however not all desires are the same. Desires take many different forms and have many different responses or results. Machiavellianism Machiavellism argues that human beings are motivated to seek power and status above all. Modern research argues that people who are high in this trait do indeed seek power and money, and are willing to use others as instruments towards that end. Psychological theories and models Rational motivations The idea that human beings are rational and human behaviour is guided by reason is an old one, however recent research (on Satisficing for example) has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality. The field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Motivation can be divided into two types: intrinsic (internal) motivation and extrinsic (external) motivation.
Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1 70s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy believe they have the skills to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals, also known as selfefficacy beliefs are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, whether or not that activity is also intrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior. Competition is in an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy

the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives.
Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. While the provision of extrinsic rewards might reduce the desirability of an activity, the use of extrinsic constraints, such as the threat of punishment, against performing an activity has actually been found to increase one's intrinsic interest in that activity. In one study, when children were given mild threats against playing with an attractive toy, it was found that the threat actually served to increase the child's interest in the toy, which was previously undesirable to the child in the absence of threat.[ For those children who received no extrinsic reward, self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning a term coined by B.F. Skinner, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behaviour; instead to look at external, observable causes of human behaviour. His theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day. Push and pull This model is usually used when discussing motivation within the context of tourism. Push factors determine the desire to go on holiday, whereas pull factors determine the choice of destination. Push motives are connected with internal forces, for example the need for relaxation or escapism, while pull factors are the external factors, such as landscape, cultural image or the climate of a destination, that induce a traveller to visit a certain location. Push factors can be stimulated by external and situational aspects of motivation in the shape of pull factors. Then again pull factors are issues that can arise from a location itself and therefore push an individual to choose to experience it. Since then, a large number of theories have been developed over the years in many studies there is no single theory that illustrates all motivational aspects of travelling. Many researchers have highlighted that because several motives may occur at the same time it should not be assumed that only one motive drives an individual to perform an action, as was presumed in previous studies. On the other hand, since people are not able to satisfy all their needs at once, they usually seek to satisfy some or a few of them. Self-control The self-control aspect of motivation is increasingly considered to be a subset of emotional intelligence; it is suggested that although a person may be classed as highly intelligent (as measured by many traditional intelligence tests), they may remain unmotivated to pursue intellectual endeavours. Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people may decide to exert self-control in pursuit of a particular goal. Drives A drive or desire can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These drives are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. Another basic drive is the sexual drive which like food motivates us because it is essential to our survival. The desire for sex is wired deep into the brain of all human beings as glands secrete hormones that travel through the blood to the brain and stimulates the onset of sexual desire. The hormone involved in the initial onset of sexual desire is called dihydroepiandosterone (DHEA). The hormonal basis of both men and women's sex drives is testosterone. Men naturally have more testosterone than women do and so are more likely than woman to think about sex, have sexual fantasies, seek sex and sexual variety (whether positions or partners), masturbate, want sex at an early point in a

relationship, sacrifice other things for sex, have permissive attitudes for sex, and complain about low sex drive in their partners. By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process. Incentive theory A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intention of causing the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behavior differ from the hypothetical construct of reward. A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency or magnitude of that response, therefore the cognitive approach is certainly the way forward as in Maslow described it as being the golden pineapple. Positive reinforcement is demonstrated by an increase in the future frequency or magnitude of a response due to in the past being followed contingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of the presentation or magnification of a positive stimulus following a response. From this perspective, motivation is mediated by environmental events, and the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. Steven Kerr notes that when creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B, and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behavior of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner and literalized by behaviorists, especially by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, to mean that a person's actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner. Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in the direction of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract", to use the term above, a person towards them, as opposed to the body seeking to reestablish homeostasis and pushing towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the reinforcing stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. For instance, a person knows that eating food, drinking water, or gaining social capital will make them happier. As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishmentthe lack of homeostasis in the body. For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst. Escape-seeking dichotomy model Escapism and seeking are major factors influencing decision making. Escapism is a need to breakaway from a daily life routine, turning on the television and watching an adventure film, whereas seeking is described as the desire to learn, turning on the television to watch a documentary. Both motivations have some interpersonal and personal facets for example individuals would like to escape from family problems (personal) or from problems with work colleagues (interpersonal). This model can also be easily adapted with regard to different studies. Drive-reduction theory There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that people have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to the ideas of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat. Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the food

has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money satisfies no biological or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning. Secondly, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed as having a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homuncular beinga feature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires. Drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which combine with drives for food in order to explain cooking render it hard to test. Cognitive dissonance theory Suggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: their views on the world around them, and their own personal feelings and actions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure themselves regarding a purchase, feeling in retrospect that another decision may have been preferable. Their feeling that another purchase would have been preferable is inconsistent with their action of purchasing the item. The difference between their feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, so they seek to reassure themselves. While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. Need theories Motivation, as defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory. Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchic classes. According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows:

Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.) Safety/Security/Shelter/Health Belongingness/Love/Friendship Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement Self actualization

The basic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid: physiology. If there are deficits on this level, all behavior will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Essentially, if you have not slept or eaten adequately, you won't be interested in your self-esteem desires. Subsequently we have the second level, which awakens a need for security. After securing those two levels, the motives shift to the social sphere, the third level. Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self-actualization. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory can be summarized as follows:

Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not. Needs are arranged in order of importance to human life, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life. He distinguished between:

Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.

The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier, but absence can cause health deterioration. The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory." Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction (see Computer user satisfaction). His theory concentrates on the importance of internal job factors as motivating forces for employees. He designed it to increase job enrichment for employees. Herzberg wanted to create the opportunity for employee's to take part in planning, performing, and evaluating their work. He suggested to do this by

Removing some of the control management has over employees and increasing the accountability and responsibility they have over their work. Which would in return increase employee autonomy, authority and freedom. Creating complete and natural work units where is it possible. An example would be allowing employees to create a whole unit or section instead of only allowing them to create part of it. Providing regular and continuous feedback on productivity and job performance directly to employees instead of through supervisors And encouraging encouraging employees to take on new and challenging task and becoming experts at a task.

From: Psychology and Work Today by Shultz and Shultz. Alderfer's ERG theory Alderfer, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The second group of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important personal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs as an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow's esteem category and the characteristics included under self-actualization. Self-determination theory Self-determination theory (SDT), developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Like Maslow's hierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of "autopilot" for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness. Temporal motivation theory The latest approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is Temporal Motivation Theory. Introduced in a Academy of Management Review article, it synthesizes into a single formulation the primary aspects of several other major motivational theories, including Incentive Theory, Drive Theory, Need Theory, Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting. It simplifies the field of motivation and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another. Another journal article that helped to develop the Temporal Motivation Theory, "The Nature of Procrastination, " received American Psychological Association's George A. Miller award for outstanding contribution to general science. Achievement motivation

Achievement motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. Especially it integrates formerly separated approaches as Need for Achievement with, for example, social motives like dominance. The Achievement Motivation Inventory is based on this theory and assesses three factors (in separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success. This motivation has repeatedly been linked with adaptive motivational patterns, including working hard, a willingness to pick learning tasks with much difficulty, and contributing success to effort. Achievement motivation was studied intensively by David McClelland and his colleagues since the early 1 50s. Their researched showed that business managers who were successful demonstrated a high need to achieve no matter the culture. There are three major characteristics of people who have a great need to achieve according to McClellands research.
1. They would prefer a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems. 2. They would take calculated risk and establish moderate, attainable goals. 3. They want to hear continuous recognition. As well as feedback, in order for them to know how well they are doing.

Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. Good goal setting incorporates the SMART criteria, in which goals are: specific, measurable, accurate, realistic, and timely. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal. Models of behavior change Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. In other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. It can support the translation of intentions into action. Conscious motivation This is a kind of motivation that people are aware of. Unconscious motivation Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives. According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct." Thematic Appreception Test As psychologists David McClelland and John Atkinson argue that motivation should be unconscious, the Thematic Appreception Test measures motivation by presenting people with some drawings and let people tell stories the drawings they see. Intrinsic motivation and the basic desires theory Starting from studies involving more than 6,0 people, Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that found basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior. The basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities are:

Acceptance, the need for approval Curiosity, the need to learn Eating, the need for food Family, the need to raise children Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group Idealism, the need for social justice Independence, the need for individuality Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments Physical activity, the need for exercise Power, the need for influence of will Romance, the need for sex and for beauty Saving, the need to collect Social contact, the need for friends (peer relationships) Social status, the need for social standing/importance Tranquility, the need to be safe Vengeance, the need to strike back and to compete

Attribution Theory The attribution theory is a theory developed by psychologist, Fritz Heider that describes the processes by which individuals explain the causes of their behavior and events. A form of attribution theory developed by psychologist, Bernard Weiner describes an individuals beliefs about how the causes of success or failure affect their emotions and motivations. Bernard Weiners theory can be defined into two perspectives: intrapersonal or interpersonal. The intrapersonal perspective includes self-directed thoughts and emotions that are attributed to the self. The interpersonal perspective includes beliefs about the responsibility of others and other directed affects of emotions; the individual would place the blame on another individual. Individuals formulate explanatory attributions to understand the events they experience and to seek reasons for their failures. When individuals seek positive feedback from their failures, they use the feedback as motivation to show improved performances. For example, using the intrapersonal perspective, a student who failed a test may attribute their failure for not studying enough and would use their emotion of shame or embarrassment as motivation to study harder for the next test. A student who blames their test failure on the teacher would be using the interpersonal perspective, and would use their feeling of disappointment as motivation to rely on a different study source other than the teacher for the next test. Approach versus avoidance Approach motivation is a motivation to experience a positive outcome. In contrast, avoidance motivation is a motivation not to experience a negative outcome. Research suggests that, all else being equal, avoidance motivations tend to be more powerful than approach motivations. Because people expect losses to have more powerful emotional consequences than equal-size gains, they will take more risks to avoid a loss than to achieve a gain. Practical applications The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. Employee motivation Workers in any organization need something to keep them working. Most of the time, the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If no motivation is present in an employee, then that employees quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate. People differ on a personality dimension called locus of control. This variable refers to individual's beliefs about the location of the factors that control their behavior. At one end of the continuum are high internals who believe that opportunity to control their own behavior rests within themselves. At the other end of the continuum there are high externals who believe that external forces determine their behavior. Not surprisingly, compared with internals, externals see the world as an unpredictable, chancy place in which luck, fate, or powerful people control their destinies. When motivating an audience, you can use general motivational strategies or specific motivational appeals. General motivational strategies include soft sell versus hard sell and personality type. Soft sell strategies have logical appeals, emotional appeals,

advice and praise. Hard sell strategies have barter, outnumbering, pressure and rank. Also, you can consider basing your strategy on your audience personality. Specific motivational appeals focus on provable facts, feelings, right and wrong, audience rewards and audience threats. Job Characteristics Model The Job Characteristics Model (JCM), as designed by Hackman and Oldham attempts to use job design to improve employee motivation. They show that any job can be described in terms of five key job characteristics: 1. Skill Variety - the degree to which the job requires the use of different skills and talents 2. Task Identity - the degree to which the job has contributed to a clearly identifiable larger project 3. Task Significance - the degree to which the job has an impact on the lives or work of other people . Autonomy - the degree to which the employee has independence, freedom and discretion in carrying out the job 5. Task Feedback - the degree to which the employee is provided with clear, specific, detailed, actionable information about the effectiveness of his or her job performance The JCM links the core job dimensions listed above to critical psychological states which results in desired personal and work outcomes. This forms the basis of this 'employee growth-need strength." The core dimensions listed above can be combined into a single predictive index, called the Motivating Potential Score. Motivating Potential Score
See also: Work motivation and Job satisfaction

The motivating potential score (MPS) can be calculated, using the core dimensions discussed above, as follows:

Jobs that are high in motivating potential must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness, and also must be high on both Autonomy and Feedback. If a job has a high MPS, the job characteristics model predicts that motivation, performance and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative outcomes, such as absenteeism and turnover, will be reduced. Employee Recognition Programs Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It's about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect employees to the company's core values and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is seen as the most important program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence the financial situation. The difference between the traditional approach (gifts and points) and strategic recognition is the ability to serve as a serious business influencer that can advance a companys strategic objectives in a measurable way. "The vast majority of companies want to be innovative, coming up with new products, business models and better ways of doing things. However, innovation is not so easy to achieve. A CEO cannot just order it, and so it will be. You have to carefully manage an organization so that, over time, innovations will emerge." Drugs Some authors, especially in the transhumanist movement, have suggested the use of "smart drugs", also known as nootropics, as "motivation-enhancers". These drugs work in various ways to affect neurotransmitters in the brain. It is generally widely accepted that these drugs enhance cognitive functions, but not without potential side effects. The effects of many of these drugs on the brain are emphatically not well understood, and their legal status often makes open experimentation difficult. Education Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter. It can:
1. Direct behavior toward particular goals 2. Lead to increased effort and energy 3. Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities

4. Enhance cognitive processing 5. Determine what consequences are reinforcing 6. Lead to improved performance.

Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates. If teachers decided to extrinsically reward productive student behaviors, they may find it difficult to extricate themselves from that path. Consequently student dependency on extrinsic rewards represents one of the greatest detractors from their use in the classroom. The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize that distinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided at the beginning of the higher education experience. Research done by Whyte in raised the awareness of counselors and educators in this regard. In 2007, the National Orientation Directors Association reprinted Cassandra B. Whyte's research report allowing readers to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to help with academic success. Generally, motivation is conceptualized as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Classically, these categories are regarded as distinct. Today, these concepts are less likely to be used as distinct categories, but instead as two ideal types that define a continuum:

Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3- though the exact cause cannot be ascertained.[ Also, in younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract manner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students.[ Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).

Cassandra B. Whyte researched and reported about the importance of locus of control and academic achievement. Students tending toward a more internal locus of control are more academically successful, thus encouraging curriculum and activity development with consideration of motivation theories.[ [ Academic motivation orientation may also be tied with one's ability to detect and process errors. Fisher, Nanayakkara, and Marshall conducted neuroscience research on children's motivation orientation, neurological indicators of error monitoring (the process of detecting an error), and academic achievement. Their research suggests that students with high intrinsic motivation attribute performance to personal control and that their error-monitoring system is more strongly engaged by performance errors. They also found that motivation orientation and academic achievement were related to the strength in which their error-monitoring system was engaged.[ Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of Andragogy (what motivates the adult learner), and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in Pivotal Response Therapy. Doyle and Moeyn have noted that traditional methods tended to use anxiety as negative motivation (e.g. use of bad grades by teachers) as a method of getting students to work. However, they have found that progressive approaches with focus on positive motivation over punishment has produced greater effectiveness with learning, since anxiety interferes with performance of complex tasks.[ Indigenous Education, Learning, and Motivation For many indigenous students (such as Native American children), motivation may be derived from social organization; an important factor educators should account for in addition to variations in Sociolinguistics and Cognition.[ While poor academic performance among Native American students is often attributed to low levels of motivation, Top-down classroom organization is often found to be ineffective for children of many cultures, who depend on a sense of community purpose and competence to effectively engage in material.[ Horizontally-structured, community-based learning strategies often provide a more structurally supportive environment for motivating indigenous children, who tend to be driven by social/affective emphasis, harmony, holistic perspectives, expressive creativity, and nonverbal communication.[ This drive is also traceable to a cultural tradition of community-wide expectations of participation in the activities and goals of the greater group, rather than individualized aspirations of success or triumph.[ Structure for social learning in indigenous communities also often allows siblings to co-parent younger children in their acquisition of behaviors and traditions, which fosters the dynamic of

community-motivated engagement from a young age. Furthermore, it is commonplace for children to assist and demonstrate for their younger counterparts without being prompted by authority figures. Observation techniques are demonstrated in such examples as weaving in Chiapas, Mexico, where it is commonplace for children to learn by "a more skilled other" within the community. The assumption of responsibility amongst children is also apparent within Mayan weaving apprenticeships; often, when the "more skilled other" is tasked with multiple obligations, an older child will step in and guide the learner. Sibling guidance is supported from early youth, where learning through play encourages horizontally-structured environments through alternative educational models such as "Intent Community Participation." Research also suggests that that formal Westernized schooling can actually reshape the traditionally collaborative nature of social life in indigenous communities This research is supported cross-culturally, with variations in motivation and learning often reported higher between indigenous groups and their national Westernized counterparts than between indigenous groups across international continental divides. Self-Determination in Education Self-determination is the ability to make choices and exercise a high degree of control, such as what the student does and how they do it (Deci et al., 1 1; Reeve, Hamm, & Nix, 2003; Ryan & Deci, 2002). Self-determination can be supported by providing opportunities for students to be challenged, such as leadership opportunities, providing appropriate feedback and fostering, establishing and maintaining good relationships between teachers and students. These strategies can increase students' interest, competence, creativity and desire to be challenged and ensure that students are intrinsically motivated to study. On the other hand, students who lack of self-determination are more likely to feel their success is out of their control. Such students lose motivation to study, which causes a state of "helpless learning". Students who feel helpless readily believe they will fail and therefore cease to try. Over time, a vicious circle of low achievement develops. Sudbury Model schools' approach Sudbury Model schools adduce that the cure to the problem of procrastination, of learning in general, and particularly of scientific illiteracy is to remove once and for all what they call the underlying disease: compulsion in schools. They contend that human nature in a free society recoils from every attempt to force it into a mold; that the more requirements we pile onto children at school, the surer we are to drive them away from the material we are trying to force down their throats; that after all the drive and motivation of infants to master the world around them is legendary. They assert that schools must keep that drive alive by doing what some of them do: nurturing it on the freedom it needs to thrive. Sudbury Model schools do not perform and do not offer evaluations, assessments, transcripts, or recommendations, asserting that they do not rate people, and that school is not a judge; comparing students to each other, or to some standard that has been set is for them a violation of the student's right to privacy and to self-determination. Students decide for themselves how to measure their progress as self-starting learners as a process of self-evaluation: real lifelong learning and the proper educational evaluation for the 21st century, they adduce. According to Sudbury Model schools, this policy does not cause harm to their students as they move on to life outside the school. However, they admit it makes the process more difficult, but that such hardship is part of the students learning to make their own way, set their own standards and meet their own goals. The no-grading and norating policy helps to create an atmosphere free of competition among students or battles for adult approval, and encourages a positive cooperative environment amongst the student body. Business At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate. According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needs such as Physiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to be addressed. We can relate Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. For example, if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying their needs; according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries to satisfy the upper level needs

or the employees will not be motivated. Also he has to remember that not everyone will be satisfied by the same needs. A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee. Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money.

Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. Motivated employees are more quality oriented. Motivated workers are more productive.

The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. Nonetheless, Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates: ascendant, indifferent, and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely, and must be treated, managed, and motivated accordingly. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters, and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow, and find answers independently. The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study at Vauxhall Motors' UK manufacturing plant. This introduced the concept of orientation to work and distinguished three main orientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end), bureaucratic (where work is a source of status, security and immediate reward) and solidaristic (which prioritizes group loyalty). Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included Kurt Lewin's Force Field Theory, Edwin Locke's Goal Theory and Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory. These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be motivated by different factors at different times. According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, a worker's motivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work. In essence, scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards. In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for moneyin fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievement motivation, though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives, e.g., keeping score. In keeping with this view, his consulting firm, McBer & Company, had as its first motto "To make everyone productive, happy, and free." For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning a person's life with their fundamental motivations. Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. As a result, employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups. Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts within work situations for motivating employees. William Ouchi introduced Theory Z, a hybrid management approach consisting of both Japanese and American philosophies and cultures. Its Japanese segment is much like the clan culture where organizations focus on a standardized structure with heavy emphasis on socialization of its members. All underlying goals are consistent across the organization. Its American segment retains formality and authority amongst members and the organization. Ultimately, Theory Z promotes common structure and commitment to the organization, as well as constant improvement of work efficacy. In Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program:

Recognition of employees' individual differences, and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition Allowing employees to participate Linking rewards to performance Rewarding of nominators

Visibility of the recognition process

Games Motivational models are central to game design, because without motivation a player will not be interested in progressing further within a game. Several models for gameplay motivations have been proposed, including Richard Bartle's. Jon Radoff has proposed a four-quadrant model of gameplay motivation that includes cooperation, competition, immersion and achievement. The motivational structure of games is central to the gamification trend, which seeks to apply game-based motivation to business applications. Sales management Sales management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of sales techniques and the management of a firm's sales operations. It is an important business function as net sales through the sale of products and services and resulting profit drive most commercial business. These are also typically the goals and performance indicators of sales management. Sales manager is the typical title of someone whose role is sales management. The role typically involves talent development and leadership. Sales planning Sales planning involves strategy, setting profit-based sales targets, quotas, sales forecasting, demand management and the writing and execution of a sales plan. A sales plan is a strategic document that outlines the business targets, resources and sales activities. It typically follows the lead of the marketing plan, strategic planning and the business plan with more specific detail on how the objectives can be achieved through the actual sale of products and services. Recruitment of Sales Staff The three recruitment tasks used in sales management are Job analysis; Job description and Job qualifications Job analysis is performed to specify the certain tasks that a salesperson would be responsible for on a daily basis. It should identify what activities are deemed as being vital to the success of the company. Any person associated with the sales organization or the human resources department could carry out the analysis as well as an outside specialist (Spiro, pp.13 ). The person that is responsible for completing a job analysis should have an in-depth comprehension of the daily activities of the salespeople. This job analysis is then written in an explicit manner as a job description. The general information consists of: 1. Title of job 2. Organizational relationship 3. Types of products and services sold . Types of customers called on 5. Duties and responsibilities related to the job 6. Job demands 7. Hiring specifications An effective job description will identify compensation plans, size of workload, and the salespeoples duties. It is also primarily responsible for hiring tools such as application forms and psychological tests. The most difficult part of this process would be the determination of job qualifications. A reason for this difficulty is because hiring affects a companys competitive advantage in the market as well as the amount of revenue. Additionally, there should be a set of hiring attributes that is associated with each sales job that is within a company. If an individual does not excel in their assigned territory, it could be due to external factors relating to that persons environment. Let it be noted that a company should be careful not to submit to discrimination in regards to employment. A number of qualifications (ethnic background, age, etc.) can not be used in the selection process of hiring. Sales reporting The sales reporting includes the key performance indicators of the sales force. The Key Performance Indicators indicate whether or not the sales process is being operated effectively and achieves the results as set forth in sales planning. It should enable the sales managers to take timely corrective action deviate from projected values. It also allows senior management to evaluate the sales manager. More "results related" than "process related" are information regarding the sales funnel and the hit rate.

Sales reporting can provide metrics for sales management compensation. Rewarding the best managers without accurate and reliable sales reports is not objective. Also, sales reports are made for internal use for top management. If other divisions compensation plan depends on final results, it is needed to present results of sales departments work to other departments. Finally, sales reports are required for investors, partners and government, so the sales management system should have advanced reporting capabilities to satisfy the needs of different stakeholders.


Effective Presentation Skills:

Presentation Skills Success

Strategy and tips for you to prepare, write, rehearse and deliver your next presentation based on the experience of the Speech Coach for Executives George Torok. You can speak with confidence, clarity and conviction when you polish your presentation skills. The power of public speaking is a key leadership skill. Your ability to communicate will take you farther than any other skill set. Communicate well. Communicate effectively and communicate your message so that others listen, understand and act. This article can be a career enhancing opportunity for you. Study this article and watch your presentation skills achieve greater success. You will be amazed at what you can do when you polish your presentation skills to deliver your message with impact. Fear of Public Speaking Practical Speaking Tips Presentation Sins PowerPoint Sins

First thoughts on your presentation Why you?

How can you get more done? By being a superior communicator. The secret of managing people is to master the art and science of communication. Superior communication skills are a combination of listening, negotiating and speaking.

Public Speaking, Presentation or Speech?

Deliver your message with impact. It is not just a speech or presentation. I use the words speech, public speaking and presentation interchangeably in this article. It is your message that is important. Your presentation is the vehicle for delivering your message and to create results. A successful presentation is one that moves people to action. You know it was a success if after you speak, they buy, work or follow. To do that requires skill. Devour this article. You will capture the essence of superior presentation skills.

First Rule of Great Presentations

A great presentation does not just happen. It is planned, rehearsed then delivered with flair. A good presenter is one who learns the skills of presentations - not one who hopes for talent to carry them. Public speaking is a set of skills not a talent. You can be a good presenter if you learn the skills for presentation success. You will be a great speaker if you learn from every presentation you deliver. Great presenters start as poor speakers then they get better.

Learn from other Great Speech Makers

Who are the public speakers you admire? Ask yourself why you admire them. What techniques do they use in their speeches that you can use? What principles can you adapt to your presentations? It could be a great political leader, business executive or innovator. Whether it is a Churchill, Henry Ford or Einstein ask yourself, Why does their delivery work so well? How can I use that technique or principle in my speech? Look for the skills they used and make them your own.

Preparing your Presentation Purpose of your presentation

Imagine that you have been scheduled to speak to a group. An important question for you to review is Why am I delivering this presentation? Dont answer, Because I was asked. Instead ask why does this group need to hear from you? What message is so important that you must take their time to speak to them? You must be clear on the purpose of your speech before you can write it. Please dont give a speech just because you are the boss. Dont waste their time and embarrass yourself. Have something worthwhile to say. If you start by knowing what you want to happen then you will begin to create an effective speech.

Your audience is the reason you are there

Understand your audience. What do they want? Why would they listen to you? If you want to reach them with your presentation you must reach them through their needs. While you are talking they are asking themselves, Whats in it for us? If you have not spoken to this group before, interview a few of them before your presentation. Mention the names of some audience members during your presentation. It will help you connect with the group.

Design your presentation backwards

The most common way to write your speech is to start at the beginning and write to the end. That is not an effective way to write a speech. Instead write the speech backwards. Start with the destination and work back to the opening. You will write your speech faster and clearer if you start with the end in mind. Know your purpose. Write the closing line that hammers home your message. Then write the points to support that close. Then write your opening that launches you into that presentation. Designing your speech is also a set of communication skills.

Presentation Structure
There are many presentation structures that you can choose from. When you speak to a business group the most effective approach is to state your conclusions first, the actions required then follow with supporting information. That would be an effective business speech. The most boring and ineffectual presentation style to use with a business group is the scientific method that many of us learned in school. The scientific method starts with a problem, followed by a hypothesis, a method, results and conclusion. That sounds logical but most people in business today do not have the patience to listen to that litany. We want the answer first. Speak dont lecture.

Q&A structure
Another simple presentation structure that works is to tell your audience that you will answer the most common questions you have heard. Then you state the question and answer it. This is one of the easiest ways to give a speech. It sounds like a conversation and you will find it easier to remember. All you need to remember are the questions because you already know the answers. The best speech feels like a conversation.

Pain and Relief

An effective sales technique is to first reveal or describe their pain, fear or problem. Then you offer the relief to the pain. The relief from pain and desire for pleasure are powerful motivators. Just dont dwell on the pain too long. Think plop, plop fizz, fizz.

Illustrating your main points

We need images to understand. A good image for the accountant and numbers type is a chart. Bankers, financial planners and money folk love charts and graphs. Use pie charts, bar graphs and piles of coins to illustrate and emphasize your points when talking to financial types. Images can contribute more to the success of your presentation then words.

Telling Stories
Tell stories. Paint word pictures that create images in the listeners minds. If they can see it they are more likely to understand and remember your message. The best public speakers are storytellers Use stories and anecdotes to illustrate and reinforce the main points of your presentation. Learn to master the skill of storytelling. Listen to newscasters, entertainers and other speakers. The best stories are personal. Because they are yours - they are easier to remember and they make your presentation unique. We listen to stories. We hate lectures. If you forgot that lesson - just ask your kids. The way to find personal stories that can be used in your presentations is to write them down. Make a list of significant things that happened to you and those around you; the first time the best, the worst, the biggest mistake, the best break, the greatest ah-ha, the funniest moment, the most frustrating incident, the dumbest thing you did, the most embarrassing moment The things that hurt you the most make the best stories to tell in your presentations. Rehearse your stories to edit them down into a short story that is easy to listen to. The hardest thing for you might be to leave out details. The hardest thing for your audience is listening to you describe unnecessary details. Just make the point.

Researching your presentation

Get your facts straight. Dont stand there saying, I think so or Im not sure. Dont lie and pretend to know something you do not. So spend time collecting and confirming your information. Too many public speakers are quick to present their opinions without providing clear substance. Avoid that trap. Be careful of presenting hearsay as evidence unless you preface it as that. You might interview customers for their comments or check with the front lines for their unofficial feedback. That is ok but present it honestly. Do a quick search on one or a few of the Internet search engines to find some new insights on the topic of your presentation. These Internet facts might not be confirmable so present them as what you found Stuff from the Internet.

Test for relevance

Review your speech for relevance to your audience. After every statement that you plan to make ask yourself, So what? Because that is what your audience will be asking. If you cannot answer this question

clearly and succinctly then rework it or remove it from your speech. What do you want them thinking, Yeah right on! or So what?

Remembering your speech

The best public speakers do not memorize their presentation. Instead know your topic and the issues. Then make notes for yourself. But dont read your speech. That is so boring. Instead write key words that remind you of your messages. Write your speech notes on index cards. That is much easier to handle instead of fumbling with a sheet of paper.

Rehearsing your presentation

Rehearse your speech on your feet at least three times. It is okay to rehearse parts of it in your car or sitting at your desk. But because you will deliver in on your feet you rehearse the speech on your feet. It feels different when you speak on your feet. Get used to the feel of delivering your presentation. The best way to reinforce a set of skills is by repeating the pattern the way you plan to deliver. Golfers and musicians rehearse their patterns so the skills of the big day are natural to them.

The fear of public speaking

Studies show that our number one fear is the fear of public speaking. Hard to believe but it is more prevalent than the fear of death. If you have a fear of public speaking or feel some anxiety you are not alone. Even great speakers like Churchill experienced this fear. But he worked on his delivery skills so he could deliver even when he was nervous. I am a professional speaker who has spoken to audiences all over North America yet I also experience speech anxiety. The fear of public speaking might be with you forever. But your audience does not need to know.

Overcoming the fear of public speaking

In most cases the symptoms of the fear are not noticeable to your audience. You might feel terrified but your audience doesnt know. There are several ways to get past speech anxiety. Focus on the success of your presentation. Before you step up to speak take a couple of slow deep breaths. Speak slowly. Dont let it run away from you.
How you can prepare, write, rehearse and deliver your speech, presentation or public speaking program from the Speech Coach for Executives George Torok. You can speak with confidence, clarity and conviction when you polish your presentation skills. The power of public speaking is a key leadership skill. Your ability to communicate will take you farther than any other skill. Communicate well. Communicate effectively and communicate your message so that others listen, understand and act. This article can be a career enhancing opportunity for you. Study this article and watch your presentation skills achieve greater success. You will be amazed at what you can do when you hone your presentation skills and you present your message with impact.

Avoid the Nine Presentation Sins

Delivering your Presentation Last minute details before you begin speaking
Get into the room before your audience arrives to check the setup and get the feel of the room. This helps to make it your room. Walk around the room and sit in a few different chairs to take in the feel of your room and how your audience will see you. Check your equipment and put on your busiest slide to check for readability. Drink one or two glasses of warm water to both lubricate your vocal cords and hydrate yourself. Public speaking dehydrates you.

Emergency preparation
Check the exit doors and paths from the building. If an emergency occurs the audience will look to you, the speaker, for leadership and maybe their lives. Be prepared to tell people how to leave the room and building. If it becomes necessary - do it in a calm, commanding and confident voice. Public speaking carries the responsibility of leadership. Everything you do while speaking will be better if you prepare the skills to deliver.

Your confederate
Always have at least one confederate. This is a simple yet important secret to presentation success. Your confederate should sit near the back of the room so they can survey the room, help late arrivers and do things without disturbing the audience. They will take care of the lights, handouts, ushering people to their seats and even asking a planted question. It is their job to head off problems before they erupt. They should know how to work the lights and who to call when problems arise.

Eye Contact
Talk directly to people. The best presentation is delivered as a conversation to every person in your audience one person at a time. If you want to be believed talk to every individual looking him or her in the eye. Dont make the big mistake committed by many novice public speakers - staring at the spot on the back wall. This one technique is a powerful element of successful presentation skills.

Emphasizing key points

If you want people to remember something repeat it at least three times during your speech. The first time they might hear it. The second time they might mull it over. The third time it might stick. I have a dream. Do you know how many times Martin Luthur King repeated that phrase in his famous speech?

Establishing rapport
Talk about things to which your audience can relate. Dont talk down and dont baby them. To build rapport with your audience they must relate to you. Dont pretend to be something you are not. But show how you are like them. Be human. Expose a flaw. Show that you are not perfect. If you pretend to be perfect they will hate you and not listen.

Stay on time
Start your presentation on time and finish on time. If you start all your meetings and presentations on time people will learn to show up on time. Do not repeat yourself for latecomers. If there is a small group at starting time then be prepared to start with a discussion instead of your speech. Those that are there will believe that you started on time and those arriving late will seat themselves quickly feeling a bit guilty for being late. Finish on time even if it means leaving something out. For that reason always get your important message out early. Never keep the key message till the end of your speech. They might be asleep by that time. Position a small clock where you can see it so you know where you are in your presentation. Dont commit the sin of asking, How are we doing for time? You should know you are the speaker.

Deliver your speech with credibility

If you are the CEO, President or the boss you have credibility by position. You might lose your credibility by committing presentation sins. You can enhance your credibility by the sources of information you quote. You can quote from a publication they read and respect. You can quote from a well-known and respected person. You can quote from some member of your audience remember your research? You can also imply credibility by waving a source document or book as you speak. Notice how preachers use this technique by holding the bible.

Help your audience remember the important parts

Repeat the points you want them to remember. Use an anecdote or story to illustrate the point. Pause just before and after you state the key points. We find it easier to remember images and feelings. If you want your audience to remember the key points of your presentation attach those points to images or emotions. Men tend to connect visuals with memory while women tend to connect emotions for memory. Be sure to address both needs in your presentations.

Look your best

Smile. You look your best when you smile. You look most trustworthy, friendly and confident when you smile. We do not want to listen to a speaker who is frowning. Dont grin like a fool all the way through your speech. Instead smile before you start. Smile when you say something important. Smile when you end. Make it a warm friendly smile. When you smile you look confident and help to improve the confidence of your audience. Smile.

Sounding your best

Drinking water before you speak will lubricate your vocal chords. Breathing deeply and slowly will allow you to project your voice and pause when you want to not when you need to. Speak slower that you normally speak. The audience needs to hear you, think about it and internalize it. Try these simple exercises to get your voice in shape before you speak. Yawn. Yes, yawning relaxes your vocal chords and opens the voice channel. The second trick is to hum. Humming seems to set up a resonance within your vocal cavity.

Using equipment and technology

If you are using a computer projector and PowerPoint in your presentation then avoid the mistakes committed by many presenters. Ensure that your slides enhance your points. Dont make the common mistake of designing your presentation around the slides. Instead, first create your presentation then decide how to illustrate your points. You might have sat through some horrible PowerPoint Presentations. That happens when speakers with poor presenters attempt to hide their lack of skills behind a PowerPoint presentation.

Ensuring success in your presentation

Your audience does not know your script. Be ready to adapt your presentation to the audience and conditions. Be prepared to leave something out. It might be tough on you but your audience does not know what you left out or forgot. Instead focus on them and your message. If they get it then forget the rest of your speech.

Correcting things that go wrong

If you look and sound calm the audience does not know that anything is wrong. They might even think that you planned the interruption. When things go wrong, smile, pause, breathe and sound confident. Adapt your presentation. Never appear to panic. Instead focus on your message and what you want them to do.

Handling Q&A
At some point during your presentation you might offer to answer questions from the audience. Never do this as an afterthought. Dont make the mistake of delivering and finishing a spectacular speech then opening to questions. That is a weak way to close. Instead before you finish your speech, announce that you will take questions for x minutes. Then close off the questions and finish with your closing statement. That way you get the strong close you planned not the answer to a lame question.

Tame the Hecklers

How do you handle hecklers? Prepare yourself for the worst questions. Write down all the possible objections and your answer to each. Rehearse the answers when you rehearse your speech. Answering questions well is a crucial part of your presentation skills. No matter what happens remain calm. The worst thing for you to do is to react. Instead, respond and guide the audience back to your message. If you have established rapport with your audience they will be on side with you. Dont alienate your audience by appearing angry or out of control. If a heckler makes a negative comment you can respond with, Thank you for your opinion and move on. Dont let yourself get dragged into a dirty argument. Dont give the heckler credibility.

Finish Your Presentation Strong

End your presentation with a strong message. You can choose from several techniques. A call to action is one of the best endings to get your audience into action immediately after your speech. Other endings you can use include a rhetorical question; a positive statement; or a famous quotation. But never end with, Well thats all folks. That is an extremely weak ending. Instead end on a positive action-generating note.
How you can prepare, write, rehearse and deliver your speech, presentation or public speaking program from the Speech Coach for Executives George Torok. You can speak with confidence, clarity and conviction when you polish your presentation skills. The power of public speaking is a key leadership skill. Your ability to communicate will take you farther than any other skill. Communicate well. Communicate effectively and communicate your message so that others listen, understand and act. This article can be a career enhancing opportunity for you. Read this article and watch your presentation skills achieve greater success. You will be amazed at what you can do when you hone your presentation skills and you present your message with impact.

Post Presentation Review your presentation and grow

Ask a trusted colleague to attend your presentation and give you constructive feedback. Be specific in what you ask from them; e.g. How well was my point illustrated? Did my humor work well? Did I connect with them? When you ask specific questions you will get specific answers. The most important question you can ask yourself is, Did I make happen what I wanted to happen? If the answer is yes it was a successful presentation. Did they buy, were they convinced, did they march in the direction you pointed? That is the measure of a successful speech. That is the purpose of your presentation skills in action. Also look at where you might still improve your skills. And plan to work on this before your next presentation. When someone compliments you on the presentation be gracious and ask him or her, What was the best idea or strongest message that you will take away and use? You might be surprised at what they heard versus what you said. The fastest way to improve your presentation skills is to review every presentation you deliver. What worked well? What could you change?

Leverage your presentation

Make your presentation more than an event and part of the process. Summarize key points and questions from the presentation in your newsletter and send a note to everyone. Perhaps the speech would make a good article with some editing. Speaking is only one part of your overall set of communication and leadership skills. These skills are meant to help you get done what you need to get done by you and by others.

Your next presentation

File your notes from the presentation so you can refer to them next time you present. Include in the file your comments about what you thought worked well and what you need to improve. Include suggestions to yourself on what to try differently next time. Remember the great masters of golf and music are continually improving their skills. They never sit back on rely on talent alone.

Presentation Resources for you To become a powerful presenter work with a speech coach. http://www.speechcoachforexecutives.com/ To learn the fundamentals of public speaking join Toastmasters. It is a none-profit association that teaches public speaking skills. http://www.toastmasters.org/ For an easy-to-use reference for public speaking read the bestseller Secrets of Power Presentations by Peter Urs Bender http://www.peterursbender.com/
Final Words of Encouragement for you

Public Speaking is a set of skills. It is not about talent. It is a set of techniques practiced, rehearsed and delivered. You will never deliver the perfect speech. But you might deliver a powerful and effective speech. I know many wonderful presenters but I do not know one who has ever delivered a perfect presentation. The skill of public speaking is both an art and a science. The more you learn and practice the science the easier the art will work for you. You can be a powerful and skillful presenter. But it will take time, practice and energy. And those are the elements of greatness. For success with your presentations: Speak well; Speak effectively; Speak with confidence; Speak to make things happen; Speak imperfectly and speak again. George Torok is the Speech Coach for Executives. He is a professional speaker, trainer and consultant. He is the creator and host of the weekly radio show, Business in Motion. He is the coauthor of the national bestseller, Secrets of Power Marketing the first guide to personal marketing for the non-marketer. He works with executives, business professionals and managers to help them present their messages with power and results. You can contact him to arrange an executive Speech Coaching session or Presentations Skills group-training program at 800-30 - For more information about how he can work with you and your organization visit http://www.speechcoachforexecutives.com/ For more information about George Torok and the programs he delivers visit these websites. http://www.torok.com/ http://www.speechcoachforexecutives.com/ http://www.promotebrandyou.com/
Presentation Skills Success concluded How you can prepare, write, rehearse and deliver your speech, presentation or public speaking program from the Speech Coach for Executives George Torok. You can speak with confidence, clarity and conviction when you polish your presentation skills. The power of public speaking is a key leadership skill. Your ability to communicate will take you farther than any other skill. Communicate well. Communicate effectively and communicate your message so that others listen, understand and act. This article can be a career enhancing opportunity for you. Read this article and watch your presentation skills achieve greater success. You will be amazed at what you can do when you hone your presentation skills and you present your message with impact. Epilogue Presentation Skills Success ongoing It never really concludes. To be a better public speaker you must commit to be an ongoing learner.

Communications is a set of skills that can be learned, honed and taught. The ability to communicate is one of the most sought after success skills. As human beings we process a unique ability to communicate with each other. And after thousands of years of trying to communicate we have an incredible knack for miscommunication. We make mistakes when we speak and when we listen. So the brave keep trying to hone that essence of delivering the perfect speech or amazing presentation. Remember you will never deliver the prefect presentation. Never.

With study and practice you can deliver some amazing presentations. As a public speaker you will grow as long as you seek to grow. I suggest that you print this article, and mark it up with a highlighter, pen and post-it notes. It is a long article and packed with helpful tips for you. Refer to it before your presentations to remind you of powerful speaking techniques. Read it between your public speaking assignments to reinforce your presentation style. And most importantly plan to be a better speaker.


Communication Skills:

How To Develop The Workplace Communication Skills You Need To Advance Your Career Since effective communication skills are so vital to your success - both personally, and in your career - here are several steps you can take to improve them. First, if you've done any research at all on communication skills training or effective business communication, you know that the first thing most experts tell you to do is listen better. Repeat what the other person says, and make sure you really understand what's being communicated to you.

But beyond that, you've got to be able to get your point across to the other person as well. Some ways to improve your verbal communication skills include: Speak clearly. Many times, people are in such a hurry to say what they're thinking that they either rush through, or mumble. Either way, you're not communicating effectively. Have confidence in your words, and say them clearly and at a reasonable pace. Make eye contact. This not only connects you with the person you're speaking to, it allows you to gauge their reactions - you'll see right away whether or not they are confused, angry, or excited about what you're telling them. Don't shout. Or whisper. Speak at the right volume so that you can be heard. Most importantly, you'll want to pay special attention to the words you use. After all, it is your words that carry your thoughts and ideas to others. Make sure you: Enunciate. Pronounce your words correctly, otherwise you will either be misunderstood or judged to be less intelligent and competent. That sounds harsh, but people make assumptions about you based on the words you use. If you don't know how to pronounce a word correctly, don't use it until you do. Use the right words. Misusing a word is worse than mispronouncing it. You may wind up conveying something entirely different than what you'd intended or worse, look uneducated. No one respects a person who tries to look smarter than they are by using big words they don't really understand. On the other hand, by using exactly the right word in the right place, you'll not only gain respect, you'll effectively communicate your idea.

Which means that one of the single most important things you can do to improve your communication skills is to improve your vocabulary. Having more powerful words (not necessary just bigger ones) at your disposal enables you to choose exactly the right one with ease. When you don't have to stumble over words, and you know that you're communicating exactly what you mean to say, you'll also get a wonderful side benefit: increased confidence. In fact, it's not uncommon for people to suddenly find themselves getting promotions or raises after making only one change: improving their vocabulary. But how do you go about doing that? There are literally thousands of books, tapes, seminars and programs. How do you find the one that not only teaches you the words you need to achieve excellence in business communication, but that will help you learn to use and pronounce them

correctly as well?

Are Weak Business Communication Skills Sabotaging Your Career?

The survey report says, "Good Communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success."

The Most Important Part Of Every Business Communication Develop The Vocabulary You Need To Communicate Effectively
Company Position
Executive Manager Superintendent Foremen Floor boss

Vocabulary Score
Points Points Points Points Points

Discover The SECRET That Will Hone Your Communication Skills To Near Perfection

All of these problems boil down to one issue: your communication skills.

The Real Reason People Misunderstand You And How To Change It

You probably already know that good communication skills are important to your career. But you may not know just how vital they truly are. The University of Pittsburgh's Katz Business School recently conducted a survey of companies with 50,0 employees or more, and their results matter to anyone who wants to get ahead in business. In fact, Elaine Stolick, director of the Competency-Based Coaching program at Katz says, "Recruiters tell us the primary thing they're looking for in M.B.A. graduates is effective communication skills," Weak communication skills will sabotage your career. So improving your communication skills is crucial to getting ahead. At the core of every effective communication is the words you use. It's basic - if you want to communicate better, you have to have a better command of words. Your vocabulary is just as important to your communication skills as the car is to a race car driver. Your words are the vehicle used to get your ideas across. And if they aren't just right for the task, you may find yourself misunderstood. Or worse, in conflict. Whether you're writing, presenting or just speaking with a friend or colleague, your words will determine whether or not you are understood correctly. Improving your vocabulary will help you to improve your communication skills at work, with friends, family and in relationships. Whether you are discussing politics, philosophy or important business decisions, having the right words at your disposal ensures that you get your point across clearly. The people at the Katz Business School aren't the only ones who say that your communication skills will determine your level of success. A study performed by scientist Johnson O'Connor says it as well. The study looked at vocabulary and executive level, and found a direct correlation between vocabulary and rank on the corporate ladder. When a vocabulary test was given to executive and supervisory personnel in large manufacturing companies, the test results reported the following: A higher vocabulary = a higher rank on the corporate ladder.

Do you think these people got ahead merely by using bigger words around the office? Of course not! They used their superior vocabularies to better communicate their ideas. They were understood and listened to, and they quickly rose up the corporate ladder. So it's pretty obvious that you need to improve your vocabulary - which will also improve your communication skills - if you want to get ahead in business. The question is, how do you do that? There are literally hundreds of books, programs or courses you can buy to achieve that goal. Some can even cost thousands of dollars. Do you have trouble getting your point across? At meetings, are your brilliant ideas ignored because you just couldn't explain them properly? Maybe you have conflicts with co-workers because they misunderstand what you say. Or perhaps you even have trouble in your personal relationships for the same reason. If you've done any research at all, you've probably seen the same old advice trotted out to help you improve your communication skills: listen more. Repeat what you've heard so the other person knows you get it. But those tired ideas won't get at the heart of what's really wrong with your communication: The words you use. Do you want know the real reason you're being misunderstood...and why people don't give you the credit and recognition you deserve? It's because you are not using the right words for the ideas you want to express. You see, every word in the English language has a slightly different shade of meaning. I could line up synonyms and each would mean a little something different, and carry a different emotional weight, than the next even though they express roughly the same idea. Which is why, if you really want to develop effective communication skills, you have to improve your vocabulary. I'm not talking about learning a bunch of big, fancy words, either. That won't help. To really improve your communication skills and never be misunderstood again you need to have a large number of usable words at your command. To understand the different shades of meaning each one carries. Because when you have a large number of words at your disposal, you can easily find just the right one in any situation. And you'll convey exactly what you really mean to say with no confusion whatsoever. It's just like a fighter, who needs to have a lot of moves in his arsenal to withstand whatever his opponent throws at him. Or the chef who must know a thousand recipes to be able to satisfy every possible patron. The more words you know, the more your verbal communication skills will improve. So instead of reading all those boring tips on being a better listener (because you already know you have to listen to communicate) what you need is a way to improve your vocabulary


English Language Intervention;

8. Time Management:
Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due date. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Usually time management is a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. Main themes of time management The major themes arising from the literature on time management include the following:

Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness Setting of priorities Carrying out activity around those priorities The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities Project management. Time Management can be considered to be a project management subset and is more commonly known as project planning and project scheduling. Time Management has also been identified as one of the core functions identified in project management. Attention management: Attention Management relates to the management of cognitive resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate their mind (and organize the minds of their employees) to conduct some activities. Personal knowledge management: see below (Personal time management).

Time management has been considered to be a subset of different concepts such as:

Professor Stephen Smith, of BYUI, is among recent sociologists that have shown that the way workers view time is connected to social issues such as the institution of family, gender roles, and the amount of labor by the individual. Hillary Rettig has identified over-giving to family, friends, work, volunteering or activism, as prime obstacles to managing one's time. She recommends solutions including being aware of one's motives (e.g., striving to be a "hero" or self-sacrificing "saint," or over-giving as a form of procrastination), being clear on your roles and responsibilities, and establishing healthy psychological boundaries. In recent years, several authors have discussed time management as applied to the issue of digital information overload, in particular, Tim Ferriss with "The hour workweek", and Stefania Lucchetti with "The Principle of Relevance" Stephen R. Covey has offered a categorization scheme for the time management approaches that he reviewed:

First generation: reminders based on clocks and watches, but with computer implementation possible; can be used to alert a person when a task is about to be done.

Second generation: planning and preparation based on a calendar and appointment books; includes setting goals. Third generation: planning, prioritizing, controlling (using a personal organizer, other paper-based objects, or computer or PDA-based systems) activities on a daily basis. This approach implies spending some time in clarifying values and priorities. Fourth generation: being efficient and proactive using any of the above tools; places goals and roles as the controlling element of the system and favors importance over urgency.

Creating an effective environment Some time management literature stresses tasks related to the creation of an environment conducive to real effectiveness. These strategies include principles such as

"Get Organized" - paperwork and task triage "Protect Your Time" - insulate, isolate, delegate "Achieve through Goal management Goal Focus" - motivational emphasis "Recover from Bad Time Habits" - recovery from underlying psychological problems, e.g. procrastination

Writers on creating an environment for effectiveness refer to issues such as the benefit of a tidy office or home to unleashing creativity, and the need to protect "prime time". Literature also focuses on overcoming chronic psychological issues such as procrastination. Excessive and chronic inability to manage time effectively may be a result of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Diagnostic criteria include a sense of underachievement, difficulty getting organized, trouble getting started, many projects going simultaneously and trouble with follow-through. Some authors focus on the prefrontal cortex which is the most recently evolved part of the brain. It controls the functions of attention span, impulse control, organization, learning from experience and self-monitoring, among others. Some authors argue that changing the way the prefrontal cortex works is possible and offers a solution.[ Setting priorities and goals Time management strategies are often associated with the recommendation to set personal goals. The literature stresses themes such as

"Work in Priority Order" - set goals and prioritize "Set gravitational goals" - that attract actions automatically

These goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project, an action plan, or a simple task list. For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list or a schedule or calendar of activities. Authors may recommend a daily, weekly, monthly or other planning periods associated with different scope of planning or review. This is done in various ways, as follows. ABC analysis A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B, and Chence the name. Activities are ranked upon these general criteria:

A Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important, B Tasks that are important but not urgent, C Tasks that are neither urgent nor important.

Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. To further refine priority, some individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC analysis can incorporate more than three groups. ABC analysis is frequently combined with Pareto analysis. Pareto analysis This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time. The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority. The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. Similarly, 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity. If productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be prioritized higher.

It depends on the method adopted to complete the task. There is always a simpler and easier way to complete the task. If one uses a complex way, it will be time consuming. So, one should always try to find out the alternate ways to complete each task. The Eisenhower Method

A basic "Eisenhower box" to help evaluate urgency and importance. Items may be placed at more precise points within each quadrant.

All tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent and put in according quadrants. Tasks in unimportant/not urgent are dropped, tasks in important/urgent are done immediately and personally, tasks in unimportant/urgent are delegated and tasks in important/not urgent get an end date and are done personally. This method is said to have been used by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and is outlined in a quote attributed to him: What is important is seldom urgent and what is urgent is seldom important. POSEC method POSEC is an acronym for Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing and Contributing. The method dictates a template which emphasizes an average individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities. Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization which mirrors Abraham Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".
1. 2. 3. 4. Prioritize - Your time and define your life by goals. Organizing - Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful. (Family and Finances) Streamlining - Things you may not like to do, but must do. (Work and Chores) Economizing - Things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not pressingly urgent. (Pastimes and Socializing) 5. Contributing - By paying attention to the few remaining things that make a difference. (Social Obligations).

Implementing goals Time management literature in relation to implementation of goals frequently centres on the creation and management of task lists. There are also time management approaches that emphasise the need for more focused and simple implementation including the approach of "Going with the Flow" - natural rhythms, Eastern philosophy. More unconventional time usage techniques, such as those discussed in "Where Did Time Fly," include concepts that can be paraphrased as "Less is More," which de-emphasizes the importance of squeezing every minute of one's time, as suggested in traditional time management schemes. A task list (also to-do list or things-to-do) is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement to memory. Task lists are used in self-management, grocery lists, business management, project management, and software development. It may involve more than one list. When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off. The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually on a note pad or clip-board. Task lists can also have the form of paper or software checklists. Writer Julie Morgenstern suggests "do's and don'ts" of time management that include:

Map out everything that is important, by making a task list Create "an oasis of time" for one to control Say "No" Set priorities Don't drop everything Don't think a critical task will get done in one's spare time.

Numerous digital equivalents are now available, including PIM (Personal information management) applications and most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list applications, many of which are free. Task list organization Task lists are often tiered. The simplest tiered system includes a general to-do list (or task-holding file) to record all the tasks the person needs to accomplish, and a daily to-do list which is created each day by transferring tasks from the general to-do list. Task lists are often prioritized:

A daily list of things to do, numbered in the order of their importance, and done in that order one at a time until daily time allows, is attributed to consultant Ivy Lee (1877-1 3 ) as the most profitable advice received by Charles M. Schwab (1862-1 3 ), president of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. An early advocate of "ABC" prioritization was Alan Lakein, in 1 73. In his system "A" items were the most important ("A-1" the most important within that group), "B" next most important, "C" least important. A particular method of applying the ABC method assigns "A" to tasks to be done within a day, "B" a week, and "C" a month. To prioritize a daily task list, one either records the tasks in the order of highest priority, or assigns them a number after they are listed ("1" for highest priority, "2" for second highest priority, etc.) which indicates in which order to execute the tasks. The latter method is generally faster, allowing the tasks to be recorded more quickly. Another way of prioritizing compulsory tasks (group A) is to put the most unpleasant one first. When its done, the rest of the list feels easier. Groups B and C can benefit from the same idea, but instead of doing the first task (which is the most unpleasant) right away, it gives motivation to do other tasks from the list to avoid the first one. A completely different approach which argues against prioritising altogether was put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating "closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going wrong and what needs to change. Management of the list can take over from implementing it. This could be caused by procrastination by prolonging the planning activity. This is akin to analysis paralysis. As with any activity, there's a point of diminishing returns. Some level of detail must be taken for granted for a task system to work. Rather than put "clean the kitchen", "clean the bedroom", and "clean the bathroom", it is more efficient to put "housekeeping" and save time spent writing and reduce the system's administrative load (each task entered into the system generates a cost in time and effort to manage it, aside from the execution of the task). The risk of consolidating tasks, however, is that "housekeeping" in this example may prove overwhelming or nebulously defined, which will either increase the risk of procrastination, or a mismanaged project. Listing routine tasks wastes time. If you are in the habit of brushing your teeth every day, then there is no reason to put it down on the task list. The same goes for getting out of bed, fixing meals, etc. If you need to track routine tasks, then a standard list or chart may be useful, to avoid the procedure of manually listing these items over and over. To remain flexible, a task system must allow for disaster. A company must be ready for a disaster. Even if it is a small disaster, if no one made time for this situation, it can metastasize, potentially causing damage to the company . To avoid getting stuck in a wasteful pattern, the task system should also include regular (monthly, semi-annual, and annual) planning and system-evaluation sessions, to weed out inefficiencies and ensure the user is headed in the direction he or she truly desires.

Various writers have stressed potential difficulties with to-do lists such as the following:

If some time is not regularly spent on achieving long-range goals, the individual may get stuck in a perpetual holding pattern on short-term plans, like staying at a particular job much longer than originally planned.

Software applications Modern task list applications may have built-in task hierarchy (tasks are composed of subtasks which again may contain subtasks), may support multiple methods of filtering and ordering the list of tasks, and may allow one to associate arbitrarily long notes for each task. In contrast to the concept of allowing the person to use multiple filtering methods, at least one new software product additionally contains a mode where the software will attempt to dynamically determine the best tasks for any given moment. Many of the software products for time management support multiple users. It allows the person to give tasks to other users and use the software for communication In law firms, law practice management software may also assist in time management. Task list applications may be thought of as lightweight personal information manager or project management software. Time Management Systems Time management systems often include a time clock or web based application used to track an employees work hours. Time management systems give employers insights into their workforce, allowing them to see, plan and manage employees' time. Doing so allows employers to control labor costs and increase productivity. A time management system automates processes, which eliminates paper work and tedious tasks. Elimination of non-priorities Time management also covers how to eliminate tasks that do not provide the individual or organization value. According to Sandberg, task lists "aren't the key to productivity [that] they're cracked up to be". He reports an estimated "30% of listers spend more time managing their lists than [they do] completing what's on them". Hendrickson asserts that rigid adherence to task lists can create a "tyranny of the to-do list" that forces one to "waste time on unimportant activities".
Stress Management:

Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning. In this context, the term 'stress' refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise positive. Stress produces numerous symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-being. Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily measureable using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs. Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health practitioners and others for self-help, which may help an individual to reduce stress, provide positive feelings of being in control of one's life and promote general well-being. The effectiveness of the different stress management techniques can be difficult to assess, as few of them have received significant attention from researchers. Consequently, the amount and quality of evidence for the various techniques varies widely. Some are accepted as effective treatments for use in psychotherapy, whilst others with less evidence favouring them are considered alternative therapies. Many professional organisations exist to promote and provide training in conventional or alternative therapies. There are several models of stress management, each with distinctive explanations of mechanisms for controlling stress. Much more research is necessary to provide a better understanding of which mechanisms actually operate and are effective in practice.

Historical foundations Walter Cannon and Hans Selye used animal studies to establish the earliest scientific basis for the study of stress. They measured the physiological responses of animals to external pressures, such as heat and cold, prolonged restraint, and surgical procedures, then extrapolated from these studies to human beings. Subsequent studies of stress in humans by Richard Rahe and others established the view that stress is caused by distinct, measureable life stressors, and further, that these life stressors can be ranked by the median degree of stress they produce (leading to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale). Thus, stress was traditionally conceptualized to be a result of external insults beyond the control of those experiencing the stress. More recently, however, it has been argued that external circumstances do not have any intrinsic capacity to produce stress, but instead their effect is mediated by the individual's perceptions, capacities, and understanding. Models Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in that stress can be thought of as resulting from an imbalance between demands and resources or as occurring when pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope. Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable. Among the many stressors mentioned by employees, these are the most common:

The way employees are treated by their bosses/supervisors or company Lack of job security Company policies Coworkers who don't do their fair share Unclear expectations Poor communication Not enough control over assignments Inadequate pay or benefits Urgent deadlines Too much work Long hours Uncomfortable physical conditions Relationship conflicts Coworkers making careless mistakes Dealing with rude customers Lack of cooperation How the company treats coworkers

In order to develop an effective stress management programme it is first necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress, and to identify the intervention methods which effectively target these factors. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model). The model contends that stress may not be a stressor if the person does not perceive the stressor as a threat but rather as positive or even challenging. Also, if the person possesses or can use adequate coping skills, then stress may not actually be a result or develop because of the stressor. The model proposes that people can be taught to manage their stress and cope with their stressors. They may learn to change their perspective of the stressor and provide them with the ability and confidence to improve their lives and handle all of types of stressors. Health realization/innate health model The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional model does), the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought, stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. In this model, stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of insecurity and negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the world with a "quiet mind".

This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of thoughtespecially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip of insecure thinking, disengage from it, and access natural positive feelingswill reduce their stress. Techniques High demand levels load the person with extra effort and work. A new time schedule is worked up, and until the period of abnormally high, personal demand has passed, the normal frequency and duration of former schedules is limited. Many techniques cope with the stresses life brings. Some of the following ways induce a lower than usual stress level, temporarily, to compensate the biological tissues involved; others face the stressor at a higher level of abstraction:

Autogenic training Social activity Cognitive therapy Conflict resolution Exercise Getting a hobby Meditation Mindfulness (psychology) Deep breathing Yoga Nidra Nootropics Reading novels Prayer Relaxation techniques Artistic expression Fractional relaxation Progressive relaxation Spas Somatics training Spending time in nature Stress balls Natural medicine Clinically validated alternative treatments Time management Planning and decision making Listening to certain types of relaxing music Spending quality time with pets

Techniques of stress management will vary according to the philosophical paradigm.[ Stress prevention & resilience Although many techniques have traditionally been developed to deal with the consequences of stress considerable research has also been conducted on the prevention of stress, a subject closely related to psychological resilience-building. A number of self-help approaches to stress-prevention and resilience-building have been developed, drawing mainly on the theory and practice of cognitivebehavioural therapy. Measuring stress Levels of stress can be measured. One way is through the use of psychological testing: the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale is used to rate stressful life events, while the DASS contains a scale for stress based on self-report items. Changes in blood pressure and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels, and changes in stress levels. A digital thermometer can be used to evaluate changes in skin temperature, which can indicate activation of the fight-or-flight response drawing blood away from the extremities. Cortisol is the main hormone released during a stress response and measuring cortisol from hair will give a 60- baseline stress level of an individual. This method of measuring stress is currently the most popular method in the clinic. Effectiveness Stress management has physiological and immune benefits. Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of non-drug interventions:

treatment of anger or hostility,

autogenic training talking therapy (around relationship or existential issues) biofeedback cognitive therapy for anxiety or clinical depression

Types of stress Acute stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress among humans worldwide. Acute stress deals with the pressures of the near future or dealing with the very recent past. This type of stress is often misinterpreted for being a negative connotation. While this is the case in some circumstances, it is also a good thing to have some acute stress in life. Running or any other form of exercise is considered an acute stressor. Some exciting or exhilarating experiences such as riding a roller coaster is an acute stress but is usually very fun. Acute stress is a short term stress and in result, does not have enough time to do the damage that long term stress causes. Chronic stress Chronic stress is the exact opposite of acute stress. It has a wearing effect on people that can become a very serious health risk if it continues over a long period of time. Chronic stress can lead to memory loss, damage spacial recognition and produce a decreased drive of eating. The severity varies from person to person and also sex difference can be an underlying factor. Women are able to take longer durations of stress than men without showing the same maladaptive changes. Men can deal with shorter stress duration better than women can but once males hit a certain threshold, the chances of them developing mental issues increases drastically. Stress in the workplace Stress in the workplace is a commonality throughout the world in every business. Managing that stress becomes vital in order to keep up job performance as well as relationship with co-workers and employers. For some workers, changing the work environment relieves work stress. Making the environment less competitive between employees decreases some amounts of stress. However, each person is different and some people like the pressure to perform better. Salary can be an important concern of employees. Salary can affect the way people work because they can aim for promotion and in result, a higher salary. This can lead to chronic stress. Cultural differences have also shown to have some major effects on stress coping problems. Eastern Asian employees may deal with certain work situations differently than a Western North American employee would. In order to manage stress in the workplays, employers can provide stress managing programs such as therapy, communication programs, and a more flexible work schedule. Medical Environment Stress A study was done on the stress levels in general practitioners and hospital consultants in 1 . Over 5 medical employees participated in this study done by Dr. R.P Caplan. These results showed that 7% of the workers scored high on their questionnaire for high levels of stress. 27% of the general practitioners even scored to be very depressed. These numbers came to a surprise to Dr. Caplan and it showed how alarming the large number of medical workers become stressed out because of their jobs. Managers stress levels were not as high as the actual practitioners themselves. An eye opening statistic showed that nearly 5 % of workers suffered from anxiety while being in the hospital. Although this was a small sample size for hospitals around the world, Caplan feels this trend is probably fairly accurate across the majority of hospitals. Stress Management Programs in Workplace Many businesses today have began to use Stress Management Programs for employees who are having trouble adapting to stress at the workplace or at home. Many people have spill over stress from home into their working environment. There are a couple of ways businesses today try to alleviate stress on their employees. One way is individual intervention. This starts off by monitoring the stressors in the individual. After monitoring what causes the stress, next is attacking that stressor and trying to figure out ways to alleviate them in any way. Developing social support is vital in individual intervention, being with others to help you cope has proven to be a very effective way to avoid stress. Avoiding the stressors all together is the best possible way to get rid of stress but that is very difficult to do in the workplace. Changing behavioral patterns, may in turn, help reduce some of the stress that is put on at work as well.

Employee Assistance Programs can include in-house counseling programs on managing stress. Evaluative research has been conducted on EAPs that teach individual stress control and inoculation techniques such as relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive restructuring. Studies show that these programs can reduce the level of physiological arousal associated with high stress. Participants who master behavioral and cognitive stress-relief techniques report less tension, fewer sleep disturbances, and an improved ability to cope with workplace stressors. Another way of reducing stress at work is by simply changing the workload for an employee. Some may be too overwhelmed that they have so much work to get done, or some also may have such little work that they are not sure what to do with themselves at work. Improving communications between employees also sounds like a simple approach, but it is very effective for helping reduce stress. Sometimes making the employee feel like they are a bigger part of the company, such as giving them a voice in bigger situations shows that you trust them and value their opinion. Having all the employees mesh well together is a very underlying factor which can take away much of workplace stress. If employees fit well together and feed off of each other, the chances of lots of stress is very minimal. Lastly, changing the physical qualities of the workplace may reduce stress. Changing simple things such as the lighting, air temperature, odor, and up to date technology. Intervention is broken down into three steps: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary. Primary deals with eliminating the stressors all together. Secondary deals with detecting stress and figuring out ways to cope with it and improving stress management skills. FInally, tertiary deals with recovery and rehabbing the stress all together. These three steps are usually the most effective way to deal with stress not just in the workplace, but overall.

10. Finance for Non-Finance:

Basic Finance for Non-Financial Managers
It's not just accountancy specialists who deal with spreadsheets, and figures, and the financial side of business. It's highly likely that, as a line manager or department head, you're going to have to analyze a spreadsheet at some point, or have some form of financial recording to do as part of your job description. However, if you feel baffled by balance sheets, or confused by cash flow statements, then read on. This article will take you through the basics of finance for non-financial managers, to help you become familiar with the terminology and what it all means. Financial management is a crucial aspect of any thriving business. Profit maximization, or stockholder wealth maximization, are two real concerns for any organization and they depend on solid financial decisions. To make good decisions, management needs good information. And that information comes from the accounting system. From the accounting system come the financial statements. These statements contain important information about the organization's operating results. This information is important for effective management, and financial control. As a manager, or any other person with financial responsibility, you have to be able to interpret this information yourself. Financial statements contain important information about your company's operating results and financial position. The relationship between certain items of financial data can be used to identify areas where your firm excels and, more importantly, where there are opportunities for improvement. Using, understanding, and interpreting these statements will help you make much better business decisions.

The Basic Financial Statements

Businesses record their performance in standard formats called financial statements. The most common of these are: Balance Sheet (also known as a Statement of Financial Position, or a Statement of Financial Condition). Income Statement (Statement of Profit and Loss, Statement of Earnings, Statement of Operations). Cash Flow Statement. While these statements look at different aspects of the company, they are interrelated and dependent on each other, as information from one is needed to prepare the others. The key to understanding accounts is to have a good grasp of what the basic statements are there to do: how they are prepared, what they tell you, and what they don't. Tip 1: This article refers to many accounting and finance terms, many of which can be found in our Word s Used In Financial Accounting article. Tip 2: If you're not at all familiar with accounts, this article is going to seem quite complicated. However, this is hugely important information once you get beyond a certain level in your career, so it's worth persisting with it! Read this article three times: firstly, skim it to get an overview of what the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statements are. Then give it a thorough re-read so that you understand what's happening in detail. Finally, work through again to cement your understanding. And if you have any questions, just ask in the forums!

The Bookkeeping Process

Every time your organization conducts a business transaction, the status of the accounts changes. In a retail company, for example, when a sale is made, the cash account increases, and the inventory decreases. The bookkeeping process keeps track of these changes in various ledgers and journals. The financial statements are then prepared using this information. Accounting is based on the fundamental accounting equation: Total Assets = Total Liabilities + Equity

This essentially means that the difference between what the business owns and what it owes represents the equity the company's owners have. To keep this equation in balance means that, with each transaction, at least two accounts and the balances in those accounts will change. Accounting is the process of keeping track of those changes, and recording and then reporting them. Transaction Example: On August 2, 2008, Tom's Plumbing purchased a computer for $15 with $5 cash deposit, and the remainder on a store credit program. There are three accounts affected: The asset account 'Equipment.' The asset account 'Cash.' The liability account 'Accounts Payable.' These specific accounts can be found in what is called the Chart of Accounts. The titles Equipment, Cash, and Accounts Payable are not random; these are specific accounts that were identified as relevant to the company before it began operating as a business. The Chart of Accounts is a list of all the accounts used by a company to record financial transactions. The accounts are grouped according to type, and then numbered using the following conventions: Asset 101-1 . Liability 200-2 . Equity 300-3 . Revenue 00- . Expense 500-5 (some systems use 600s). To keep track of transactions efficiently, a General Journal (Original Book of Entry) is used. The journal records what happened, the accounts affected, and the dollar amounts. Once you've identified the accounts that are involved, you need to apply the rules of what accountants call 'transaction analysis.' This involves the following: Asset and Expense accounts are increased by a debit, and decreased by a credit. Liabilities, Equity, and Revenue accounts are increased by a credit, and decreased by a debit. Example:

Having a chronological record of the business' transactions is very useful, should you need to go back and review a particular transaction at a later date. The problem with keeping information in this format, though, is that there is no way to determine what the actual balance in each account is after each transaction. For example, you may need to know how much cash is actually in the cash account, and thus in the bank account, at any given time. To keep track of account balances, accountants use what is called a General Ledger. The General Ledger consists of ledger accounts, one for each account set up in the Chart of Accounts. Debits and credits to each account are posted to the ledger from the journal, and the balance is kept current. Posting is the process of transferring amounts from the general journal to specific general ledger accounts. Because entries are recorded in the ledger after the journal, the general ledger is often called the Book of Final Entry. Here's an example:

Note the account balances from the previous month in the Cash and Bank Loan accounts. The 'Balance' column is used to keep a running total of the account balances. The journalizing and posting process are the first two steps of the entire accounting cycle. From there, the Financial Statements are prepared. As mentioned earlier, the financial statements are interrelated. To better understand the relationship between these statements, we'll look at Tom's Plumbing statements as they change from the start of an accounting period to the end.

Balance Sheet
A Balance Sheet indicates the financial position of a business at one point in time; it shows what the business owns and owes. The general journal captures day-to-day account balances. At the end of an accounting period, a Balance Sheet is prepared. The Balance Sheet has three sections: Assets the things of value that the company owns. Liabilities obligations to pay or provide goods or services at some later date. Equity the amount of net assets (assets - liabilities) owing to the owners of the business. The Balance Sheet is named as such because the total of the assets must equal the total of the liabilities and equity. What a company owns equals what it owes to its creditors and owners.

Tom's Plumbing Balance Sheet As at July 31, 2008 Assets Cash Inventory Accounts Receivable Equipment 5,500 8,000 3,500 2,500 Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Equity Total Assets 1 ,500 Total Liabilities & Equity 10,000 3,500 13,500 1 ,500 Liabilities Bank Loan Accounts Payable Total Liabilities 5,000 1,000 6,000

As at July 31, Tom's Plumbing has $1 ,5 in Assets, $6,0 in Liabilities, and $13,5 in Equity. The accounting staff at Tom's Plumbing dutifully record all the transactions that occur during the month of August, and they prepare an Income Statement to summarize the information.

Income Statement
At certain points during the year, each business wants to know how well it is doing. Is it earning a profit? Is it losing money? Just how well is it doing compared to other firms? Is it likely to be able to earn a profit in the future? To answer these questions, it uses an Income Statement. The Income Statement communicates the inflow of revenue, and the outflow of expenses, over a given period of time. Revenue is the inflow of assets (i.e. cash or accounts receivable) to a company in return for services performed, or goods sold. Expenses are the outflow or consumption of assets (i.e. cash, inventory, supplies), or obligations incurred (i.e. accounts payable, taxes payable) while generating revenue. The difference between these two is the Net Income. An Income Statement therefore shows the operating profit (or loss) of a business. Tom's Plumbing Income Statement For the month ended August 31, 2008 Revenue Sales Revenue Repair Revenue Total Revenue Expenses Rent Wages Inventory Depreciation Total Expenses Net Income 550 2,300 ,000 200 7,050 2, 50 7,000 3,000 10,000

The Net Income amount is the amount by which a company's equity increases or decreases for the period. An equity account is used to record the change that results from business operations. In a proprietorship, this is typically called Retained Earnings. In corporations, it is called Owner's Equity. When Tom's Plumbing goes to prepare its Balance Sheet as at August 31, 2008, it must include the $ of Net Income as an increase to the Retained Earnings Account. The Balance Sheet for the end of the month is also prepared:

Many people are inclined to think that, because Tom's Plumbing had a net income of $2 50, the cash account increased by $2 50. As you can see, this is not the case: cash increased by only $550. The reason for this is because income can be accounted for in ways other than cash; and activities other than operations, like financing and investment, can affect cash. To get an accurate picture of the actual cash generated by a business in a period you must prepare a Cash Flow Statement (Statement of Changes in Financial Position).

Cash Flow Statement

The Cash Flow Statement records inflows and outflows of cash during a period of time, and is divided into cash flow from operations, financing, and investing activities. To prepare a statement of cash flow you must convert net income from accrual-based accounting to cash. You therefore have to add and subtract changes in non-cash accounts that have accrued during the period. For instance, you need to add back depreciation amounts, because although depreciation expense decreases net income, it has no bearing on actual cash. Likewise, you have to deduct any decreases in accounts payable because that is a use of cash that was not accounted for on the Income Statement. The following table outlines the major sources and uses of cash: Sources of Cash Operations New loans New stock issues or owner investment Sale of property, plant, or equipment Sale of other non-current asset Uses of Cash Cash Dividends Repayment of loans Repurchase of stock Purchase of property, plant, or equipment Purchase of other non-current asset

By analyzing the differences between the balance sheets for the beginning of the period and the end of the period, and accounting for the net income for the period, you can prepare a Cash Flow Statement:

The $ dollar increase in cash has been explained by converting accrued amounts into actual cash value. Understanding the interrelatedness of the financial statements is very important when reading and interpreting them. Understanding where the numbers come from, and what they actually mean, is extremely important when evaluating your own performance, or comparing your performance to others.

Financial Statement Interpretation

Armed with some knowledge of accounts, it's important to understand what the statements actually tell you.

What an Income Statement says:

The Income Statement reports the main and any secondary sources of income. For example, Fees Earned would be the primary revenue in a dental office. If they had bonds, a secondary source of revenue would be Interest Earned from Bond Investment. The terms used to describe the revenue will provide a clue about the nature of the organization. For example, Fees Earned implies a service company; Commissions Earned implies a brokerage; while Sales Revenue implies a retail or wholesale firm.

The items listed as expenses are expired, meaning they have no useful value left. The result of matching the revenues and expenses yields the Net Income or Net Earnings if the statement is called the Earnings Statement. The term 'net' implies that the revenues and expenses have been matched, and therefore there is not an over or under statement of the income (loss). An Income Statement does not predict the future net income for any accounting period. Since the future is full of uncertainty, a reader of a historical Income Statement can't rely on the reported results of any single period for an indication of future results. An Income Statement, no matter how well prepared, does not provide an exact measurement of net income for the accounting period. No matter how hard you try, it is impossible to get an exact match. Consider, for example, an advertising expense. If management spent $1,0 in December on advertising, and achieved $5,0 sales revenue for December, that does not mean that the advertising brought in exactly $5,0 revenue. There may also be revenue generated in January that can be attributed to the December advertising. When it is difficult to measure, the expense is accounted for in the period it was incurred. An Income Statement does not report True Profit, which is the difference between total funds invested over the life of the company and funds realized from the sale of the company. To calculate this, you would have to calculate the difference between assets invested during the lifetime of the business, and the amount finally received from remaining assets after winding up the business. You would also have to deduct any personal withdrawals because these were actually paid out of the 'profits.' Net Income does not mean cash! Always keep in mind that net income is the excess revenue over related expenses for a specific accounting period. Cash has very little to do with determining net income. True, revenue refers to an inflow of cash and expense to an outflow, but often the inflow of cash is used for further investment. Additionally, revenues and expenses are recorded at the time of occurrence, not when cash changes hands. What about the case of depreciation expense which does not represent an outflow of cash at all? A Balance Sheet gives readers a detailed summary of the assets and claims against those assets, as at a particular date. A Balance Sheet provides the reader with information about the financial position of the firm with regard to its ability to pay current debts. By comparing the current assets to the current liabilities, the reader can assess whether the company is in a position to meet to meet its short-term financial obligations. A Balance Sheet gives the reader a view of the firm's financial position to carry on its business operations. The fixed-asset section indicates how many resources the company has working for it to assist in revenue generation. Finally, a Balance Sheet reveals the strength of the owner's claim against the assets. Remember, however, that this claim is residual, or the remaining claim after the creditors'. A Balance Sheet does not report the details of how the profits were made. That information comes from the Income Statement. A Balance Sheet does not show the claims of the creditors and the owner(s) against a specific asset. The claims are against the assets in general. The word 'Capital' under owner's equity must not be interpreted as cash. The investment can come in many forms cash being just one of them. The owner's original cash investment may have gone primarily to purchase fixed assets in order to assist revenue generation. Capital means investment not cash. A Balance Sheet does not report the market value, current value, or worth of a business. Many readers believe the total assets represent a bundle of future cash reserves. This is not true because fixed assets are reported at historical cost, and their purpose is to assist revenue generation. They are not intended for sale to enhance cash flow.

What an Income Statement does not say:

What a Balance Sheet says:

What a Balance Sheet does not say:

Key Points:
Accounting is a language unto itself. To become perfectly fluent takes a great deal of training and experience. Thankfully, non-financial managers, and other employees with financial responsibility, can learn to be conversant with the key terminology. The bookkeeping process is how day-to-day transactions are recorded. Balances in the various accounts are tracked and summarized in the financial statements. The financial statements bring the cycle full circle as they reflect the changes that happened during the accounting period. By understanding this cycle, you have a much better appreciation for the numbers on the financial statements, and you can use them to make sound managerial decisions.

11. Emotional Intelligence:

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. It can be divided into ability EI and trait EI. Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits. History The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Charles Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation. In the 1 00s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1 20, E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.

Similarly, in David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we could adequately describe these factors. In 1 83, Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner's view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence were lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes. The first use of the term "emotional intelligence" is usually attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1 85. However, prior to this, the term "emotional intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1 66). Stanley Greenspan (1 8 ) also put forward an EI model, followed by Salovey and Mayer (1 0), and Daniel Goleman (1 5). The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000.[ Definitions Substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI, with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. Currently, there are three main models of EI:
1. Ability model 2. Mixed model (usually subsumed under trait EI) 3. Trait model

Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. While some of these measures may overlap, most researchers agree that they tap different constructs. Ability model Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their initial definition of EI was revised to "The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth." The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. The model claims that EI includes four types of abilities:
1. Perceiving emotions the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artifactsincluding the ability to identify one's own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. 2. Using emotions the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand. 3. Understanding emotions the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. 4. Managing emotions the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.

The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace. Measurement The current measure of Mayer and Salovey's model of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items. Consistent with the model's claim of EI as a type of intelligence, the test is modeled on ability-based

IQ tests. By testing a person's abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence, it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. Therefore, the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion, with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual's answers and those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents. The MSCEIT can also be expert-scored, so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual's answers and those provided by a group of emotion researchers. Although promoted as an ability test, the MSCEIT is unlike standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses. Among other challenges, the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to create items (questions) that only a minority of respondents can solve, because, by definition, responses are deemed emotionally "intelligent" only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. This and other similar problems have led some cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence. In a study by Fllesdal, the MSCEIT test results of business leaders were compared with how their employees described their leader. It was found that there were no correlations between a leader's test results and how he or she was rated by the employees, with regard to empathy, ability to motivate, and leader effectiveness. Fllesdal also criticized the Canadian company Multi-Health Systems, which administers the MSCEIT test. The test contains questions but it was found after publishing the test that of these did not give the expected answers. This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these questions before scoring, but without stating this officially. Mixed model The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's model outlines five main EI constructs (for more details see "What Makes A Leader" by Daniel Goleman, best of Harvard Business Review 1 8):
1. Self-awareness the ability to know one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and goals and recognize their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide decisions. 2. Self-regulation involves controlling or redirecting one's disruptive emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. 3. Social skill managing relationships to move people in the desired direction 4. Empathy - considering other people's feelings especially when making decisions and 5. Motivation - being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement.

Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. Goleman's model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere "pop psychology" (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). Measurement Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model:
1. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which was created in 1 , and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was created in 2007. 2. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 20 and which can be taken as a selfreport or 360-degree assessment.

Trait model Soviet-born British psychologist Konstantin Vasily Petrides ("K. V. Petrides") proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI and has been developing the latter over many years in numerous scientific publications.[ Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality." In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of

human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.[ Measurement There are many self-report measures of EI, including the EQ-i, the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), and the Schutte EI model. None of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence. One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), which was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is available in many languages. The TEIQue provides an operationalization for the model of Petrides and colleagues, that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. The test encompasses subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, and Sociability. The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a study on a French-speaking population, where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable. The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven's matrices), which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). As expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia, neuroticism). A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model, which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritabilities for all trait EI scores. Two recent studies (one a meta-analysis) involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue. Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI)
See also: Social intelligence

Bar-On defines emotional intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands. Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy. Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average EQs are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. Problems in coping with one's environment are thought, by Bar-On, to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence, which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life. However, doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) model discussed below. Measurement The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is a self-report measure of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. The EQ-i is not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity, but rather the mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures. One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotional Quotient) and to produce five composite scale scores, corresponding to the five main components of the Bar-On model. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some kind of ability through self-report items (for a discussion, see Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2001). The EQ-i has been found to be highly susceptible to faking (Day & Carroll, 2008; Grubb & McDaniel, 2007). Alexithymia Alexithymia from the Greek words "" (lexis) and "" (thumos) (literally "lack of words for emotions") is a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1 73 to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. Viewed as a spectrum between high and low EI, the alexithymia construct is strongly inversely related to EI, representing its lower range. The individual's level of alexithymia can be measured with self-scored questionnaires such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) or the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia

Questionnaire (BVAQ) or by observer rated measures such as the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS). Criticisms of theoretical foundation Cannot be recognized as form of intelligence Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning that EI is a type of intelligence. Eysenck (2000) writes that Goleman's description of EI contains unsubstantiated assumptions about intelligence in general, and that it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when studying types of intelligence: "[Goleman] exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behaviour as an 'intelligence'... If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence', we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated; Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated, and in any case if we cannot measure them, how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no sound scientific basis." Similarly, Locke (2005) claims that the concept of EI is in itself a misinterpretation of the intelligence construct, and he offers an alternative interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence, but intelligencethe ability to grasp abstractionsapplied to a particular life domain: emotions. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a skill. The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization, and that before the introduction of the term EI, psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements, skills and habits, attitudes and values, and personality traits and emotional states. Thus, some scholars believe that the term EI merges and conflates such accepted concepts and definitions. Has little predictive value Landy (2005) claimed that the few incremental validity studies conducted on EI have shown that it adds little or nothing to the explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably academic and work success). Landy suggested that the reason why some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is a methodological fallacy, namely, that alternative explanations have not been completely considered: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure, or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence." Landy (2005) Similarly, other researchers have raised concerns about the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established personality dimensions. Generally, self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure personality traits. Specifically, there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out as most related to selfreport EI neuroticism and extroversion. In particular, neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. Intuitively, individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied. The prominent view in the scientific literature is the Trait EI view, which re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits. Criticisms of measurement issues Ability model measures measure conformity, not ability One criticism of the works of Mayer and Salovey comes from a study by Roberts et al. (2001),[ which suggests that the EI, as measured by the MSCEIT, may only be measuring conformity. This argument is rooted in the MSCEIT's use of consensus-based assessment, and in the fact that scores on the MSCEIT are negatively distributed (meaning that its scores differentiate between people with low EI better than people with high EI). Ability model measures measure knowledge (not actual ability) Further criticism has been leveled by Brody (200 ),[ who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability, the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed". The main argument is that even though someone knows how he should behave in an emotionally laden situation, it doesn't necessarily follow that the person could actually carry out the reported behavior. Ability model measures measure personality and general intelligence

New research is surfacing that suggests that ability EI measures might be measuring personality in addition to general intelligence. These studies examined the multivariate effects of personality and intelligence on EI and also corrected estimates for measurement error (which is often not done in some validation studies). For example, a study by Schulte, Ree, Carretta (200 ),[ showed that general intelligence (measured with the Wonderlic Personnel Test), agreeableness (measured by the NEOPI), as well as gender had a multiple R of . with the MSCEIT. This result has been replicated by Fiori and Antonakis (2011),;[ they found a multiple R of . using Cattells Culture Fair intelligence test and the Big Five Inventory (BFI); significant covariates were intelligence (standardized beta = .3 ), agreeableness (standardized beta = .5 ), and openness (standardized beta = . 6). Antonakis and Dietz (2011a),[ who investigated the Ability Emotional Intelligence Measure found similar results (Multiple R = .6 ), with significant predictors being intelligence, standardized beta = . (using the Swaps Test and a Wechsler scales subtest, the 0-item General Knowledge Task) and empathy, standardized beta = . (using the Questionnaire Measure of Empathic Tendency)--see also Antonakis and Dietz (2011b),[ who show how including or excluding important controls variables can fundamentally change resultsthus, it is important to always include important controls like personality and intelligence when examining the predictive validity of ability and trait EI models. Self-report measures are susceptible to faking More formally termed socially desirable responding (SDR), faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an excessive positive bias (Paulhus, 2002). This bias has long been known to contaminate responses on personality inventories (Holtgraves, 200 ; McFarland & Ryan, 2000; Peebles & Moore, 1 8; Nichols & Greene, 1 7; Zerbe & Paulhus, 1 87), acting as a mediator of the relationships between self-report measures (Nichols & Greene, 1 7; Ganster et al., 1 83[full citation needed]). It has been suggested that responding in a desirable way is a response set, which is a situational and temporary response pattern (Pauls & Crost, 200 ; Paulhus, 1 1). This is contrasted with a response style, which is a more long-term trait-like quality. Considering the contexts some self-report EI inventories are used in (e.g., employment settings), the problems of response sets in high-stakes scenarios become clear (Paulhus & Reid, 2001). There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test (e.g., McFarland, 2003). Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items. Claims for predictive power are too extreme Landy distinguishes between the "commercial wing" and "the academic wing" of the EI movement, basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents. According to Landy, the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI, while the latter is trying to warn users against these claims. As an example, Goleman (1 8) asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. ...emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership". In contrast, Mayer (1 ) cautions "the popular literature's implicationthat highly emotionally intelligent people possess an unqualified advantage in lifeappears overly enthusiastic at present and unsubstantiated by reasonable scientific standards." Landy further reinforces this argument by noting that the data upon which these claims are based are held in "proprietary databases", which means they are unavailable to independent researchers for reanalysis, replication, or verification. Thus, the credibility of the findings cannot be substantiated in a scientific way, unless those datasets are made public and available for independent analysis. In an academic exchange, Antonakis and Ashkanasy/Dasborough mostly agreed that researchers testing whether EI matters for leadership have not done so using robust research designs; therefore, currently there is no strong evidence showing that EI predicts leadership outcomes when accounting for personality and IQ.[ Antonakis argued that EI might not be needed for leadership effectiveness (he referred to this as the "curse of emotion" phenomenon, because leaders who are too sensitive to their and others' emotional states might have difficulty making decisions that would result in emotional labor for the leader or followers). A recently-published meta-analysis seems to support the Antonakis position: In fact, Harms and Cred found that overall (and using data free from problems of common source and common methods), EI measures correlated only = 0. with measures of transformational leadership.[ Interestingly, ability-measures of EI fared worst (i.e., = 0.0 ); the

WLEIS (Wong-Law measure) did a bit better ( = 0.08), and the Bar-On measure better still ( = 0.18). However, the validity of these estimates does not include the effects of IQ or the big five personality, which correlate both with EI measures and leadership.[ In a subsequent paper analyzing the impact of EI on both job performance and leadership, Harms and Cred[ found that the metaanalytic validity estimates for EI dropped to zero when Big Five traits and IQ were controlled for. Joseph and Newman meta-analytically showed the same result for Ability EI, but further demonstrated that self-reported and Trait EI measures retain a small amount of predictive validity for job performance after controlling Big Five traits and IQ. Newman, Joseph, and MacCann contend that the greater predictive validity of Trait EI measures is due to their inclusion of content related to achievement motivation, self efficacy, and self-rated performance. NICHD pushes for consensus The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has recognized the divide on the topic of emotional intelligence explains the need for the mental health community to agree on some guidelines to describe good mental health and positive mental living conditions. In their section, "Positive Psychology and the Concept of Health," they explain. "Currently there are six competing models of positive health, which are based on concepts such as being above normal, character strengths and core virtues, developmental maturity, social-emotional intelligence, subjective wellbeing, and resilience. But these concepts define health in philosophical rather than empirical terms. Dr. [Lawrence] Becker suggested the need for a consensus on the concept of positive psychological health..." EI and job performance Research of EI and job performance shows mixed results: a positive relation has been found in some of the studies, in others there was no relation or an inconsistent one. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006) to offer a compensatory model between EI and IQ, that posits that the association between EI and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases, an idea first proposed in the context of academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 200 ). The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI. A meta-analytic review by Joseph and Newman also revealed that both Ability EI and Trait EI tend to predict job performance much better in jobs that require a high degree of emotional labor (where 'emotional labor' was defined as jobs that require the effective display of positive emotion). In contrast, EI shows little relationship to job performance in jobs that do not require emotional labor. In other words, emotional intelligence tends to predict job performance for emotional jobs only. A more recent study suggests that EI is not necessarily a universally positive trait. They found a negative correlation between EI and managerial work demands; while under low levels of managerial work demands, they found a negative relationship between EI and teamwork effectiveness. An explanation for this may suggest gender differences in EI, as women tend to score higher levels than men. This furthers the idea that job context plays a role in the relationships between EI, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance. Another interesting find was discussed in a study that assessed a possible link between EI and entrepreneurial behaviors and success. In accordance with much of the other findings regarding EI and job performance, they found that levels of EI only predicted a small amount of entrepreneurial behavior. Self-esteem and drug use A study cross examined emotional intelligence, self-esteem, and marijuana dependence. Out of a sample of 200, of which were dependent on cannabis and the other emotionally healthy, the dependent group scored exceptionally low on EI when compared to the control group. They also found that the dependent group also scored low on self-esteem when compared to the control. Another study in examined whether or not low levels of EI had a relationship with the degree of drug and alcohol addiction. In the assessment of residents in a drug rehabilitation center, they examined their EI along with other psychosocial factors in a month interval of treatment. They found that participants' EI scores improved as their levels of addiction lessened as part of their treatment.

12. Retirement Benefits:

Pension The minimum eligibility period for receipt of pension is years. A Central Government servant retiring in accordance with the Pension Rules is entitled to receive superannuation pension on completion of at least years of qualifying service. In the case of Family Pension the widow is eligible to receive pension on death of her spouse after completion of one year of continuous service or before even completion of one year if the Government servant had been examined by the appropriate Medical Authority and declared fit for Government service. W.e.f 1.1.2006, Pension is calculated with reference to average emoluments namely, the average of the basic pay drawn during the last months of the service or last basic pay drawn whichever is beneficial. Full pension with 10/ years of qualifying service is 50% of the average emoluments or last basic pay drawn whichever is beneficial. Before 1.1.2006, for qualifying service of less than years, amount of pension was proportionate to the actual qualifying service broken into completed half-year periods. For example, if total qualifying service is years and months (i.e. half-year periods), pension will be calculated as under:Pension amount = R/2(X)61/ where R represents average reckonable emoluments for last months of qualifying service or the last pay drawn as opted by the govt servant. Minimum pension presently is Rs. 35 per month. Maximum limit on pension is 50% of the highest pay in the Government of India (presently Rs. 5,000) per month. Pension is payable up to and including the date of death. Commutation of Pension A Central Government servant has an option to commute a portion of pension, not exceeding 0% of it, into a lump sum payment with effect from 1.1.1 6. No medical examination is required if the option is exercised within one year of retirement. If the option is exercised after expiry of one year, he/she will have to under go medical examination by the specified competent authority. Lump sum payable is calculated with reference to the Commutation Table constructed on an actuarial basis. The monthly pension will stand reduced by the portion commuted and the commuted portion will be restored on the expiry of years from the date of receipt of the commuted value of pension. Dearness Relief, however, will continue to be calculated on the basis of the original pension (i.e. without reduction of commuted portion). The formula for arriving for commuted value of Pension (CVP) is CVP = % (X) Commutation factor* (X)12 * The commutation factor will be with reference to age next birthday on the date on which commutation becomes absolute as per the New Table as Annexure to this Deptt's O.M. No. 38/37/08P&PW(A) dated 2. . Death/Retirement Gratuity Retirement Gratuity This is payable to the retiring Government servant. A minimum of years qualifying service and eligibility to receive service gratuity/pension is essential to get this one time lump sum benefit. Retirement gratuity is calculated @ 1/ th of a months Basic Pay plus Dearness Allowance drawn before retirement for each completed six monthly period of qualifying service. There is no minimum limit for the amount of gratuity. The retirement gratuity payable is 16 times the Basic Pay, subject to a maximum of Rs. lakhs. Death Gratuity This is a one-time lump sum benefit payable to the widow/widower or the nominee of a permanent or a quasi-permanent or a temporary Government servant, including CPF beneficiaries, dying in harness. There is no stipulation in regard to any minimum length of service rendered by the deceased employee. Entitlement of death gratuity is regulated as under: Qualifying Service Rate Less than one year One year or more but less than years years or more but less than years years of more times of basic pay times of basic pay times of basic pay Half of emoluments for every completed monthly

period of qualifying service subject to a maximum of times of emoluments. Maximum amount of Death Gratuity admissible is Rs. lakhs w.e.f. 1.1. Service Gratuity A retiring Government servant will be entitled to receive service gratuity (and not pension) if total qualifying service is less than years. Admissible amount is half months basic pay last drawn for each completed monthly period of qualifying service. There is no minimum or maximum monetary limit on the quantum. This one time lump sum payment is distinct from and is paid over and above the retirement gratuity. Issue of No Demand Certificate Dues owed by the retiring employees on account of Licence Fee for Government accommodation, advances, over payment of pay and allowances are required to be assessed by the Head of Office and intimated to the Accounts Officer two months in advance of the date of retirement so that these are recovered from retirement gratuity before payment. For this purpose the Licence Fee for those in occupation of Government accommodation is taken into account up to the end of the permissible period for which accommodation can be retained after retirement under the Rules on normal rent. The recovery of Licence Fee beyond that period is the responsibility of the Directorate of Estates. If, for any reason final dues cannot be assessed on time, then 10% of gratuity is withheld from gratuity General Provident Fund and Incentives As per General Provident Fund (Central Services) Rules, 1 60, all temporary Government servants after a continuous service of one year, all re-employed pensioners (Other than those eligible for admission to the Contributory Provident Fund) and all permanent Government servants are eligible to subscribe to the Fund. A subscriber, at the time of joining the fund is required to make a nomination, in the prescribed form, conferring on one or more persons the right to receive the amount that may stand to his credit in the fund in the event of his death, before that amount has become payable or having become payable has not been paid. A subscriber shall subscribe monthly to the Fund except during the period when he is under suspension. Subscriptions to the Provident Fund are stopped months prior to the date of superannuation. Rates of subscription shall not be less than 6% of subscribers emoluments and not more than his total emoluments. Rate of interest on GPF accumulations with effect from 1. . is 8% compounded annually and the rate of interest will vary according to notifications of the Government. The Rules provide for drawal of advances/ withdrawals from the Fund for specific purposes. Deposit Linked Insurance Revised Scheme Under the GPF Rules, on the death of subscriber, the person entitled to receive the amount standing to the credit of the subscriber shall be paid an additional amount equal to the average balance in the account during the years immediately preceding the death of the subscriber subject to certain conditions provided in the relevant Rule. The additional amount payable under that Rule shall not exceed Rs. 60,000/-. To get this benefit, the subscriber should have put in at least years service at the time of his/her death. Contributory Provident Fund The Contributory Provident Fund Rules (India), , are applicable to every non-pensionable servant of the Government belonging to any of the services under the control of the President. A subscriber, at the time of joining the Fund is required to make a nomination in the prescribed Form conferring on one or more persons the right to receive the amount that may stand to his credit in the Fund in the event of his death, before that amount has become payable or having become payable has not been paid. A subscriber shall subscribe monthly to the Fund when on duty or Foreign Service but not during the period of suspension. Rates of subscription shall not be less than 10% of the emoluments and not more than his emoluments. The employers contribution at that percentage prescribed by the Government will be credited to the subscribers account and this is 10%. Rate of interest with effect from 1. . is 8% compounded annually. The Rules provide for drawal of advances/ withdrawals from the CPF for specific purposes. As in GPF Rules, the CPF Rules also provide for Deposit Linked Insurance Revised Scheme. Top

Leave Encashment Encashment of leave is a benefit granted under the CCS (Leave) Rules and not a pensionary benefit. Encashment of Earned Leave/Half Pay Leave standing at the credit of the retiring Government servant is admissible on the date of retirement subject to a maximum of days. There is no provision under the Rule for payment of interest on delayed payment of Leave Encashment. Central Government Employees Group Insurance Scheme A portion of monthly contributions paid while in service is credited in a Saving Fund, on which interest accrues. A Government servant while entering service has to apply in Form No. of the above Scheme to the Head of Office, who shall issue a sanction for the payment of subscribers accumulation in the Savings Fund segment together with interest and arrange for its disbursement, soon after retirement. Payments under this Scheme are made in accordance with the Table of Benefit which takes in to account interest up to the date of cessation of service. Insurance cover benefit under this Scheme is available to the family in the event of death of the subscriber. No interest is payable on account of delayed payments under this Scheme.

13. Campus to Corporate;

Making the transition from campus to corporate
Chennai By M.Vasuki Counselling Psychologist, IBS

This article discusses the various aspects of making transition from campus to corporate. Carefully choosing a career will help to stay motivated and remain a star performer throughout ones career. A person moving out from a campus and entering corporate needs to do a lot of planning. It also creates a sense of excitement about forthcoming experiences and fear of what lies ahead, as there will be new challenges to face and huge obstacles to overcome when one starts climbing up in the career ladder. The article ends up in saying that making a successful transition from campus to corporate is the most exciting and phenomenal step in ones life and that should be handled with utmost care. 1. This article discusses the ways for making transition from ones college life to corporate climate. 2. Coupled with the need to make a profound first impression in ones new job as a dedicated, determined, disciplined and dynamic professional, new graduates are also faced with the reality of the new world of work 3. As new graduates entering the workplace, your career path will be coloured by many different careers, hence the need to develop your individual ability, strengthening your employability 4. This article states that entering the world of work for the first time is a far greater challenge and one has to equip himself/herself to get in to grips with its new realities. 5. Concludes that entering the corporate playing field provides a range of new challenges, all of which call for graduates to display accountability, professionalism and credibility Transition is an on-going process in everyones life that takes place at different stages. This might be from the final years of school to the early years of higher education, occupational training, independent living or social opportunities. Also it can be from the final years of college/campus to the early years of ones career. Transition from campus to career needs more attention as it involves a lot of planning. Planning for transition should take account of the personal goals and ambitions of the young person. The objective of the planning must ensure that the person possesses the necessary skills to enable the person to cope up with the corporate culture and climate. As the transition period is expected to be stressful and difficult, proper planning helps in reducing anxieties and facilitate the person to adapt to the new environment successfully. For an individual, starting to work in an organization is a unique and critically important phase that requires a special perspective and strategy to be successful as a fresher. Research suggests that the success of the transition period will have a major impact on aspects like salary, advancement, job satisfaction, and ability to have cordial relationships within the organization as well as on ones own feelings of success, accountability and commitment to the job. And, the impact will last for many years and not just for the first few years. Preparing oneself to bridge the gap between the campus and corporate smoothly, requires a lot of effort. As a new graduate enters the work arena he is exposed to many career choices. Carefully choosing a career will help to stay motivated and remain a star performer throughout ones career. Possessing better softskills, the required technical skills, effective communication skills and a winning resume will help to face the interview with courage and confidence. Making a first impression as an effective contributor will make the process of transition easier. Mannerism, behaviour, the way one dresses up, the way one carries himself are some of the personality traits that set the tone for future success on the part of the employer. In todays competitive market these factors are very necessary to get the job .It not only helps in securing a job, it also helps to build strong employability -a necessary attribute to be successful in the chosen occupation and aids in developing ones individuality. Getting ready for transition

Take time out before getting into an organization. It will help one to detach oneself from his college and become accustomed to the new culture. The amount of time spent at college is far lesser than the amount of time one spends in a corporate. Therefore, one must know how to manage ones time efficiently. Initially, one must take efforts to know his employer and also the co-workers. It takes some time to achieve the task- understanding the people and climate of the organization. Till that time, he must be careful in his interactions as he is moving with different people with different temperaments. Sometimes, it will be very conducive and cosy, otherwise, it will be like a disorganized family. One may not always like his colleagues. It sometimes becomes difficult to tolerate them, as time passes one gets used to it as he comes to know the nature of people. Till that time good or bad one must patiently tolerate them. Planning the dress one would wear is also very important, unless the organization has a dress code. One must dress appropriately as per the job.. Coming to work on time needs lot of effort. One should plan ahead the mode of transport and calculate the time taken to reach the office from home. It is always better to plan the route to work and be familiar with some alternate routes in case of any eventuality like traffic bottlenecks, or the cancellation of train service, auto strikes etc. The above mentioned strategies will help to make a profound first impression in ones new job and organization as a dedicated, determined, disciplined and dynamic professional. Some Tips to succeed during the initial period of transition: 1. Punctuality is very mandatory. It is better to arrive at work on time. Strictly follow the rules and regulations of the corporate. 2. Listen, observe and give attention to every minor detail before jumping to any conclusions. 3. Stay away from internal politics and gossip. It is better to observe the happenings around us and not contribute to it. 4. Follow professional ethics by imparting values and manners. For instance, ones friends room may be okay with him, but barging into the employers room is not acceptable. Use simple magic words like Please and Thank you. 5. Be a learner always to learn what you need to know. Find a mentor to guide in the career path. 6. Always stick to deadlines. Complete the assignments before time so that one will have time to make changes if required. 7. Pay keen attention to corporate culture to learn how things work within the organizations. A person moving out from a campus and entering corporate needs to do a lot of planning. It also creates a sense of excitement about forthcoming experiences and fear of what lies ahead, as there will be new challenges to face and huge obstacles to overcome when one starts climbing up in the career ladder. This phase is an important transition in life and it needs to be handled effectively. The first year of a career is a very crucial period and it should be viewed separately and distinctly from the remaining years of ones career. For a beginner, it is a learning phase and he learns to use his communication skills effectively to deploy his potentials and to maintain a cordial relationship with the employer and colleagues. Now, it has become a practice to recruit students from their colleges through campus interviews. The recruiter chooses a person for his company with the belief that he will have the potential to perform the tasks assigned to him. Gaining acceptance, respect and credibility is the challenge that lies in front of every college student who is intending to get into the corporate sector They need to be prepared to get exposed to the corporate culture. That is they should be groomed in such a way that they are given an opportunity to hone the necessary skills needed, to make the transition from campus to corporate successful.. The challenges in the early months can be faced with courage by using a few specific strategies presented here. It will also allow one to establish oneself as a bright, capable, and valuable employee and to earn the respect of the colleagues and superior. The strategies one needs follow: 1. Develop the right attitudes: Developing the right attitude motivates one to be optimistic and help the person to face career challenges. There is a connection between the attitude one has today and the success one would get tomorrow. 2. Limit the expectations: Try not to have over expectations regarding the job profile, remuneration and other responsibilities. Limiting the expectations can make a difference between success and failure of the career. 3. Make a good first impression: Create a best impression by exhibiting the traits of dedication and accountability in the course of work. 4. Build cordial relationships: It is very necessary to have empathetic and intuitive understanding to build cordial relationships with superiors and other employees. 5. Be a good follower: Initially one should be a good team player by adhering to the rules and regulations and be a good follower. 6. Explore the organizations culture: Each organization will have a unique and exclusive culture for itself. Understanding the culture and people associated with the corporate will help one to function within its parameters. 7. Develop work savvy: Understanding the job profile will help building and mastering the skills and knowledge necessary for that particular job.

Build up organizational savvy: This would help a person to connect himself easily with the organization. By observing what the other employees do, say, and how they act One can acclimate to the new organizations setup that will aid him/her in becoming an important part of their team 9. Exhibit Professionalism: Develop the ability to stay focused and emotionally stable irrespective of the issue or however stressful the situation may turn out to be. By following the above mentioned strategies one can make the process of transition smoother. Apart from this there will be discrepancies between campus and college in other aspects also. One of the aspects is, in the campus the deadline is flexible/extendable and altered whereas, in corporate, deadline is a deadline and one has to strictly follow the time schedule. Another major difference is students get their feed back or their work is evaluated by the teacher or sometimes head of the campus. These feed backs will be frequent; concrete in the form of marks or grades as they follow a structured curriculum that gives direction to students In the corporate work culture, on the other hand, 360 appraisal system is followed. One is expected to be at ones best all the time as they function in an unstructured environment. In campus, most of the time, students face intellectual who are employed are faced with organizational and people challenges. Unlike campus, challenges in the form of exams, assignments etc., but those corporates have limited number of holidays. Time is very precious in the work world. One needs to manage his time efficiently. Nothing promotes success for a fresher as softskills. Unless they follow the necessary etiquette in order to maximize the business potential, by being courteous and thoughtful to people within an organization they cant hope to make a good impression in their work place among their superiors and colleagues. Induction programme given for freshers is the golden opportunity to make a good impression using the social skills. These social skills include listening to instructions from seniors, discussing the issues with the leader, accept criticism, learn to give and take compliments, effective leadership skills that inturn creates a congenial organizational culture. It is a significant phenomenon enabling the employees to sustain in the organization by harmonizing the work life balance. Managing work stress If one wants to survive in the corporate world he should be able to maintain work life balance. In order to prevent a burnout, that is not common in the campus life, one should have a sound psychological and physical health. Apart from examination time, students do not function under any stress, but in the corporate world, employees get stressed out easily due to high expectations and demands from the superior. If you do not perform well, within the frame work of given time, you are considered incapable. This produces lot of stress among employees. Stress can be equally painful and a hindrance to performance for the junior most recruit and the most senior executive in an organization. It is most challenging for a junior, as he is fresh from the campus where he was exposed to a more secure environment. The corporate echoes a different slogan stands up and be counted or be counted out. Eventually, employees will be stressed out easily. Therefore, every organization must understand the need and importance of stress audit practices for their employees especially newcomers, to elevate organizational stress.. Self- development helps one to balance between inner and outer self. When ones self characteristics are congruent with role requirement of the organization where he/ she works, role enactment is more effective, proper and appropriate than when self and role are incongruent. The knowledge gained at campus must help the person to acquire this congruency. It protects employees from stress and helps them to become professionally equipped and refreshed Professional renewal incorporates acquiring skills for effective role enactment. As a student he would have been doing things in a different way, but as a newly appointed employee he should learn what has to be done and how,- to be effective in professional life. At the organizational level, strategies such as well developed recruitment and selection processes incorporating psychometric assessment can ensure better job-person fit. This can be particularly effective in reducing the risk of psychological injury resulting from non-work factors such as personality styles that increase the likelihood of individuals becoming vulnerable to stress under certain circumstances. Those new graduates from campus cling on to their student mindset, attitudes and behaviors till they understand the organizational culture. If they take more time to understand the rights, responsibilities, and credibility of a qualified professional then the transition period becomes more stressful and may damage the early part of the career. They should develop the understanding atleast by the intermediate stage which lasts from the time one accept the job until about the end of the first year. Campus life and corporate life are fundamentally different. The domain expertise and knowledge acquired will be very essential to succeed in ones career but the procedure to be successful in campus is very different from the procedure to be successful at work. If one continues to have same expectations from his employer as he/she had from the professors in the campus, one will be highly disappointed and damage the career success as the culture of education is so different from the organizational culture. Also in college, students receive lot of directions regarding their course as what to choose or how to complete a particular task. These are rarely possible at work as they do not have a structured curriculum. One can learn a lot by involving oneself in hands on activities within the organization. Students follow an agenda in college like attending a class, studying the lessons and attempting an exam. From this environment it is quite difficult to go to an environment of to job with entirely new set of people as they


have different interests and ambitions. It definitely demands a lot of adjustment. In order to build a strong foundation, first-year employees should be aware of the following tips: 1. Try to learn everything about the corporate functioning including the annual reports and the organizational charts. Figure out the working style of the company like what the company does and how they do it. 2. Clarify your doubts by asking questions and also listen a lot. This will also help to learn about the organizational structure, technical issues and the work culture. 3. One can improve his performance by seeking feedback from his managers and colleagues, who can provide suggestion too. This will help the person to function more efficiently as corporate always appreciate hard work. 4. To become a better human, always seek ways to educate oneself by developing both professional and personal skills. Having fun and laughter at workplace will help one to rejuvenate and avoid getting wrapped in workplace politics. As a newcomer one needs to look at his career as a great challenge. From the beginning of the career look forward to learn new things and build the bridge between the technical skills and soft skills; one needs to stay connected to the people and the organization. For a debut, display of accountability, professionalism and credibility helps to face the challenges in the corporate world. Making a successful transition from campus to corporate is the most exciting and phenomenal step in ones life and that should be handled with utmost care. References: 1. www.faculty.business.utsa.edu/bjwilson/docs/transition-to-work.doc 2. www.careerplanning.about.com/cs/firstjob/a/post_grad.htm 3. www.jobweb.com/resources/library/Workplace_Culture/Managing_theTr_303_1. htm 4. www.uwrf.edu/ccs/assets/documents/handouts/first_year_on_job

1 . Business Etiquette & Personal Effectiveness: As expectations regarding good manners differ from person to person and vary according to each situation, no treatise on the rules of etiquette nor any list of faux pas can ever be complete. As the perception of behaviors and actions vary, intercultural competence is essential. However, a lack of knowledge about the customs and expectations of Asian people can make even the best intentioned person seem rude, foolish, or worse. Appointments In many situations, an emphasis is placed on promptness and appropriate attire. Breaking social commitments, such as appointments or even casual plans to meet with friends, can be a serious faux pas. Preventing another person from keeping a commitment, especially with family, is rude as well. Elders Special respect is paid to older people in many circumstances. This can include standing when older people enter a room, always greeting older people before others present (even if they are better known to the speaker), standing when speaking to ones elders and serving older people first at a meal table. Touching the head, shoulders or back of an older person can be considered disrespectful, even if the intent is to comfort or indicate affection. Older people are rarely referred to by first names; they are addressed with such honorifics as Mr. and Mrs. or the appropriate non-English equivalents. Sometimes terms such as "Uncle" or "Auntie" are appropriate for older non-relatives. For example, the young people (in China) will call an older person as "Ye Ye" (grandfather), and "Nai Nai" (grandmother), "A Yi" (aunt), and "Shu Shu" (uncle) as a sign of respect even if that person is not family by blood. In India, elders are given priority over younger people in a range of social settings. For example, it is impolite for a young person to be sitting while an elder is standing, in this case, even if there is a free seat, the young person will offer their seat to the elder in concern. Another example would be if an elder is carrying something of considerable weight, and a young person has their hands free, it is expected of the young person to offer assistance to the elder in concern. As with all other Asian cultures, young people in India address any older unrelated person by the closest plausible relation i.e. a slightly older person of the same generation may be referred to as elder brother, or elder sister in the respective language while an elderly person may be referred to as auntie, uncle, grandpa or grandma as appropriate, again in each respective language. As with many other Asian lingual spheres, Indian languages follow strict honorifics that must be abided by. Chopsticks
Everyone should observe good etiquette when using chopsticks.

In the rituals of a Japanese cremation, the relatives pick the bones out of the ashes with chopsticks, and two relatives may then hold the same piece of bone at the same time. This is the only occasion in which it is acceptable for two people to hold the same item at the same time with chopsticks. At all other times, holding anything with chopsticks by two people at the same time, including passing an item from chopsticks to chopsticks, will remind everyone witnessing this of the funeral of a close relative. Gesturing with chopsticks or using them to skewer food are actions that are seen as rude. Leaving chopsticks standing in a bowl of rice or other food is a faux pas based on the resemblance to sticks of incense in a bowl used to honour the dead ancestors. Etiquette further forbids tapping chopsticks against the side of a bowl, or crossing ones chopsticks with those of someone else. Humility Behaviours associated with humility, status and pride are very important in some Asian societies. Etiquette might demand that a great cook or artist deprecate their own achievement in a way that might be viewed negatively as "fishing for compliments" or false modesty in the West. Situations in some Asian societies allow for displays of wealth or ability that would be uncomfortably ostentatious or in bad taste in Western societies. Luck Certain customs regarding good and bad luck are important to many Asian people. These customs may be regarded as superstitions by many, but they are often tied to religious traditions and are an important part of certain belief systems, even among the well-educated and affluent sectors of society. Shoes Traditionally, shoes are not worn in households in nations such as India, Indonesia, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia, nor in certain holy places elsewhere, such as mosque and many Buddhist or Hindu temples. The typical expectation is that shoes will be removed in the foyer and left neatly with toes pointing outside. Socks or stockings should be very clean and in good condition. In regions where shoes are not worn in houses, these rules also apply to restaurants, except those with Western-style tables and chairs. Furthermore, in Japan, when one buys a new pair of shoes, one wears them for the first time in the morning. It is unlucky to wear them for the first time in the evening or afternoon. Etiquette by Region Specific details which may contradict the aforementioned generalisations are listed in the list here below. Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a Muslim-majority nation. Some points of etiquette in the Middle East are also applicable here. As Bangladesh has cultural ties to India, some points of etiquette listed here under that heading are applicable at times as wellsuch as the prohibition against using the left hand for certain activities. Never give money. It is considered bad form to open gifts in front of the giver. Further information: Customs and etiquette in Chinese dining The Chinese are not keen on physical contact, especially when doing business. The only circumstance in which it may take place is when a host is guiding a guest. Even then contact will only be made by holding a cuff or sleeve. It is considered rude to slap, pat, or put one's arm around the shoulders of another. On the eve of Chinese New Year, it is a faux pas to completely eat a fish at a reunion dinner as there are specific customs surrounding this. It is a faux pas to attend a wedding while in mourning as it is believed to bring bad luck to the marrying couple. It may be considered shocking for a pregnant woman to attend a funeral due to the belief that this endangers her baby. While splitting bills at restaurants as is common among younger people, older adults might consider it a matter of prestige to pay for the bill and will often compete for the honour. Allowing another to pay the bill without some protest may be a faux pas. Many standards of Western etiquette, on the other hand, apply in the former crown colony of Hong Kong.

Greater China

In mainland China, especially when showing respect, when giving cash to someone, it is given to one with both hands and the head slightly bowed. Cash bills are usually held in both hands, and the receiver picks them up. To drop money from the top down into somebody's hands is seen as giving charity and may be considered rude.

Paying respect to elders and obeying teachers are expected among Asian youth, such as shown here in Indonesia. The students quietly listen to their teacher's explanation during their school excursion. Main article: Etiquette in Indonesia

It is important to understand that Indonesia is a vast tropical country of sprawling archipelago with extremely diverse culture. Each of these Indonesian ethnic groups have their own culture, tradition and may speak their own language. Each of them may adhere different religions that have their own rules. These combinations made Indonesia a complex mixture of traditions that may differ from one place to another. Indonesia have a Muslim majority population, and some points of etiquette in the Middle East apply. Following are some key points of Indonesian etiquette:

It is impolite to express resentment, arrogance or hostility when speaking to people outside your immediate family or closest friends. Smiling is considered polite. Avoid staring too much, as it can be considered intrusive. Interacting with somebody you have barely met, especially older people, requires strict etiquette. However interacting with close friends, among peers with similar age, or significant others, might be more relaxed, affectionate and less subject to strict etiquette. Public displays of affection with spouses or partners are regarded as sexual and thus are frowned upon. However public displays of affection towards one's children, parents or family members are approved of. Hierarchical relationships are respected, emphasised and maintained. Respect is usually shown to those with status, power, position, and age People older than you must be respected. Parents, grand parents and teachers must be obeyed. When shaking the hand of elders (such as parents, grandparents or teachers) the younger person is expected to touch the top of the elder's palm with the tip of their nose or forehead to express respect. It is similar to kissing a hand, but only using the tip of the nose or forehead, not lips. Most Indonesians value harmony, so direct confrontation is best avoided. It is important to be considerate of other people's dignity. Shaming or humiliating people in public is considered extremely rude. Saying terima kasih (thank you) after receiving services or favours is polite. Greet Muslims with the Islamic greeting assalamu 'alaikum, and reply with walaikum salam. When greeting or introducing oneself it is polite to smile, shake hands and nod slightly. Gently touch your counterparts extended hands, before finally bringing your hands back to your chest to demonstrate that you welcome them from your heart. The greeted party should then reciprocate this gesture. If it is not practical to shake hands, you can greet people them by putting your hands together in front of your chest while slightly bowing. It is similar to Ajali Mudr. Some conservative Indonesian Muslims might avoid direct touch with the opposite sex including handshake, so performing non-touching salam (anjali) is recommended when greeting opposite sex that are conservative Muslims. Always use your right hand, when shaking hands, offering a gift, handing or receiving something, eating, pointing or generally touching another person. Eat or pass food with your right hand only. Do not point with your index finger, pointing toward someone with an index finger is considered rude use an upward facing palm to gesture the direction, pointing with a thumb is considered more polite. It is impolite to indicate a direction with your head. This is considered aggressive and implies the object or person in question has a very low status. Do not touch the head of an adult, as it is commonly believed that the soul inhabits the head, and the head is therefore sacred. Avoid tilting your head back, putting your hands on your hips or pointing when talking to other people, these gestures are often used to indicate arrogance. Cover your mouth with hand or napkins when yawning or sneezing, other than hygiene or health reasons, opening mouth in such instance are considered coarse and unrefined.

Speaking softly but clearly is recommended, as speaking too loudly is considered rude. Conservative and modest dress sense should be worn especially by women. When visiting a place of worship, the proper dress etiquette for such places is of utmost importance. When entering a mosque, always remove your shoes. Bathing suits and swimwear should only be worn in and around beaches and swimming pools. When not swimming, women should cover their legs, for example with a sarong. To announce your presence, ring a bell or knock at the door while saying assalamu 'alaikum if the host is Muslim, or more commonly permisi. Wait to be allowed to enter the house, and wait to be shown to a seat in a guest room. Wait to be allowed to drink, finishing the whole cup indicates that you wish for more. Do not overstay your welcome. The host will not indicate when the visit has been long enough, since it is considered extremely rude. It is up to the guest to estimate the length of their visit and initiate the farewell. Food is often taken from a shared dish in the middle. In a seated dinner party, you will first be served and it would not be considered rude if you helped yourself after that. Wait to be invited to eat before you start. It is better to sit down while eating, yet in some circumstances eating while standing is acceptable. Depending on the situation some people may use their bare hands to eat. Many Indonesians traditionally eat with their hands. Higher status people may also as well, to indicate solidarity. It is customary to follow host's lead. In restaurants however, if one does not wish to eat with bare hands, it is acceptable to ask for spoon and fork instead. Making sounds while eating is considered impolite. This includes slurping or the sound of cutlery touching the dish. Playing with food it is considered impolite and childish. Offer gifts with the right hand only, or with both hands. Gifts should not be opened when received. Avoid using first names to call a person you are not close or familiar to. If in doubt use Mas (younger male), Pak (older male), Ibu (older female) or Mbak (younger female). It is considered very impolite to snap your fingers to get a waiters' attention. Wave and raise your hand instead. A Javanese custom is not to drink until all food is consumed, signifying self-control and the ability to endure a task to the end. Tipping is customary in Indonesia, yet it is optional. Consult the locals as to the usual rate. Tips apply to anyone who offer a service: toilet attendants, drivers, grocery-store clerks, parking guard. Be generous, but do not exceed too far the usual local accepted rate. A tip of 10% of total bill at small eateries, where the bill does not specify a service charge is adequate. Most all restaurants will include a 10% service charge in the bill, if so you may not give any tip. Hotels and fine restaurants will usually include a service charge, and it is the discretion of the buyer to tip. Tipping at street hawker food stalls is not usual. The general rule among the Javanese is that the truly wealthy are inconspicuous; the wealthier one is or wishes to appear, the more generously one gives discreetly.

Brunei and Malaysia

Southeast Asians are very family-oriented and celebrations are a chance to meet extended kinsmen. In Islamic culture, modesty in dress etiquette is important, such as the tudong (hijab). Brunei and Malaysia have a Muslim majority and some points of etiquette in the Middle East apply. These countries also have a significant Chinese population to whom the points mentioned in regard to etiquette in China may apply. In three nations mentioned above, one should not enter a mosque or Hindu temple without removing ones shoes. Other places of worship such as Taoist or Chinese Buddhist temples and Christian churches allow footwear while others forbid it. Nudity (and toplessness with regard to women) is absolutely prohibited on beaches. Besides offending others, violators risk arrest. Placing or slapping an open palm on the top of a sideways-held fist of the other hand is a rude gesture. Inserting the thumb between the index and middle fingers of a closed fist is another. Regarding the head and feet, the taboos listed below in regard to Thailand are widely observed in these countries as well. Pointing with ones index finger is considered impolite, especially when pointing at people. Instead, a closed fist held sideways (thumb at the top) with the thumb pointing the direction is used.

Many Malaysians traditionally eat with their hands. Higher status people may also as well, to indicate solidarity. It is customary to follow their lead, using only the right hand to eat. In restaurants however, if one does not wish to eat with bare hands, it is acceptable to ask for spoon and fork instead. Addressing strangers in formal situations by their names (even if they have name tags) is rude. Instead, "Mister" and "Ms." are acceptable. It is considered rude to expose your tooth picking to others. Instead, cover your mouth or go to the bathroom. Leaving your mouth open when yawning is discourteous. You must practice the habit of covering your mouth whenever you yawn. When beckoning someone with a hand gesture, the hand is held flat with palm down, and fingers flexed toward the ground. Like the Japanese, to crook one or more fingers in the air is an obscene gesture. Don't point with your feet- this is highly offensive- the sole of the foot is considered the dirtiest part of the body. Women must wear brassiere at all times, otherwise it implies she is very low class or a prostitute. Don't express anger in public. It is the height of self-control to remain calm at all times. Don't point with your index finger- use an upward facing palm, to gesture the direction. It's also impolite to indicate direction with the head - this is considered aggressive and implies the object or person in question has a very low status. Avoid using the left hand for handling goods, exchanging money, eating. For Muslims, and many Asians, the left is the toilet wiping hand and is thus considered unclean. Traditionally, children should not eat until the older guests have eaten. Avoid using first names. If in doubt use Encik or Puan (in Malaysia). Never snap to get a waiters' attention. This is near the height of boorishness. Wave instead. It is very polite to play the game of initially refusing a gift, then receiving it with extreme gratitude, and indulging the gifter on the thought the giver put in it and how unworthy you, the receiver, are of such gifts. Furthermore emphasizing how you may have inconvenienced the giver is appropriate- in a very similar style to other Asian cultures. It is generally acceptable to open gifts immediately as they are received. However, it is considered slightly more polite to unwrap them when the giver has left. no eating until all guests are served no eating sounds such as slurping, gobbling or belching. no playing with food no slouching no elbows on table no cutlery to crockery sounds no spitting bones out. Discretely pass them into napkin. no hawking, coughing, clearing throats or blowing noses at the table no incorrect cutlery use or improper handling no cutting or manipulating food between chews. Cutlery is placed at rest on plate between chews no continuous shoveling of food into mouth no chewing with mouth open no speaking with food in mouth no bending down to meet the cutlery- cutlery brings food to the mouth not vice-versa soup bowls tilted away when finishing the last broth soup is spooned into the soup-spoon away from the diner some will apply a rule of all diners remain seated until all have finished some will apply a rule of silence at the dinner table

Among higher status groups, western table manners are observed meaning:

Tipping is customary in Brunei and Malaysia. Consult the locals as to the usual rate. Tips apply to anyone who offer a service: toilet attendants, drivers, grocery-store clerks. Be generous, but do not exceed too far the usual local accepted rate. A tip of 5-15% of total bill at small eateries, where the bill does not specify a service charge is adequate. Most all restaurants will include a 10% service charge in the bill. Hotels and fine restaurants will usually include a service charge, and it is the discretion of the buyer to tip. Tipping at Mammak (Indian Muslim coffee shops) shops or hawker(food stalls) is not done.

For more details on this topic, see Etiquette in Japan.

Japanese customs and etiquette can be especially complex and demanding. The knowledge that nonJapanese who commit faux pas act from inexperience can fail to offset the negative emotional response some Japanese people feel when their expectations in matters of etiquette are not met.

Business cards should be given and accepted with both hands. It is expected that the cards will immediately be inspected and admired, then placed on the table in front of the receiver for the duration of the meeting. After the meeting, cards should be stored respectfully and should never be placed in a back pocket. You should not write on a business card. If you want to be taken seriously at a business meeting, you must have business cards. When you get them out, they should be in a card holder - not just taken out of your pocket. It is a faux pas to accept a gift when it is first offered and the giver is expected to offer it multiple times (usually times). Gifts are generally not opened in the giver's presence. In greeting or thanking another person, it may be insulting if the person of lower status does not bow appropriately lower than the other person. However, foreigners are rarely expected to bow. The level and duration of the bow depends on status, age and other factors. Pouring soy sauce onto rice is considered unusual. It is less common to pour one's own drink in a social setting. Generally an individual will offer to pour a companion's drink and the companion, in return, will pour the individual's drink. Although if one of you is drinking from a bottle to glass and the other one is drinking just from a glass, it is fine to pour yourself because otherwise you will be in for a long wait. Blowing one's nose in public is a faux pas. Also, the Japanese do not use their handkerchief for hanakuso, which literally translates as "nose shit". For women, not wearing cosmetics or a brassiere may be seen as unprofessional or expressive of disregard for the situation.

empers, expressing outward anger, annoyance or losing one's temper is an especially embarrassing loss of face in Japan.
A smile or laughter from a Japanese person may mean that they are feeling nervous or uncomfortable, and not necessarily happy. "Hai" means "yes" in Japanese, but in a meeting or discussion it is often used to mean "Yes, I have heard you". Don't mistake this for agreement with your point of view. It is very bad manners to be late in Japan. If you have an appointment then aim to be early. It is rude to not send a postcard for Japanese New Year to someone who sent you one. Sending such a postcard to someone who suffered a death in the family during the past year is a faux pas. Tipping is considered rude and is rarely done in Japan except in certain cases, such as tipping your surgeon for an operation, when visiting a high class ryokan, or when dealing with house movers. Consult the locals to be sure what is appropriate. If you cant be bothered to wait for change, it is okay to tell a taxi driver to keep it. Like many Asian people, Koreans observe points of etiquette related to local forms of Buddhism. Shown here is the Buddha statue at Seokguram Grotto, a National Treasure of South Korea.


The number is considered unlucky, so gifts should not be given in multiples of . Giving of an item is considered lucky.[ Blowing one's nose at the table, even if the food is spicy, is mildly offensive. If necessary, take a trip to the toilet or at least be very discreet. In restaurants and bars, pouring one's own drink is a faux pas. Keep an eye on your neighbors' glasses and fill them if they are empty; they will do the same. To avoid over drinking, simply leave the glass near full. When pouring drinks, hold bottle in right hand, lightly place left hand on forearm near elbow. When someone of a significantly higher social position pours you a drink, it is considered proper to turn away from that person when you drink it. Leaving a gratuity is usually not accepted nor expected. When handing an item to someone, it is considered rude to only use a single hand. Under most circumstances, especially when interacting with a stranger or a superior, one uses the right hand supported by the left hand. Even though mentality evolved, women smoking in public is sometimes not accepted, despite being legally allowed.

A couple kissing each other in public is a faux pas, since it is not seen as modest. A guide to Korean funeral etiquette See also Traditional Korean table etiquette.

Pakistan Also: Etiquette in Pakistan Introduction and greeting Hand Shake It is considered rude to introduce yourself to strangers, it is generally advisable to ask some mutual acquaintance to introduce you. Strangers will speak with each other in the "formal" register of Urdu, and using the familiar register will be seen as very rude. People of opposite sex do not shake hands when they greet each other. It is sometimes usual among men to put the left hand on your chest (heart) when shaking hands. In urban Sindh and in other parts of the country, men and women usually lower their head and lift their hand to their forehead to make the "adab" gesture when greeting each other. When being introduced to elders or strangers while seated it is customary to get up as sign of respect. It is advisable to ask a person how they wish to be addressed. Business meeting English is widely spoken and understood in major cities. The local dialect is called Pakistani English. If at all possible, try not to schedule meetings during Ramadan. The workday is shortened, and since Muslims fast, they will not be able to offer you tea, which is a sign of hospitality. Meeting are not scheduled at namaz time. Philippines
Shown here is the gate of Fuerza de Santiago in Manila. The three centuries of Spanish rule left an indelible mark on Filipino customs, art and society.

The centuries of Spanish and American rule, as well as the influence of Japan, China, India, Middle East and the West, have given the Philippines has a unique and particularly formal sense of etiquette concerning social functions, filial piety and public behaviour. Age is an important determinant in social structure and behaviour, dictating the application of honour, precedence, and title. See also: Table manners#Philippines

Unlike in Western culture, where meals are a private affair, Filipinos who are chanced upon dining will invite visitors to eat with them. However, to actually sit down and eat upon the invitation is considered offensive. It is the host's prerogative to be gracious, but it is the guest's burden to avoid being overbearing. When asked to do so, it is polite to say one has already eaten or is still quite full rather than declining bluntly. Hosts will strive to appear gracious while guests strive to appear happily grateful in all situations. Any shortcomings by any party in this regard are seen as bad manners. Hosts will invariably serve a snack for their visitors, who should in turn always accept and consume the food. Declining is considered rude to the host who has taken to offer his own food to the guest. Only in certain circumstances is it socially acceptable to decline, i.e., if the guest is allergic or if it is against religious beliefs. Good posture is expected at the dinner table. A diner singing at table is considered rude in some areas. Waiters usually only come to take the order, refill drinks and bring the bill. Most will not return to ask if anything else is needed but are mostly attentive and can be easily summoned. However, except for formal dining establishments, Filipino waiters are not trained to answer questions. If someone is buying a meal for someone else, the buyer orders first. For the guest to order something expensive on the menu is considered highly rude and speaks of ill breeding. Filipinos use forks, spoons and knives differently than in Western countries, particularly because rice is the country's main staple. The spoon is held in the right hand, and is used to scoop up the food or cut up pieces. The fork in the left hand helps in cutting up and spearing the food. Knives are also sometimes used and always in the Western manner (spoons are left out when eating Continental or American cuisine). Chopsticks are not normally used outside of Chinese, Japanese and Korean restaurants or in the home when eating such food; rules on their use still apply. The last morsel of food is almost always left on the serving platter. If someone wants to eat it, he or she should ask if anybody else wants it; eating it is considered porcine and ill-bred behaviour. While splitting bills at restaurants is common amongst the youth, older adults consider it a matter of prestige to pay for the bill and will often compete for the honour. Moreover, allowing another to pay the bill without some customary protest is a faux pas. Filipinos still hold gentlemanly behaviour in high regard. In waiting rooms or on buses, men traditionally offer their seats to the handicapped, the elderly, the pregnant and women in general,

although this is generally ignored today. To revive this, a Manila railway has designated separate seats for these groups, and a separate coach for women after several indecent incidents. Filipinos place importance on proper introductions. Older people are introduced to younger people first; men are introduced to women first. Introduce a group to an individual first as the individual is not expected to remember all the names at first introduction. Failing to make the proper introductions can also be a faux pas. This is particularly true for children introducing friends or acquaintances to their parents. Always acknowledge the presence of older people in the room by shaking their hands. When greeting a parent, godparent, grandparent or religious authority, Filipinos give obeisance with the important mno gesture; the doer asks for the receiver's hand and brings it to the forehead. Kisses are not involved in such a case nor is there any regard for the cleanliness of the hands. It is unusual and awkward for someone to mno non-relatives or new acquaintances unless there is a relatively deep kinship involved. Youth in Americanised and urban areas have however begun switching to the more age-egalitarian kissing of cheeks as a form of greeting. Seeming reluctant to socialise, especially at an event to which one is invited, could be considered offensive. It is proper to hide one's self from attention than to directly ask for privacy or personal space. Never address older people at the same level; use the words "tito" ("uncle") or "tita" ("auntie") for extra-familial adults but only if they are close or merit some other honorific yet prefer to be addressed as such (usually to avoid sounding old). Mister, Mrs., and Miss will suffice in more formal situations, especially if it is only the first introduction. When speaking to elders, respectful tone and language is absolutely required. Using "opo" (respectful form of "oo", the Filipino word for "yes") and its shortcut "p" wheresoever required. "P", unlike "opo", may be inserted in more places in a sentence (usually Filipino, but sometimes in Englog or Taglish) instead of simply functioning as a reply in the affirmative. Example: "Kakain na po tayo." (We are going to eat now.) Not doing so is also extremely offensive and could be taken as a sign of aggression. The use of these respectful words is sometimes considered to be a fundamental tenet in local etiquette, especially when taught to children, and is also admirable in a child who employs this in conversation with adults. This rule may however not always apply to non-Tagalog speaking regions. Gift-giving is important on many occasions such as weddings and birthdays. Coming to a party empty-handed is considered a faux pas. If a gift is unavailable on short notice, a food item may be brought instead. If invited to a restaurant, do not assume the opportunity to buy the celebrant dinner; bring a gift instead. When attending a wake, avoid wearing loud colours (especially red). Sombre colours such as black, white, greys, muted and earth tones are proper for visiting wakes. Due to the Philippine heat and Tsinoy cultural influence, white as a mourning colour is increasingly preferred by many (although Ilocanos have used it for centuries). Wearing black or white is however slowly waning, and it usually limited to the immediate family. Money, flowers or Mass intention cards are acceptable gifts. If someone needs to walk in between a television and those watching it or between two conversing people, he or she must excuse themselves and lower the head (almost bowing) whilst passing through. When one meets an acquaintance at any form of public transport, he/she must never forget to greet the other. In some instances, one takes the responsibility to pay his companion's fare. Allowing this to happen without protest is considered rude. When one drives or rides one's own vehicle and sees an acquaintance on the street, it is prerogative to stop and offer a ride, especially if the acquaintance's destination is on the way. The one offered is free to decline or accept; either choice is acceptable. Boisterous or loud talking is generally frowned upon; this rule is almost never followed, except by the educated or when someone is in pain or distress. Kissing and displaying affection in public is still generally considered to be in bad taste or scandalous in this somewhat conservative country. It is however as rude to make a scene of it, so one merely ignoresor at best stares downcouples who make public displays of affection. This is becoming increasingly acceptable in urban areas, though this is a minority. When gesturing for someone to come hither, he or she must face the palm to the ground and gesture the fingers back. The Western gesture, where the palm is faced upwards, is considered a gesture for sex.

While the Philippines is predominantly Roman Catholic, there is a significant Muslim minority and therefore many points of Etiquette in the Middle East can apply in Muslim areas. In Singapore, a former crown colony of the United Kingdom, many standards of etiquette in Western societies apply. Thais hold their king in very high regard and any sign of disrespect is a major faux pas. Currency, postage stamps, magazines covers and any other items with the kings image are never tossed to the ground or treated harshly. Even licking the back of a postage stamp is considered disrespectful. Most especially, these items are never trod upon as it is a sign of utmost disrespect to place ones foot above the head of the king. Money or other items dropped accidentally should immediately be picked up and reverently brushed. A small part of Turkey (3%) is in Europe and many points of European etiquette apply. As Turkey has a Muslim majority, points of Etiquette in the Middle East may apply as well. Shoes are often taken off in the foyer (not outside the house unless they are especially dirty). Slippers may be offered. It is a faux pas to refuse slippers unless ones socks are extremely clean and in good condition. As beliefs regarding bad luck from open umbrellas indoors are taken seriously by some people, close umbrellas before bringing them inside. Some people believe that passing a knife directly to a person is bad luck as well. These beliefs are especially common among the elderly. Hosts typically insist that guests keep eating. One neednt eat much, but should at least taste a bit of everything on the table and express appreciation for the taste and quality. Food or any small favor in general will generally be offered more than once and it is polite to decline it the first time with an expression implying effort to avoid causing inconvenience. Avoid hand gestures with which one is unfamiliar, such as making a fist with the thumb placed between the middle and index fingers. Many of these are offensive. Any comment to a person about the appearance of the latter's female relatives or wife might be seen as rude. If invited to dinner, one is expected to bring something (usually dessert). Avoid bringing alcohol unless sure that the host partakes. If the guest brings food or drinks (as usual) it is customary to offer it in the proper context during the visit. Friends might greet each other by shaking hands and touching or kissing one or both of the cheeks. This is inappropriate for business. Blowing one's nose at a table is met with disgust and frowned upon even if one has cold. As sniffing is also considered rude at a table, it is best to clear one's nose at a toilet as often as necessary. These activities are in general regarded distasteful, and are best kept away from social interactions. When sitting legs crossed, it is offensive to point one's hanging foot at someone, especially someone older or of higher status. Similarly, it is in general rude to show the bottom of one's shoes or feet. The entire country practices one minute of silence on November at :05am. It is very interesting to see the most crowded places becoming quiet at once. This silence is observed in the memory of the founder of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal.




Many Asian societies teach children to obey and respect their elders to an extent that is rare in contemporary Western societies. Shown here is a group of children in central Vietnam. When going out to eat with other people, it is prestigious to pay for the meal. It is therefore rude to prevent someone from paying if they have made the offer first. The offer can be made as soon as going to a restaurant is discussed or anytime thereafter. On the other hand, inviting others for a meal, drink or event automatically creates the expectation that the one giving the invitation will pay for the others. Among younger people, the practice of splitting the bill is increasingly common.

Customs and etiquette in Italy

Italy has a cultural code of etiquette, which mainly governs traditions and social behaviour, and is important in the terms of reputation and consideration. Italian etiquette is mainly based on European etiquette, yet has some slight variations. With such regional differences, Italy does not have set customs, and something that could be considered rude in one region may be, in fact, polite in another. However, by generalisation, Italians are well known to strongly emphasize the importance

of family and friends, closeness to their particular church or religion, and attention to dressing-up and being smart - the so-called "bella figura", or the good impression. General etiquette Meeting and socialising

Italians tend to be warm and enthusiastic when meeting people, even for the first time, yet decency and formality is appreciated. When giving a hand shake, Italians look directly in the eyes. Kissing twice on different cheeks is very common in Italy, yet varies by region; in Northern Italy, only friends and relatives are kissed, and men only kiss very close friends or relatives, whilst acquaintances are given a handshake; in Southern Italy, both strangers, friends, relatives, and even people of the same gender usually share a kiss. It is considered rude to call someone by their first name until they specifically say so. It is considered impolite to ask a woman, usually in her adulthood, her age. First impression is very important when one meets a person. The way one expresses oneself is an easy way of giving away their social and cultural sta Giving flowers is a less common form of gift in Italy, yet it is polite to do so, especially if you are invited to the house of someone you know little. Chrysanthemums are symbols of sorrow and death, and are only given in funerals. It is, notably for the more superstitious, considered rude to give yellow flowers, since they symbolise anger and jealousy. Italians pay a lot of attention to their gifts; a good quality gift (good chocolate, high-class wine) will definitely please the host far more. One is expected to open the gift immediately after having received it, and pay attention to it (leaving it in a corner is considered impolite and a sign of disrespect) Wrapping gifts in black is reserved for funerals or sad situations, and it is considered tactless to wrap a gift in that colour for a normal situation. Wrapping gifts in purple is considered a sign of bad luck. Red flowers are only to be given in romantic or wife-to-husband events, and to bring red flowers in a normal celebration is considered over-the-top (red flowers indicate love and secrecy). Invitations should be made via post, and generally formal ones should be handwritten - unless it is a very informal event between close friends or relatives, it is not considered advisable to invite someone via e-mail or similar forms of communication. When one arrives, one should show attention to the host. Sitting down or just getting along with one's things at another's house is considered highly impolite. When invited to a house, even if the host calls it an informal event, stylish, yet casual clothes are appreciated; a simple elegant shirt and trousers/skirt for a woman, and a smart-casual outfit for males. Over-dressing for an informal event is considered vulgar and kitsch. Even though arriving on time is appreciated, exact punctuality is not totally necessary; arriving 5- at most minutes late for an invitation is generally fine, and do not arrive any more than minutes late for a party or a big gathering. Bringing gifts to a formal meal, even of close friends, is highly considered. Wine, chocolates and food are the most appreciated, and flowers are considered too. If flowers are delivered, they must arrive on the exact day of the meal. When one is invited to the house of an acquaintance, one should expect to invite them to your own house or for dinner, yet should usually wait for at least a week or two. It is considered rude, even more so for an acquaintance, to sit down in any seat before one has been invited to do so. The table manners are the Continental ones, in which the knife is in the right hand and the fork is in the left when eating. Unlike in most of Europe, when eating dishes which do not require a knife (pasta, risotto, soup), it is not necessary to eat with a knife as well, and scooping up with a fork, if done in an appropriate manner, is considered equally polite. The host/hostess is the one to lead in the meal - when they sit down, the guest should do so too, and when they get up, so should the invitee.

Donating and receiving gifts


Table etiquette and manners

Dinners are almost always sit down dinners. The guest of honour should respond to the toast. Women, and rarely men, take toasts. Leaving a very small amount of food on one's plate is considered acceptable - large amounts is considered a sign of disrespect. When eating, one should make sure to keep their plate tidy and not make it messy. The guest should ask the host/hostess to help with the cleaning, yet, in politeness, the host/hostess should decline the offer. Unlike in parts of Europe, foods such as chips (fries), cheese, olives and small snacks should still be eaten with one's knife and fork, and not their hands. If the dinner is an informal one, among acquaintances, this small food can be eaten with the hands. There may be some snacks, cheese and olives at the beginning of the dinner, as appetizers: these are eaten with the hands, usually after moving one or two of them on paper napkin (these are usually on the table with the appetizers). One should drink small portions of wine. Red wine is used to accompany meat and foods such as pasta, risotto and soup, white wine for fishes, desserts, fruit, starters, cheeses and snacks. One should never take big helpings at the start; one should take a medium amount and then ask for seconds if necessary. This is also a sign of appreciation. Italians tend to be very fussy regarding clothing, and often dress up formally even for everyday events or necessities. When one goes out, they should, even for a minor thing, dress up reasonably - normal clothes, and for a woman, a little bit of jewelry of make-up are considered to be polite. Dressing up poorly is considered to be vulgar, especially in a public place. If invited to a special event, one should put on their best clothes. Italians tend to follow the latest trends - the more up-to-date one's clothes look to the trendiest fashions, the more highly they are socially regarded. Italians commonly judge people on their clothes - a person wearing business attire is likely to be a businessman, a woman wearing designer clothes is likely to be upper-class, etc. If one wears shabby clothes, even if they are of high social status, most Italians will automatically judge the person to be lower-class, or at least to have poor taste. There is considerable church-dressing etiquette in Italy - bare-backs, chests, knees and shoulders are considered offensive, not to mention unallowed. Men are required not to wear hats, while women can to a greater degree. Even though it is getting more and more outdated, notably in the South, some women still wear headgarments or veils into church. Despite the way an Italian dresses is often used to convey their social status, it does not in all cases even low-class people tend to have a few elegant clothes, and might be the first ones to wear them, thus it does not always allow a person to guess their class.

=what do they wear

Respect In Italy people,children alike should treat others respectfully Humour and jokes

In Italy, jokes and humour are generally appreciated. Rude or offensive humour and jokes during sad occasions such as funerals are considered inappropriate and tactless. Italian humour rarely revolves around use of word double-sense, and this is used only for quick punch lines. Generally Italians tell elaborate jokes centered around weird situations and their solutions. If the occasion is among friends, jokes may be quite gross at the beginning, but then resolve in a funny way. The teller will usually warn foreigners of this. Jokes told by an Italian host may touch sensible topics in Italy, such as politics or mafia. If you are not Italian, your jokes should not be about such topics. Jokes may also be about racism, comparing Italian and foreign people, or about the internal racism problem (north-south).

Business etiquette Socialisation and doing business

Italians tend to do business with the people they are closest to and respect the most, notably Northern Italians, who treat workers who they have not met with slight caution - gaining a boss' trust is essential for a person to advance in their career. Having a friend of a boss introduce them to him/her is advisable, since bosses will trust that the friend will provide him/her with a good worker.

Working in an office, and building a relationship with other employees goes a long way in a person's career - secluding oneself, despite good work, might make his/her chances of promotion less. It is considered reasonable for workers to get to know each other and share information about their lives, families, friends etc. Most Italian workers are intuitive and can see if a person is doing their job properly or not. When applying for a job, Italians judge first appearances very much, thus the impression a person gives is very important. Asking questions and getting to know the business surroundings is considered advisable in advancing a person's career. Italians generally enjoy to speak and express themselves at work - even though e-mails are becoming more popular, expressing one's point by speaking is generally better in creating relationships. In Northern Italy punctuality is very important - arriving late at work is considered bad. Speed is also essential, and Northerners tend to want their work done quickly, well and without delay. In Southern Italy, even though punctuality is still relatively important, arriving slightly late at work is not a problem. Showing oneself to be efficient and quick is good, yet speed is slightly less prioritized than in the North, and people generally take a slightly lighter approach to work. Attendance in Northern Italy is very important - workers should show themselves to be willing to take on any challenges, and to be ever present to work when required. While attendance is also highly regarded in Southern Italy, it is taken slightly more leisurely - work is done in appropriate amounts, and spending time with family, relations, friends and taking days off is not considered poor attendance, unlike in Northern Italy. Northern Italians tend to be sharper and crisper when doing and negotiating business - they will look directly in the eyes, not waste time, and will keep it short. Southern Italians tend to take a slightly lighter approach to negotiation. They will negotiate, yet might spend more time talking, and might also ask questions about other factors of the business. Italians will do business with important people - age is also an important factor, since elderly members of a company are treated with far more respect than younger ones. Haggling over things and ideas is very present in Italy - and it can last very long. Expression and being vibrant while doing business is considered - arguments and shouting can erupt very quickly, and whilst one should not be rude, showing passion for something will make one's reputation better. Using high-pressure tactics in sales is generally discouraged. Politeness, respect and formality are highly regarded in business - being rude and tactless is generally badly considered. Making appointments is necessary, and they should usually be done two, at most three, weeks in advance. Decisions are barely ever reached in meetings - meetings should be times when people discuss a topic, more rather than get to a confirmed decision. Interruption is common, yet one should do it as little as possible. Shouting appropriately to get one's voice heard is very common, and is not considered rude, if done politely and in measure. The skill at several languages, notably English and Italian, yet others, is looked-upon positively. Material made should be printed in both English and Italian. During Ferragosto (mid-August break) several companies and shops close down, as workers leave for the official annual summer holidays - although some, more important businesses, do remain open (notably in the South), several close and only re-open in early September. Discussions and business meetings may be very off-track - agendas are usually made so that some line is observed, yet new issues are usually raised alongside other ones Meetings are usually ways in which bosses get to meet and know their employees better, thus gaining a circle of trust. If one is not fluent in the language, having an interpreter is generally a good idea. Even though, notably in Northern Italy, several Italians do speak English, many still do not, and having an interpreter generally avoids the chance of confusion. E-mails may be used to confirm meetings, yet letters and faxes are preferred.

Punctuality and attendance

Negotiation in business

Etiquette in business and meetings

Outfits and ways of dressing

Dressing well for work is, virtually, obligatory. Even though there may be no written dress-code, wearing anything inappropriate is seen very badly, and may result in one's boss asking the person to present themselves better in the future. Extravagance is frowned upon, and smart, simple business clothes are optimal. Men should wear a black/grey/blue or cold colored jacket, a light-colored shirt, with a tie, long, navy/black/grey trousers and black shoes. Women should wear a similar jacket, knee-length cold-colored skirt or long black trousers. Decently elegant dresses are similarly viewed as being fine. Women and men alike may, and should, wear a few luxuries or accessories - an elegant watch for both sexes, and possibly a necklace, earrings and make-up for females. Dresses should be long-sleeved miniskirts, t-shirts, Bermuda-shorts and similar attire are not generally considered appropriate. Clothes should be simple, cold colors - bright colors or vibrant patterns are less suitable. If one works for a business, they should at least have a business card. These should contain name, address, profession, occupation, position, e-mail and fax address, and phone number. One should generally exchange their business card once they have met a person. Business cards should be written in Italian and English, especially if one works for a multi-national company. One should also include their qualifications and degrees on business cards.

Business cards

Etiquette in Europe is not uniform. Even within the regions of Europe, etiquette may not be uniform: within a single country there may be differences in customs, especially where there are different linguistic groups, as in Switzerland where there are French, German and Italian speakers. Despite this heterogeneity, many points of etiquette have spread through Europe and many features are shared. The ancient Roman Empire is an historical source, and the cosmopolitan royalty and also nobility were effective in spreading etiquette throughout Europe. For example in the Palace of Versailles, where French nobility was concentrated, a complicated etiquette was developed. Language and forms of address It is never acceptable to write an anonymous letter or one that purports to be signed by somebody other than the writer (but does not make that clear). Many languages use different pronouns to denote formality or familiarity when addressing people (the TV distinction). This also applies in common phrases such as "How are you?". The use of an inappropriately familiar form may be seen as derogatory, insulting or even aggressive. Conversely, forms that are inappropriately formal may be seen as impolitely snobbish or distant. The way politeness is expressed varies greatly with language and region. For example, addressing a person with an honorific or title may be expected in some languages, but seen as intrusive or too formal in others. In many parts of Europe, using someone's first name also denotes a certain level of friendship. In social interactions with strangers, the last name and/or more formal mode of address is used, usually until the people involved agree to move to an informal level. But this may not apply among young people, among members of particular groups (e.g. students) or in informal settings. Flowers
Chrysanthemums are only appropriate for funerals.

In some countries, certain flowers (such as chrysanthemums) are given only at funerals . In France, red roses are given when someone is in love. In Finland, the same applies except that school leavers are often given red roses on passing their matriculation examination (abitur). Yellow flowers are inappropriate at weddings in Ukraine and Russia as they are viewed as a sign that the bride or groom are unfaithful to one another . In Victorian Britain, an elaborate system of language of flowers developed. Hats and coats Among many segments of the European population, it is considered rude to wear hats or other head coverings indoors, especially in churches, schools, private homes and respected public institutions. In churches, however, ladies are often exempt from this rule or even obliged to cover their heads in some Catholic churches.

Wearing coats, boots or other outer garments inside someones home is often frowned upon as well. Sitting down to eat at table wearing a hat or coat etc. is even worse. Also one should remove one's hat when showing deference. Removing one's hat is also a form of greeting: the origin of this is that knights were expected to remove their helmets when meeting their king; not to do so would be a sign of mistrust and hostility. Shoes In some European countries you have to wear your shoes indoors, but in others, such as Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany , Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Slovenia and Ukraine it is considered rude not to take your shoes off, unless you are told to keep them on. In the United Kingdom this is almost universally the case with young children with formal functions being an occasional exception. For an adult who is visiting another's home as a guest, shoes are generally kept on after entry, though this is subject to the desire of the home owner. Removal of shoes may been seen as a partial waive of formality that is not appropriate for all occasions. It is usual all over the world to remove shoes when entering someone's home if they are wet or dirty. Money Talking or asking about one's personal wealth, possessions or success in business is widely viewed as vulgar. People will rarely say how much money they make or have in the bank nor will they request such information from someone else. It is impolite to ask colleagues about their salary and in some places of work it is forbidden. Even elsewhere, for example where government employees' salaries are publicly known, it is still considered extremely rude to ask individuals how much they earn. Transport When using escalators in the Netherlands, France, Spain, Russia and the United Kingdom people will keep to the right when standing still, so that those on the left can keep walking. Of course this does not apply to very narrow escalators. In countries where this rule isn't widely known signs are sometimes displayed, for example, in Germany: "rechts stehen, links gehen" "stand on the right, walk on the left". All European countries except Britain, Ireland, Malta, and Cyprus drive on the right. In early times, medieval nobility kept their sword ready to draw with the right hand, so that pedestrians and equestrians would pass one another on the left. However, later, teamsters would drive large wagons with no driver's seats. While keeping the whip on the right hand and the reins on the left, they would sit on the left horse, and drive on the right side of the road, in order to see that the wheels on the left would not collide with oncoming traffic. Nowadays cars drive on the right (with driver's seat at left), and pedestrians walk on the left if there is no footpath. This is included in road safety guidelines as it is easier for pedestrians to see oncoming traffic than traffic approaching from behind. (See Right- and left-hand traffic.) Queuing In the UK and Ireland citizens queue in straight lines. It is rude to attempt to cut in line or to ask to go ahead of someone, and they may decline the request. If leaving the queue, one must be prepared to rejoin it from the back, and holding a space for a large group of friends is frowned upon as it pushes people further back in the queue. Exposure In Europe, what qualifies as indecent exposure includes generally at least the exposure of genitalia or anus. In case of women, exposing nipples is not seen as proper conduct, but this is not always considered criminal, and depends on individual countries' nudity laws. For the issue of breastfeeding babies in public, see Breastfeeding in public. The intentional exposure of bare buttocks towards someone, mooning, is a deliberate insult. However, public nudity may be allowed in some circumstances, which vary by country. On nudist beaches and in the changing rooms of swimming pools in some countries, keeping one's clothes on is frowned upon. Here it is good manners to undress. In saunas, the rules about nudity vary according to the country. Because one uses the sauna naked, one brings at least one towel to sit on. In most saunas, one can also rent towels. Also, a kind of flip-flops are worn in saunas, not directly in the sweating rooms or in the steam rooms, but outside in the area for relaxing. Eating Table manners in Europe vary widely according to region and social context. Placing one's elbows on the table may be considered rude, as is speaking with one's mouth full. Generally the fork is held

in the left hand, using the right to cut food into pieces, as the right hand in earlier times would have held the knife or dagger for cutting meat. Bodily functions Public display of bodily functions such as flatulence, burping, urinating, defecating, picking one's nose, loud snorting, belching are generally considered vulgar and/or disgusting. It is considered impolite not to cover one's mouth while yawning, sneezing or coughing, especially at the table. Opening ones mouth to talk whilst it contains food is also considered vulgar. Spitting in the street is generally frowned upon and can actually be considered a misdemeanour in Britain, though such laws are rarely enforced .

Etiquette in the Middle East

The Middle East contains a multitude of societies with different traditions regarding etiquette. Bedouins like this young man wearing a fez are traditionally renowned for their hospitality.

Many matters of etiquette in the Middle East are connected to Islam as it is written in the Qur'an and how it has been traditionally understood and practiced throughout the centuries. Prescribed Islamic etiquette is referred to as Adab, and described as "refinement, good manners, morals, ethics, decorum, decency, humaneness and righteousness". As such, many points discussed in this article are applicable in other regions of the Islamic world. This holds especially true in Muslim majority countries outside Middle East.
The traditional marketplaces of the Middle East might seem chaotic and intimidating to foreigners who don't comprehend the time-honored etiquette that governs transactions within. Shown here is a Bazaar in Iran.

The Middle East is home to many people who follow faiths besides Islam. Most notable among them are the churches of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Copts and other adherents of Oriental Orthodoxy, Maronites, Melkites and other Catholics of the Eastern Rites as well as the Roman Rite, Zoroastrians, Bah's, and various Jewish denominations. In many cases, however, Muslims and non-Muslims in the Middle East will share characteristics, whether it is the prohibition against pork ordained by both Islamic and Jewish dietary restrictions, a preference for the beverage widely known elsewhere as "Turkish coffee", or knowledge of how to conduct business in a crowded souk without being cheated. It is a place where people with different beliefs often share the same traditions. Points of etiquette Although the Middle East is a large expanse of geography with a variety of customs, noting the following points of etiquette can be useful when dealing with people around the world who have been raised according to the traditions of the Middle East or, in some cases, Muslim societies elsewhere.
Regarding head attire specifically, the etiquette at many Muslim holy sites requires that a headscarf or some other modest head covering be worn. For women this might be a hijab and for men it might be a taqiyah (cap), turban, or keffiyeh. A kippah or other head covering is expected for men in synagogues and other places where Jews pray. Orthodox Christian sites might require the removal of hats by men but will expect women to cover their hair with a kerchief or veil. Public displays of affection between people of the opposite gender, including between married people, are frowned upon everywhere more conservative values hold sway. Public displays of affection include activities as minor as hand-holding. In many cases, people of the same gender holding hands while walking is considered an ordinary display of friendship without romantic connotations. In a related point, many people in the Middle East claim a more modest amount of personal space than that which is usual elsewhere. Accordingly, it can seem rude for an individual to step away when another individual is stepping closer. Special respect is paid to older people in many circumstances. This can include standing when older people enter a room, always greeting older people before others present (even if they are better known to you), standing when speaking to ones elders and serving older people first at a meal table. Hospitality is held in high regard throughout the Middle East. Some hosts take pride in the laborious preparation of what is known in Europe as Turkish coffee, grinding fresh-roasted coffee beans to a fine powder, dissolving sugar and carefully regulating the heat to produce a result that meets exacting standards. In Iran, the "thumbs up" gesture is considered an offensive insult

Displaying the sole of one's foot or touching somebody with one's shoe is often considered rude. This includes sitting with one's feet or foot elevated. In some circumstances, shoes should be removed before entering a living room. Many in the Middle East do not separate professional and personal life. Doing business revolves much more around personal relationships, family ties, trust and honor. There is a tendency to prioritize personal matters above all else. It is therefore crucial that business relationships are built on mutual friendship and trust

Social conduct in Ghana

Republic of Ghana (Social conduct in Ghana) Flag of Ghana

In general, Ghanaians emphasize communal values such as family, respect for the elderly, honoring traditional rulers, and the importance of dignity and proper social conduct. Conduct Individual conduct is seen as having impact on an entire family, social group and community; therefore, everyone is expected to be respectful, dignified and observant in public settings and in most every aspect of life. Greetings When greeting people in a home, it is considered improper if the guest ignores any person present. Guests are expected to acknowledge and greet every person at a social occasion, including children and babies. When shaking hands, it is appropriate for the guest to first greet the person on his or her right-hand side, and work his or her way left. This ensures that the guest's palm makes contact with the palm of the person receiving the handshake - touching the back of the hand instead of the palm is considered insulting or unlucky. Guests are expected to begin by greeting the most elderly person present. The same ritual is expected to be observed upon leaving as well as arriving, and should be carried out until sufficient familiarity has been established, at which point the ritual becomes redundant. When greeting dignitaries, such as village or tribal elders, this ritual is expected to be carried out by all persons present, regardless of age or status. Invitations Asking a person to a social event (e.g. a bar or restaurant) implies that the person offering the invite will be paying for everything. Inviting a person out and then expecting them to pay for their own drinks, etc. is considered extremely rude. When an outsider is invited to visit the elders and/or Chief of the community, the foreign guest(s) are expected to take a gift which usually a bottle of Schnapps or Kasapreko gin, easily available in all shops. It is very unusual for a woman to be seen in the public with unusual dress on. Special occasions Naming ceremonies, puberty initiations, marriage and death are all marked by family ceremonies. Seasonal festivals serve to bring a whole tribe or clan together in spectacular fashion. If attending a funeral, women (including foreigners) must cover their heads with a hat or simple black cloth wound around the head. A man must not have his head covered. The same applies to church-going, weddings, and naming ceremonies. Miscellaneous It is unacceptable for women, particularly young foreign women, to wear clothes of a revealing nature. Female clothing that would be acceptable in the West (shorts, low-cut strapped tops, etc.) is not socially acceptable in Ghanaian society. Similarly, it is unacceptable for foreign men to be shirtless in public, and also unacceptable for Ghanaian men, to a lesser degree. Ghanaian social norms are sometimes difficult to establish, as younger adults are generally much less inhibited about wearing revealing clothing or being shirtless, while older Ghanaian citizens may find such apparel on Ghanaians, and foreigners of any nationality or race, to be insulting. A general rule is to dress conservatively, unless in the company of people of one's own gender or age, with whom one is wellacquainted. Drinking alcohol and smoking in public are serious faux pas among Ghanaians, and should be avoided, both by Ghanaians and foreigners. Public intoxication to any degree is generally viewed with extreme disapproval. Such activities, though, are perfectly acceptable in a local bar ("spot"). When drinking alcohol, it is a common custom among Ghanaians to pour the last few drops on the ground as a libation for the gods. People who decline from drinking alcohol may accept an alcoholic

drink with gratitude, raise it to their lips without drinking, and pour it upon the ground. Raising the glass to the lips signifies gratitude; pouring the drink away is thus a socially acceptable alternative for those who do not drink. This custom predominates in central and northern Ghana, where local populations often contain a higher number of Muslims, more than in the south, and it permits nondrinking Muslim Ghanaians to join social events without offending those present by refusing a drink, and without breaking their religious laws. Taking photographs of people unknown to the photographer must be conducted with the same level of consideration as in one's own country. Most Ghanaians are happy to pose for pictures, as it is considered polite. In public, it is not normal to find people of the opposite sex holding hands. If one should find the same sex holding hands, it signifies only friendship. Social reaction to public displays of affection differs, depending on social class, education, exposure and other factors. Generally speaking, it is viewed as something that should be kept private. Homosexuality is a no-go topic, simply because people just do not know how to react to such, often citing moral and biblical reasons for objection to homosexual relationships. Homosexuality is condemned by Ghanaians. Male hand-holding is sometimes less prevalent in large citi

The First Pillar: Importance Take the time to think Learn to track your time Learn to prioritize Learn to respect your own prioritization The Second Pillar: Focus Learn to focus by learning The Pomodoro Technique Learn to see focused time as the success criteria Learn to work in small iterations with a sustainable pace Learn to handle external interruptions Learn to handle your procrastinations Learn to plan your day The Third Pillar: Value Learn effectiveness by learning Personal Kanban Learn to visualize your workflow Learn to limit work in progress Learn to map your value stream Learn to kaizen Learn heijunka

Learn to enrich the context Learn to Combine Personal Kanban and The Pomodoro Technique Personal effectiveness is a branch of the self-help movement dealing with success, goals, and related concepts. Personal effectiveness integrates some ideas from the power of positive thinking and Positive Psychology but in general it is distinct from the New Thought Movement. A primary differentiating factor is that Personal Effectiveness proponents generally take a more systematic approach including a number of factors beside simple positive thinking. Some proponents take an approach with similarities to business process management techniques. Others may take a holistic spiritual and physical wellness approach. Beginnings Many of the ideas behind the personal effectiveness movement derive from the field of business and management. Such luminaries as Peter Drucker, W. Edwards Deming, and Genichi Taguchi revolutionized business and industry in the mid-20th century by focusing on such concepts as quality, efficiency, and optimization. In particular, Druckers ideas of Management by Objectives as explained in his book 'The Practice of Management' emphasized the importance of clarity of roles, responsibilities, and expectations. They also outlined the framework of SMART goal setting. In the management field, these advancements branched into the Leadership movement (for examples see Ken Blanchard, Jim Collins) and the more technical advancements including lean thinking, and six sigma. Overview Early self-help classics such as Dale Carnegies How to Win Friends and Influence People (first published in 1 36) tended to have a specific focus on success in one particular goal. Although this trend continues, with common specializations in weight loss, health, or spirituality, a few contributors are becoming more interdisciplinary in their scope. As the field matured, authors began to integrate ideas gleaned from their peers, and a more comprehensive approach to personal effectiveness began to emerge. Some key contributors to the field, along with their areas of focus:
Contributor Tony Robbins Marcus Buckingham Wayne Dyer Deepak Chopra Stephen R. Covey Focus health & energy, overcoming fear, persuasion, relationships strengths intention, positive thinking health & medicine, physics, spirituality vision, alignment, prioritization, love, synergy Important Works Personal Power First, Break all the Rules The Power of Intention Quantum Healing, the Third Jesus The Habits of Highly Effective People

Business model The business models of various personal effectiveness gurus typically revolve around traditional publishing, but may also include public speaking tours, corporate bookings and/or media appearances. Recently a new trend has emerged which embraces the open-source paradigm of free content. Noteworthy open-source personal effectiveness content sites include Steve Pavlina and Level grinding. Read also Peter Drucker W. Edwards Deming Genichi Taguchi Dale Carnegie, 1 36, How to Win Friends and Influence People Tony Robbins, 1 87, "Unlimited Power" Marcus Buckingham, 1 , "First, Break all the Rules" Wayne Dyer, 200 , "The Power of Intention" Deepak Chopra, "Quantum Healing, the Third Jesus" Stephen R. Covey, 1 8 , "The Habits of Highly Effective People"
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Personal_effectiveness&oldid=55 6 7 8 "

15. Management & Supervisory Skills:

Basic functions Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading/directing, controlling/monitoring and motivation.

Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action. Organizing: (Implementation)pattern of relationships among workers, making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Staffing: Job analysis, recruitment and hiring for appropriate jobs. Leading/directing: Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it. Controlling/monitoring: Checking progress against plans. Motivation: Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation does not take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top-level management). Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information Decisional: roles that require decision-making Political: used to build a power base and establish connections Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations. Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate Diagnostic: ability to visualize most appropriate response to a situation Technical: Expertise in one's particular functional area.[ The mission of the business is the most obvious purposewhich may be, for example, to make soap. The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity that is the goal of a certain task. The business's policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers' decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. The business's strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action it takes and resources it uses to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought

Basic roles

Management skills

Formation of the business policy

to allocate and use the factors of production to the business's advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.

Implementation of policies and strategies

All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. A plan of action must be devised for each department. Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. Top-level managers should carry out regular progress assessments. The business requires team spirit and a good environment. The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the business's mission. The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business's future environment. A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.

All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in the execution of any departmental policy.

Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight-step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, don't let up, and make change stick. They give mid and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. Mid and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business's strategies.

Policies and strategies in the planning process

Levels of management Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles. Top-level managers The top consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They set a tone at the top and develop strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public. The board of directors is typically primarily composed of non-executives which owe a fiduciary duty to shareholders and are not closely involved in the day-to-day activities of the organization, although this varies depending on the type (e.g., public versus private), size and culture of the organization. These directors are theoretically liable for breaches of that duty and typically insured under directors and officers liability insurance. Fortune 5 directors are estimated to spend . hours per week on board duties, and median compensation was $212, in 2010. The board sets corporate strategy, makes major decisions such as major acquisitions, and hires, evaluates, and fires the top-level manager (Chief Executive Officer or CEO) and the CEO typically hires other positions. However, board involvement in the hiring of other positions such as the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) has increased. In 2013, a survey of over CEOs and directors of public and private companies found that the top weaknesses of CEOs were "mentoring skills" and "board engagement", and 10% of companies never evaluated the CEO. The board may also have certain employees (e.g., internal auditors) report to them or directly hire independent contractors; for example, the board (through the audit committee) typically selects the auditor. Helpful skills of top management vary by the type of organization but typically include a broad understanding competition, world economies, and politics. In addition, the CEO is responsible for executing and determining (within the board's framework) the broad policies of the organization. Executive management accomplishes the day-to-day details, including: instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules; appointment of middle level executives such as

department managers; coordination of departments; media and governmental relations; and shareholder communication. Middle-level managers Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Their functions include:

Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems. Define and monitor group-level performance indicators. Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups. Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior.

First-level managers Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide:

Basic supervision Motivation Career planning Performance feedback

16. Environmental resource management

16. Environmental resource management is "a purposeful activity with the goal to maintain and improve the state of an environmental resource affected by human activities". It is not, as the phrase suggests, the management of the environment as such, but rather the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Environmental resources management aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for equitable use by future human generations, and also, maintain ecosystem integrity as an end in itself by taking into consideration ethical, economic, and scientific (ecological) variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify the factors that have a stake in the conflicts that may rise between meeting the needs and protecting the resources.

Environmental resource management is an issue of increasing concern as reflected in its prevalence in seminal texts influencing global socio-political frameworks such as the Brundtland Commission's Our Common Future which brought to the fore the integrated nature of environment and international development and the Worldwatch Institute's annual State of the World (book series) reports.

Improved agricultural practices such as these terraces in northwest Iowa can serve to preserve soil and improve water quality Environmental resource management can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. Environmental resource management involves the management of all components of the biophysical environment, both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the biophysical environment. The essential aspects of environmental resource management are ethical, economical, social and technological which provide for formulation of principles and help in making decisions. The scientific and technical nature makes environmental resource management profession to operate in a humanistic and rational mode in the world.

Environmental resource management strategies are intrinsically driven by conceptions of humannature relationships. Ethical aspects involve the cultural and social issues relating to the environment, and dealing with changes to it. "All human activities take place in the context of certain types of relationships between society and the bio-physical world (the rest of nature)", and so, there is a great significance in understanding the ethical values of different groups around the world. Broadly speaking, two schools of thought exist in environmental ethics: Anthropocentrism and Ecocentrism each influencing a broad spectrum of environmental resource management styles along a continuum. These styles perceive "different evidence, imperatives, and problems, and prescribe different solutions, strategies, technologies, roles for economic sectors, culture, governments, and ethics, etc". Anthropocentrism Main article: Anthropocentrism Anthropocentrism, "an inclination to evaluate reality exclusively in terms of human values", is an ethic reflected in the major interpretations of Western religions and the dominant economic paradigms of the industrialised world. Anthropocentrism supports an understanding of nature as existing solely for the benefit of man and as a commodity to be used for the good of humanity and improved human quality of life. Anthropocentric environmental resource management is therefore not the conservation of the environment solely for the environment's sake, but rather the conservation of the environment, and ecosystem structure, for human sake. Ecocentrism Main article: Ecocentrism Ecocentrists believe in the intrinsic value of nature while maintaining an understanding that "human beings must use and even exploit nature to survive and live".[ It is this fine ethical line that ecocentrists navigate between "fair use and downright abuse".[ At an extreme end of the ethical scale, ecocentrism includes philosophies such as ecofeminism and deep ecology which evolved as a reaction to the dominant anthropocentric paradigms. "In its current form, it is an attempt to synthesize many old and some new philosophical attitudes about the relationship between nature and human activity, with particular emphasis on ethical, social, and spiritual aspects that have been downplayed in the dominant economic worldview".

A water harvesting system collects rainwater from the Rock of Gibraltar into pipes which lead to tanks excavated inside the rock. The economy functions within, and is dependent upon goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. The role of the environment is recognized in both classical economics and neoclassical economics theories, yet the environment held a spot on the back-burner of economic policies from 1 50 due to emphasis from policy makers on economic growth. With the prevalence of environmental problems, many economists embraced the notion that "if environmental sustainability must coexist for economic sustainability, then the overall system must be one which permits the identification of an equilibrium between the environment and the economy". As such, economic policy makers began to incorporate the functions of the natural environment or natural capital particularly as a sink for wastes and for the provision of raw materials and amenities. Debate continues among economists as to how to account for natural capital, specifically whether resources can be replaced through the use of knowledge and technology, or whether the economy is a closed system that cannot be replenished and is finite. Economic models influence environmental resource management in that management policies reflect beliefs about natural capital scarcity if natural capital is believed to be infinite and easily substituted, environmental management would be irrelevant to the economy. For example, economic paradigms based on neoclassical models of closed economic systems are primarily concerned with resource scarcity, and thus prescribe legalizing the environment as an economic externality for an environmental resource management strategy. This approach has often been termed 'Command-and-control'. Colby has identified trends in the development of economic paradigms, among them, a shift towards more ecological economics since the 1 0s.

A diagram showing the juvenile fish bypass system which allows young salmon and steelhead to safely pass the Rocky Reach Hydro Project in Washington

Fencing separates big game from vehicles along the Quebec Autoroute in Canada. "The pairing of significant uncertainty about the behaviour and response of ecological systems with urgent calls for near-term action constitutes a difficult reality, and a common lament" for many environmental resource managers. Scientific analysis of the environment deals with several dimensions of ecological uncertainty. These include: structural uncertainty resulting from the misidentification, or lack of information pertaining to the relationships between ecological variables; parameter uncertainty referring to "uncertainty associated with parameter values that are not known precisely but can be assessed and reported in terms of the likelihoodof experiencing a defined range of outcomes"; and stochastic uncertainty stemming from chance or unrelated factors. Adaptive management is considered a useful framework through which to deal with situations of high levels of uncertainty though it is not without its detractors. A common scientific concept and impetus behind environmental resource management is carrying capacity. Simply put, carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of organisms a particular resource can sustain. The concept of carrying capacity, whilst understood by many cultures over history, has its roots in Malthusian theory. An example is visible in the EU Water Framework Directive. However, "it is argued that Western scientific knowledge ... is often insufficient to deal with the full complexity of the interplay of variables in environmental resource management. These concerns have been recently addressed by a shift in environmental resource management approaches to incorporate different knowledge systems including traditional knowledge, reflected in approaches such as adaptive co-management community-based natural resource management and transitions management. among others.

Main article: Sustainability and environmental management Sustainability and environmental resource management involves managing economic, social, and ecological systems within and external to an organizational entity in order for it to sustain itself and the system it exists within. In context, sustainability implies that rather than competing for endless growth on a finite planet, development will improve quality of life without necessarily having to consume more resources. In order to sustainably manage the state of environmental resources affected by human activities organizational change is needed to instill sustainability values within an organization, in order to portray these values outwardly from all levels and to reinforce them in its surrounding stakeholder community. The end result should be a symbiotic relationship between the sustaining organization and community, along with the environment. There are many drivers that compel environmental resource management to take sustainability issues into account. Today's economic paradigms do not protect the natural environment, yet they deepen human dependency on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecologically, massive environmental degradation and climate change threaten the stability of ecological systems that humanity depends on. Socially, an increasing gap between rich and poor and the global North-South divide denies many access to basic human needs, rights, and education, leading to further environmental destruction. The planet's unstable condition is caused by many anthropogenic sources. As an exceptionally powerful contributing factor to social and environmental change, the modern organisation has the potential to apply environmental resource management with sustainability principals to achieve highly affective outcomes. To achieve sustainable development with environmental resource management an organisation should coincide with sustainability principals, such as: social and environmental accountability, long-term planning; a strong, shared vision; a holistic focus; devolved and consensus decision making; broad stakeholder engagement and justice; transparency measures; trust; and flexibility, to name a few.

Current paradigm shifts

In order to adjust to today's environment of quick social and ecological changes some organizations have begun to experiment with various new tools and concepts Those which are more traditional and stick to hierarchal decision making are having difficulty dealing with the demand for lateral decision making that supports affective participation. Whether it be a matter of ethics or just strategic advantage organizations are internalizing sustainability principles Examples of some of the world's largest and most profitable corporations who are shifting to sustainable environmental resource management are: Ford, Toyota, BMW, Honda, Shell, Du Pont, Swiss Re, Hewlett-Packard, and

Unilever. An extensive study by the Boston Consulting Group reaching 1,5 business leaders from diverse regions, job positions, expertise in sustainability, industries, and sizes of organizations, revealed the many benefits of sustainable practice as well as its viability. It is important to note that though sustainability of environmental resource management has improved, corporate sustainability, for one, has yet to reach the majority of global companies operating in the markets. The three major barriers to preventing organizations to shift towards sustainable practice with environmental resource management are: not understanding what sustainability is; having difficulty modeling an economically viable case for the switch; and having a flawed execution plan, or a lack thereof. Therefore the most important part of shifting an organization to adopt sustainability in environmental resource management would be to create a shared vision and understanding of what sustainability is for that particular organization, and to clarify the business case.

Public sector
A conservation project in North Carolina involving the search for bog turtles was conducted by United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission and its volunteers The public sector comprises the general government sector plus all public corporations including the central bank. In environmental resource management the public sector is responsible for administering natural resource management and implementing environmental protection legislation. The traditional role of the public sector in environmental resource management is to provide professional judgement through skilled technicians on behalf of the public. With the increase of intractable environmental problems, the public sector has been led to examine alternative paradigms for managing environmental resources This has resulted in the public sector working collaboratively with other sectors (including other governments, private and civil) to encourage sustainable natural resource management behaviours.

Private sector
The private sector comprises private corporations and non-profit institutions serving households. The private sector's traditional role in environmental resource management is that of the recovers of natural resources. Such private sector recovery groups include mining (minerals and petroleum), forestry and fishery organisations. Environmental resource management undertaken by the private sectors varies dependent upon the resource type, that being renewable or non-renewable and private and common resources (also see Tragedy of the Commons). Environmental managers from the private sector also need skills to manage collaboration within a dynamic social and political environment.

Civil society
Civil society comprises associations in which societies voluntarily organise themselves into and which represent a wide range of interests and ties. These can include community-based organisations, indigenous peoples' organisations and non-government organisations (NGO). Functioning through strong public pressure, civil society can exercise their legal rights against the implementation of resource management plans, particularly land management plans. The aim of civil society in environmental resource management is to be included in the decision-making process by means of public participation. Public participation can be an effective strategy to invoke a sense of social responsibility of natural resources.

Types of skill development

Listening skills Influence Skills Responding to conflict Customer service Assertiveness skills Negotiation Facilitation Report writing; business and technical writing Public speaking, effective presentation speaking skills

Business communication training: It is possible for developing the skills needed for business networking and enhance their communication skills. It helps in communicating the apt message to the appropriate person at the most right time and to effectively manage and develop assertive skills. It enable candidates to manage competently, maintain long-term relationships, form new alliances, meet new people and establish contact with them and develop relationship with them Corporate communications training: It is useful for corporate events and help in dealing with other corporate participants, besides being helpful for routine dealings. Executive communication training: It focus on how to conduct meetings by helping to develop facilitation skills and through exceptional executive communication coaching, candidates learn how to open, manage, as well as end meetings. Crisis communication training: It enables candidates to communicate while dealing with the various difficulties and emergencies that can arise including conflict management and change management. With training, candidates will be fit to come up with beneficial solutions for solving the crisis or conflict or make change/transition easier. Public speaking training: It is very useful to make presentations, for developing their verbal communication skills so that it is possible to express their facts publicly with great confidence. This is useful for even sales and marketing personnel who need to express things in the best possible way.

Effective Training
In order to maximize the benefits of instruction, some key points such as management training, identifying your audience, and up to date use of technology can be used to fully profit the managers as well as the members of the organization. Training for management must be done on a regular basis gives an advantage to any institution since they can provide ongoing feedback to personnel in order to ensure the good function of the different components of an association. Leadership instruction as well as communication skills education are some examples of management training. Identifying your audience, in this case, the format of the organization such as family business, small business, event, charity group, or simply meetings enables you to apply the required techniques get the most out of your training and preparation sessions. As technology grows, its important to keep your preparation up-to-date by using all means necessary. The Internet, computers as well as E-learning provide new insights to effective training and can be adapted to fit different needs for different companies. It's also very important to get constant feedback from the members as well as having assessment strategies to ensure that the training that is being provided is useful and productive to not waste time and resources.

Learn To Live & Live To Learn

Executive Health & Wellness Program

Understand Your Body

Fundamentals Of Structure Body Needs

Staying Well & Active Improving Immunity & Strength

Basics Of Diet Food For Health

Stress Affects Effectiveness

Live Healthy
Dependency Management Basics Of Nutrition We all need energy to grow, stay alive, keep warm and be active. Energy is provided by the carbohydrate, protein and fat in the food and drinks we consume. It is also provided by alcohol. Different food and drinks provide different amounts of energy. The amount of energy (measured in units of calories or kilojoules) a food contains per gram is known as its energy density.

Foods with fewer calories per gram such as fruits, vegetables, soups, lean protein- and carbohydrate-rich foods have a relatively low energy density. Foods with a high fat and/or low water content such as chocolate, fried snacks, nuts and crackers have a relatively higher energy density. Having a diet with a low energy density overall can help to control calorie intake while helping to avoid feeling too hungry. For more information about energy density and feeding yourself fuller click here. Carbohydrate is the most important source of energy for the body because it is the main fuel for both your muscles and brain. Sources of carbohydrate include starchy foods, e.g. bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, pulses and breakfast cereals. Different people need different amounts of energy. This depends on your basal metabolic rate (BMR), which measures the amount of energy you use to maintain the basic functions of the body, as well as your level of activity. Some activities use more energy than the others. The more active you are, the more energy your body uses up. Being physically active can increase your muscle mass and this means you will actually be using more energy all the time, even when you are resting. Energy balance Your weight depends on the balance between how much energy you consume from food and drinks, and how much energy you use up by being active. When you eat or drink more energy than you use up, you put on weight; if you consume less energy from your diet than you expend, you lose weight; but if you eat and drink the same amount of energy as you use up, you are in energy balance and your weight remains the same. In the UK, the majority of adults are either overweight or obese, which means that many of us are consuming more energy than we need from food and drinks and need to try to reduce our energy intake in order to move towards a healthy weight. What are nutrients? Food provides a range of different nutrients. Some nutrients provide energy, while others are essential for growth and maintenance of the body. Carbohydrate, protein and fat are macronutrients that we need to eat in relatively large amounts in the diet as they provide our bodies with energy and also the building blocks for growth and maintenance of a healthy body. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients which are only needed in small amounts, but are essential to keep us healthy. There are also some food components that are not strictly nutrients but are important for health, such as water and fibre. Most people should be able to get all the nutrients they need by eating a healthy, varied diet, although there are a few exceptions. For example, women thinking about having a baby are recommended to take a folic acid supplement to prevent deformities such as spina bifida developing in their baby. Carry on reading to find out the main functions and food sources of the nutrients in our diet.

Macronutrients Nutrient Carbohydrate Function Sources All starchy foods, such as bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, cereals and cereal products; fruit and starchy vegetables, milk and milk products, sugar, preserves and confectionery.

Provides energy for the body.

Protein Provides amino acids (building blocks) that we cant make ourselves. Needed for growth, development and repair of the body. Also provides energy. Provides essential fatty acids (that we cant make ourselves but need in small amounts), as well as energy. It also carries important fat-soluble vitamins and is important for their absorption. Meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods, cereal products such as bread, soya products, nuts and pulses.


Fats and oils, meat and meat products, dairy foods, oily fish, nuts, cakes,biscuits, pastry products, crisps and other snacks, chocolate.

Micronutrients Water-soluble vitamins Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored in our bodies and are readily excreted. Theseinclude vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin C. Nutrient Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Function Sources Whole grains, nuts, meat (especially pork), fruit and vegetables and fortified breakfast cereals.

Helps to release energy from carbohydrate. It is also involved in the nervous system and the heart.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Milk and milk products, Helps to release energy from food and is eggs, rice, fortified needed for the normal structure and breakfast cereals, liver, functioning of the skin and body linings. pulses, mushrooms and green vegetables

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Helps to release energy from food, and is Meat, wheat and maize important for the normal structure of the flour, eggs, milk and milk skin and body linings. It also keeps the products and yeast. digestive and nervous systems healthy.

Vitamin B6 Helps to release energy from protein, and helps to form haemoglobin in blood (the substance which carries oxygen around our bodies). Poultry, white fish, milk and milk products, eggs, whole grains, soya beans, peanuts and some vegetables.

Vitamin B12

Meat, fish, milk and milk Important for making red blood cells and products, cheese, eggs, to keep the nervous system healthy. Also yeast extract and fortified helps to release energy from food. breakfast cereals.

Folate/ Folic acid

Needed for the formation of healthy red blood cells. It is also needed for the nervous system and specifically for the development of the nervous system in unborn babies. Acts as an antioxidant and is important for the normal structure and functioning of body tissues. It also helps the body to absorb iron from non-meat sources such as vegetables, as well as assisting the healing process.

Green leafy vegetables, wholegrain products, liver, nuts, peas, oranges, bananas and fortified breakfast cereals. Fruit especially citrus fruits and berries; green vegetables, peppers and tomatoes. Also found in potatoes (especially new potatoes).

Vitamin C

Fat-soluble vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the gut with the help of fat. These include vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K. Nutrient Vitamin A Function Important for the normal structure and functioning of the skin and body linings, e.g. in lungs. It also helps with vision in dim light as well as keeping the immune system healthy. Needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from foods, to keep bones healthy. Recent research also suggests that vitamin D enhances immune function and improves muscle strength. Sources Liver, whole milk, cheese, butter, spreads, carrots, dark green leafy vegtables and orange-coloured fruits, e.g. mangoes and apricots. Oily fish, eggs, meat, fortified cereals and spreads. Most is obtained through the action of sunlight on our skin during the summer months.

Vitamin D

Vitamin E Acts as an antioxidant and protects the Vegetable and seed oils and cells in our bodies against damage. spreads, nuts and seeds.

Vitamin K

Needed for the normal clotting of Green leafy vegetables, meat blood and is required for normal bone and dairy products. structure.

Minerals There are certain minerals we need to keep our bodies healthy. These include calcium, fluoride, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc. Nutrient Calcium Important for the formation and maintenance of strong bones and teeth, as well as the functioning of nerves and muscles. It is also involved in blood clotting. Milk and milk products, cheese and other dairy products, some green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, fortified soya bean products, canned fish (if containing bones that are soft and can be consumed) and bread. Function Sources


Helps with the formation of strong teeth and protects against dental decay (caries).

Fluoridated water, tea, fish and toothpaste.

Iodine Needed to make thyroid hormones, which control many metabolic processes, and keep our bodies healthy. Required for making red blood cells, which transport oxygen around the body. Also needed for normal metabolism and the functioning of enzymes that remove unwanted substances from the body. Milk and milk products, sea fish, shellfish, seaweed and iodinefortified foods, such as some salt.


Liver, red meat, pulses, nuts, eggs, dried fruits, poultry, fish, whole grains and dark green leafy vegetables.

Magnesium Helps to release energy from food and to maintain water balance. It is also important for the formation of strong muscles, bones and teeth. Found widely in foods, particularly green leafy vegetables, nuts, bread, fish, meat, milk and milk products.


Needed for the formation of healthy Red meat, milk and milk products,

bones and teeth, and for the release of energy from food.

fish, poultry, bread, rice and oats.

Potassium Controls water balance in our bodies and helps maintain a healthy blood pressure. It is also involved in the normal functioning of nerves. Sodium Helps regulate the water content in the body and the balance of electrolytes. Also involved in the use of energy, as well as the functioning of the central nervous system. Very small amounts in raw foods. Often added during processing, preparation, preservation and serving. Currently intakes of sodium are too high and so although some sodium is essential, most people need to reduce their intake substantially. Fruit (especially bananas), vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish, milk and milk products, nuts, seeds and pulses.


An important component of the bodys defence system that protects our bodies against damage. It is also Brazil nuts, bread, fish, meat and necessary for the use of iodine in eggs. thyroid hormone production, as well as the normal functioning of the reproductive system. Helps to release energy from food. Needed for cell division, growth Meat, milk and milk products, and tissue repair. Also necessary for cheese, eggs, shellfish, wholegrain normal reproductive development, cereals, nuts and pulses. the immune system and healing of wounds.


Non-nutrients Water and fibre are important;text-decoration:underline !important;color:#0000FF !important">nonnutrients, but are important substances that we need to include in our diets to stay healthy. Non-nutrient Water Not a nutrient in the classical sense, but is essential for our bodies to work properly, for example for regulating body temperature, cushioning the joints, controlling blood pressure and keeping the body in balance. All drinks including water, milk, and juices. We actually get roughly 20% of our water requirements from the food we eat. Water-rich foods include fruit and vegetables, soups, stews and sauces. Function Sources


Not a nutrient, but improves the movement of the gut contents and helps prevent constipation. Some

Cereals, beans, pulses, lentils, fruit and vegetables.

types of fibre also help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels.

Healthy hydration guide Water is essential for life and it is very important to get the right amount of fluid to be healthy. However there are lots of mixed messages about how much, and what to drink and this can be confusing. Do I really need to drink 8 glasses of water on top of all my other drinks? Is it true that tea and coffee do not count towards my fluid intake? The answer to both these questions is no! The BNF healthy hydration guide can help you choose a healthy balance of drinks.

This page also looks at why fluid is important, the effects of different drinks on health, and the needs of particular groups of people in the population. The information here is generally for healthy adults. Why do you need water? Your body is nearly two-thirds water and so it is really important that you consume enough fluid to stay hydrated and healthy. If you dont get enough fluid you may feel tired, get headaches and not perform at your best. Fluid includes not only water from the tap or in a bottle, but also other drinks that give you water such as tea, coffee, milk, fruit juices and soft drinks. You also get water from the food you eat on average food provides about 20% of your total fluid intake. How much do you need? The amount of fluid you need depends on many things including the weather, how much physical activity you do and your age, but generally you should drink about 1.2 litres (6-8 glasses) of fluid per day (on top of the water provided by food you eat). You can get water from nearly all fluid that you drink, apart from stronger alcoholic drinks such as wine and spirits. Can you drink too much? Yes drinking excessive amounts of fluid is not helpful and, in rare cases can be dangerous. If you are passing urine frequently and your urine is very pale, you may be

drinking more than you need. Does it matter which drinks you choose? When you choose your drinks it is important to be aware that although they all provide water and some also contain essential vitamins and minerals, they may also provide energy (calories). These calories contribute to your daily calorie intake in the same way as those from the foods you eat. It is also important to look after your teeth, and consuming sugarcontaining drinks too often can potentially harm your teeth, especially if you dont brush teeth regularly with fluoride toothpaste. It is also important to be aware that some drinks are acidic (e.g. fruit juice and carbonated drinks) and that this may cause dental erosion (damage to tooth enamel) if they are consumed frequently. For children, the use of a straw lessens the contact with teeth. Drinking water is a great choice because it delivers fluid without adding calories or potentially damaging teeth. Drinking tea or coffee also delivers water, and even though these drinks can contain caffeine, in moderate amounts caffeine doesnt affect hydration. Pregnant women areadvised to consume no more than 200mg or caffeine a day. This is equivalent to about two mugs of instant coffee or about two and a half mugs of tea. Other hot drinks such as herbal teas, hot chocolates and malted drinks can provide water. If these drinks are sweetened with sugar it increases their calorie content. The sugar also increases their potential to damage teeth if good dental hygiene is not practiced. Milk contains lots of essential nutrients such as protein, B vitamins and calcium, as well as being a source of water. However, it can also contain saturated fat and so its a good idea for adults and older children to choose semi-skimmed (less than 2% fat), 1% or skimmed milks. For children between the ages of one and two years, the recommended milk is whole milk. From two years onwards semiskimmed milk can be introduced gradually. Skimmed and 1% milks are not suitable for children until they are at least five years old because they have less vitamin A and are lower in calories. Fruit juices and smoothies give you water plus some vitamins, minerals and natural plant substances from the fruit. Smoothies may also contain pureed fruit, which adds fibre. These drinks can also count towards your 5-A-DAY. One 150ml glass of fruit juice counts as one portion, and smoothies that contain at least 150ml of fruit juice and 80g crushed/pulped fruit count as two portions. Because fruit juices and smoothies contain sugar (and therefore calories) and can be acidic, they can potentially harm teeth. Soft drinks are a source of water but, if they contain sugar, this adds to your calorie intake and the sugar can potentially damage teeth if the drinks are consumed frequently. Its a good idea to limit consumption of standard sugar-containing soft drinks and to choose lower sugar or sugar-free (low calorie) versions instead. Alcoholic drinks contain water, but drinking alcohol increases the amount of water you lose as urine, so drinks with a high alcohol content, such as wines and spirits, are not the best choice to stay hydrated. Normal strength beers, lagers and ciders also cause an increased loss of water as urine. However, because they are more dilute, drinking them causes a net gain in water overall. It is still important to keep alcohol consumption within the recommended limits (no more than 2-3 units per day for women and no more than 3-4 units per day for men). Food - it may be a surprise to learn that we get on average 20% of our total water intake from food! Some foods have a high water content, especially fruits and vegetables, which are usually more than 80% water. Foods like soups and stews, which have lots of water added during preparation, also are a source of water. So food can provide extra water, on top of the 6-8 glasses of fluid you should drink a day. How can I tell if I am getting enough water? Your body has special mechanisms to make sure you stay hydrated. Feeling thirsty is your bodys way of telling you that you need to drink more. However, the easiest way to spot that you might not be getting enough water is if your urine is a dark

yellow colour during the day. If you are getting enough water your urine should be a pale straw colour. So if it is darker than this or if you are urinating infrequently or passing very small amounts of urine, then you probably need to drink some more fluid. You also need to drink more if it is hot, or if your temperature is high due to physical activity or illness. Do some people need more water than others? Needs vary from one person to the next, but there are certain population groups who may need to pay particular attention to hydration. Children need plenty of fluid, despite their smaller body size, and they should be encouraged to drink regularly, especially if they are very active. Infants get their fluids from breast or formula milk, but will start to get some fluids from food when they move onto solids. Older adults may have a weaker sense of thirst and, if necessary, should be helped and encouraged to drink regularly. Physical activity also increases the amount of fluid you need to consume in order to replace the water you lose as sweat. Water is fine for rehydrating after the kind of moderate exercise that most active people choose, and the majority of active people do not need special sports drinks to stay hydrated. However, for high intensity exercise that lasts more than 40 minutes or so, drinks with a little added sugar and sodium (salt), such as sports drinks or home made versions, may be better at replacing the extra fluid lost as sweat.

Obesity Control Dieting [edit] Main article: Dieting Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie.[2] A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between three of the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 24 kilogram (4.48.8 lb) weight loss in all studies.[2] At two years these three methods resulted in similar weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized.[12] Very low calorie diets provide 200800 kcal/day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and carbohydrates. They subject the body to starvation and produce an average weekly weight loss of 1.52.5 kilograms (3.35.5 lb). These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.[2] Exercise [edit] See also: Physical exercise With use, muscles consume energy derived from both fat and glycogen. Due to the large size of leg muscles, walking, running, and cycling are the most effective means of exercise to reduce body fat.[13] Exercise affects macronutrient balance. During moderate exercise, equivalent to a brisk walk, there is a shift to greater use of fat as a fuel.[14][15] To maintain health the American Heart Association recommends a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a week.[15] A meta-analysis of 43 randomized controlled trials by the Cochrane Collaboration found that exercising alone led to limited weight loss. In combination with diet, however, it resulted in a 1 kilogram weight loss over dieting alone. A 1.5 kilogram (3.3 lb) loss was observed with a greater degree of exercise.[16] Even though exercise as carried out in the general population has only modest effects, a dose response curve is found, and very intense exercise can lead to substantial weight loss. During 20 weeks of basic military training with no dietary restriction, obese military recruits lost 12.5 kg (27.6 lb).[17] High levels of physical activity seem to be necessary to maintain weight loss.[18] A pedometer appears useful for motivation. Over an average of 18-weeks of use physical activity increased by 27% resulting in a 0.38 decreased in BMI.[19]

Signs that encourage the use of stairs as well as community campaigns have been shown to be effective in increasing exercise in a population.[20] The city of Bogota, Colombia for example blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads every Sunday and on holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise. These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases, including obesity.[21] Weight loss programs [edit] Weight loss programs often promote lifestyle changes and diet modification. This may involve eating smaller meals, cutting down on certain types of food, and making a conscious effort to exercise more. These programs also enable people to connect with a group of others who are attempting to lose weight, in the hopes that participants will form mutually motivating and encouraging relationships.[22] A number of popular programs exist, including Weight Watchers, Overeaters Anonymous, and Jenny Craig. These appear to provide modest weight loss (2.9 kg, 6.4 lb) over dieting on one's own (0.2 kg, 0.4 lb) over a two year period.[23] Internet-based programs appear to be ineffective.[24] The Chinese government has introduced a number of "fat farms" where obese children go for reinforced exercise, and has passed a law which requires students to exercise or play sports for an hour a day at school (see Obesity in China).[25][26] In a structured setting, 67% of people who lost greater than 10% of their body mass maintained or continued to lose weight one year later.[27] An average maintained weight loss of more than 3 kg (6.6 lb) or 3% of total body mass could be sustained for five years.[28] In addition to the popular mainstream programs mentioned above, there are a large number of diet products and programs available on the internet. These diet programs may be web based programs, or programs that are downloaded by the dieter. Many of these programs have very large followings and have been available for many years. Due to the nature of these programs it is difficult to determine how many people are actively following the system, or how effective the program is. In many cases these programs are authored by sports or nutrition experts. There are also many social websites that offer weight loss programs. These may be in the form of a free forum or a paid membership. One popular source is the social network Google Plus. On Google Plus, there are many circles that one can join related to weight loss, each with hundreds or even thousands of members. It is of no surprise that people in our age would turn to technology and search for diet solutions on their computers, laptops and smart phones. Medication [edit] Main article: Anti-obesity medication

Orlistat (Xenical) the most commonly used medication to treat obesity andsibutramine (Meridia) a recently withdrawn medication due to cardiovascular side effects Two anti-obesity medications orlistat (Xenical) and lorcaserin (Belviq) are currently approved by the FDA for long term use.[29][30][31]Orlistat reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. Rimonabant (Acomplia), another drug, had been withdrawn from the market. It worked via a specific blockade of the endocannabinoid system. It has been developed from the knowledge that cannabissmokers often experience hunger, which is often referred to as "the munchies". It had been approved in Europe for the treatment of obesity but has not received approval in the United States or Canada due to safety concerns.[32][33] European Medicines Agency in October 2008 recommended the suspension of the sale of rimonabant as the risk seem to be greater than the benefits.[34] Sibutramine(Meridia), which acts in the brain to inhibit deactivation of the neurotransmitters, thereby decreasing appetite was withdrawn from the UK market in January

2010 and United States and Canadian markets in October 2010 due to cardiovascular concerns.[31][35][36] Lorcaserin results in an average 3.1 kg weight loss (3% of body mass) greater than placebo over a year.[37] Side effects may includeserotonin syndrome.[29] Weight loss with these drugs is modest. Over the longer term, average weight loss on orlistat is 2.9 kg (6.4 lb), sibutramine is 4.2 kg (9.3 lb) and rimonabant is 4.7 kg (10.4 lb). Orlistat and rimonabant lead to a reduced incidence of diabetes, and all three drugs have some effect on cholesterol. However, there is little information on how these drugs affect the longer-term complications or outcomes of obesity.[7] In 2010 it was found that sibutramine increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in people with a history of cardiovascular disease.[38][39] There are a number of less commonly used medications. Some are only approved for short term use, others are used off-label, and still others are used illegally. Most are appetite suppressants that act on one or more neurotransmitters.[40] Phendimetrazine (Bontril), diethylpropion (Tenuate), and phentermine (Adipex-P) are approved by the FDA for short term use, while bupropion (Wellbutrin), topiramate (Topamax), and zonisamide (Zonegran) are sometimes used off-label.[30] Recombinant human leptin is very effective in those with obesity due to congenital complete leptin deficiency via decreasing energy intake and possibly increases energy expenditure. This condition is, however, rare and this treatment is not effective for inducing weight loss in the majority of people with obesity. It is being investigated to determine whether or not it helps with weight loss maintenance.[41] The usefulness of certain drugs depends upon the comorbidities present. Metformin (Glucophage) is preferred in overweight diabetics, as it may lead to mild weight loss in comparison to sulfonylureas or insulin.[42] The thiazolidinediones, on the other hand, may cause weight gain, but decrease central obesity.[43] Diabetics also achieve modest weight loss with fluoxetine (Prozac), orlistat and sibutramine over 1257 weeks. Preliminary evidence has however found higher number of cardiovascular events in people taking sibutramine verses control (11.4% vs. 10.0%).[44] The longterm health benefits of these treatments remain unclear.[45] Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn from the market in 1997,[30] while ephedrine (found in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine m hung made from the Ephedra sinica) was removed from the market in 2004.[46] Dexamphetamines are not approved by the FDA for the treatment of obesity[47] due to concerns regarding addiction and abuse potential.[30] The use of these drugs is not recommended due to potential side effects.[48] However, people do occasionally use these drugs illegally.[49] Surgery [edit] Main article: Bariatric surgery Bariatric surgery ("weight loss surgery") is the use of surgical intervention in the treatment of obesity. As every operation may have complications, surgery is only recommended for severely obese people (BMI > 40) who have failed to lose weight following dietary modification and pharmacological treatment. Weight loss surgery relies on various principles: the two most common approaches are reducing the volume of the stomach (e.g. by adjustable gastric banding and vertical banded gastroplasty), which produces an earlier sense of satiation, and reducing the length of bowel that comes into contact with food (gastric bypass surgery), which directly reduces absorption. Band surgery is reversible, while bowel shortening operations are not. Some procedures can be performed laparoscopically. Complications from weight loss surgery are frequent.[50] Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality. One study found a weight loss of between 14% and 25% (depending on the type of procedure performed) at 10 years, and a 29% reduction in all cause mortality when compared to standard weight loss measures.[8] A marked decrease in the risk of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer has also been found after bariatric surgery.[51][52] Marked weight loss occurs during the first few months after surgery, and the loss is sustained in the long term. In one study there was an unexplained increase in deaths from accidents and suicide, but this did not outweigh the benefit in terms of disease prevention.[52] When the two main techniques are compared, gastric bypass procedures are found to lead to 30% more weight loss than banding procedures one year after surgery.[53] Ileojejunal bypass, in which the digestive tract is rerouted to bypass the small intestine, was an experimental surgery designed as a remedy for morbid obesity.

The effects of liposuction on obesity are less well determined. Some small studies show benefits[54] while others show none.[55] A treatment involving the placement of an intragastric balloon via gastroscopy has shown promise. One type of balloon led to a weight loss of 5.7 BMI units over 6 months or 14.7 kg (32.4 lb). Regaining lost weight is common after removal, however, and 4.2% of people were intolerant of the device.[56] Clinical protocols [edit] Much of the Western world has created clinical practice guidelines in an attempt to address rising rates of obesity. Australia,[57] Canada,[1] the European Union,[58] and the United States[59] have all published statements since 2004. In a clinical practice guideline by the American College of Physicians, the following five recommendations are made:[59] 1. People with a BMI of over 30 should be counseled on diet, exercise and other relevant behavioral interventions, and set a realistic goal for weight loss. 2. If these goals are not achieved, pharmacotherapy can be offered. The person needs to be informed of the possibility of side-effects and the unavailability of long-term safety and efficacy data. 3. Drug therapy may consist of sibutramine, orlistat, phentermine, diethylpropion, fluoxetine, and bupropion. For more severe cases of obesity, stronger drugs such asamphetamine and methamphetamine may be used on a selective basis. Evidence is not sufficient to recommend sertraline, topiramate, or zonisamide. 4. In people with a BMI over 40 who fail to achieve their weight loss goals (with or without medication) and who develop obesity-related complications, referral for bariatric surgery may be indicated. The person needs to be aware of the potential complications. 5. Those requiring bariatric surgery should be referred to high-volume referral centers, as the evidence suggests that surgeons who frequently perform these procedures have fewer complications. A clinical practice guideline by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concluded that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine behavioral counseling to promote a healthy diet in unselected people in primary care settings, but that intensive behavioral dietary counseling is recommended in those with hyperlipidemia and other known risk factors for cardiovascular and diet-related chronic disease. Intensive counseling can be delivered by primary care clinicians or by referral to other specialists, such as nutritionists or dietitians.[60][61] Canada developed and published evidence-based practice guidelines in 2006. The guidelines attempt to address the prevention and management of obesity at both the individual and population levels in both children and adults.[1] The European Union published clinical practice guidelines in 2008 in an effort to address the rising rates of obesity in Europe.[58]Australia came out with practice guidelines in 2004. Stress In Life 50 Simple Ways To Reduce Stress at Home and at Work
1. Breathe, when you feel tense, take 10 slow, deep breaths in through your nose, out through your mouth. 2. Touch, hug someone, hold hands, stroke a pet, make non-sexual physical contact with people, brush your hair. 3. Communicate, be honest with your Self and others. Ask for what you want. Express your true feelings when they occur. 4. Drink at least eight, 8 oz. glasses of good water a day. This flushes toxins out of our body. 5. See the humor in life. Laugh at your self and life. Have fun and "play" at life. 6. Meditation 15 minutes a day. Take time to relax, sit, breathe deeply, quiet your mind. Record In-sights and dreams in a journal. 7. Be Human. Let up on yourself. Forgive your self and others. Slow down and enjoy being alive. 8. Communicate with friends. Spend time with each other. Share the good stuff. 9. Hug three people each day. Relax and enjoy the feeling of 10. Quit worrying about the Future. Concentrate on what you can do NOW. 11. Make a TO DO list of your agreements for each month. Schedule both play time and free time, and do both activities. 12. Write it down. Make notes to yourself. Make a list. Write special dates down on your calendar. Put it on tape.

13. Say "NO" Allow yourself to say "NO" to some requests. Don't over commit yourself. Put yourself first; say YES to you. 14. Clean it up Recycle old junk and papers. Clean your physical and mental house of old garbage. 15. Wear comfortable, clean clothes, that make you feel good about yourself. 16. Avoid doing anything to excess, even having fun. 18. Express and receive love as often as possible to yourself and others. 19. You always have choices in life. Re-Order your priorities. If you are not happy, choose some- thing new. 20. Express your anger to the person involved the moment it's experienced. 21. Be honest with yourself con- cerning your fears. Ask for more information or assistance. 22. Crying is nature's way of releasing toxins from the body, releasing stress, or expressing joy. 23. Change is constant. You can choose to change your choice anytime you want to do so. 24. Trust your Self, and value your needs and choices. Follow your own intuition. 25. Live in the moment. Stop fanta- sizing about "What If ". Choose from what IS available, Now. 26. Feel good about yourself and your choices in life. Value what you Believe in. Walk your Talk. 27. Forgive yourself and others. Withholding Love does not nur- ture relationships. 28. When you do not love yourself first, you can not be satisfied by loving and doing for others. 29. Make a commitment to expand your Spiritual, Mental, Emotional, and Physical well-being. 30. Your most valuable and limited resource is your time. Value it, so others will. 31. Obtain a written job description from your boss. Make any changes needed to keep your agreements. 32. Take pride in your work. You only get One First Impression! 33. Be responsible for your work. Do your best with every opportunity. 34. Only do your job. Do not get conned into permanently assuming another person's job responsibilities. 35. Do not play office politics. Be open and above board in all your relationships. Honor your Integrity. 36. Do not listen to, encourage, or spread gossip. It damages your credibility and others. 37. Talk with your co-workers about how to work together to solve problems. 38. Don't be a "fix it " person for people's problems. 39. When you have a problem, go to the person who can solve that specific problem. Ask questions. 40. Ask questions. When you are not sure, or don't know, get information before taking action. 41. Contribute Become a solution provider for problems, not just a problem discoverer. 42. Leave work. When you go home, Go Home ! Work can be a part of your life, not your whole life. 43. Put your family, career, and Self in perspective; know which is most important and nourish it. 44. Value your emotions. Feel your feelings. Allow yourself to express them appropriately as they occur. 45. Express your anger directly with clarity. Indirect or covert anger only prolongs distress and distrust. 46. When asked, always tell the whole truth to yourself and to others. 47. Respect your own ideas, and have respect for other people's feelings, ideas, and choices. 48. Exercise, walk, stretch, move about. Staying physically fit keeps you mentally fit, emotionally calm, and at peace. 49. Eat healthy foods and chew well. Don't eat just because you are bored, unhappy, or angry. 50. Experience and express joy at being alive, at having choices, and at the opportunity to explore loving relationships.

Personal Life Professional Life Stress in the workplace is common and is caused by many different factors and issues, including excessive hours, conflicts with others and feelings of isolation. Many problems may never be fully resolved. The amount of stress a person experiences is often determined by whether or not they can accept that some things in life will simply never be sorted out to their satisfaction. For example, a person may feel stressed by the way they are treated by their employer or by the behaviour of a work colleague. Sometimes this stress can be resolved by dealing with the particular behaviour. In many organisations there are processes that can be followed to deal with workplace problems like harassment, victimisation, unfair treatment etc. In many cases, the problem can be resolved if the behaviour is changed. However, some problems will never be fully resolved and may have to be accepted. For example, if someone you think is poorly qualified is given a job you felt entitled to, you may continue to feel stressed unless you are able to let go of that grievance and move on.

Root Causes Five common roots of stress 1. Financial worries may sound common to you especially when dollar strength is depreciating. Every month, you think of whether you can cover your electric, internet, phone, and appliance bills. Alternatively, perhaps you are worried your mortgage and car loans are giving you some burden. On the other hand, you might be spending excessively more than what you are earning, thus financial debts arise. In numerous surveys, financial trouble is the number one root of stress. Most people who are in trouble are those engaging in more than one mortgage or those unemployed. A loss of job can also be one thing that's stressing you out because it means absence of money to cover all daily expenses and another hassle ofapplying for another job. Few businesspersons also end up stressed out when their firm is losing money or in bankruptcy due to it. Some elderly also think that their pensions or retirement funds do not suffice their needs while college-goers are pressured about their unpaid loans. 2. Work is also another common root of stress. Job responsibilities can get you loaded and you start feeling 24 hours isn't enough to get things done. It's pressuring to meet the expectations of our boss. When we fail them, we get stressed. Our work goal is always to maintain job efficiency for possibilities of incentives andpromotions. Corporate politics and competition are always around at work. At school, students describe schoolwork are as stressful as it is at work. It's pressuring to be beating deadlines for projects and assignments. 3. Family also contributes stress to many individuals. Relationship troubles like arguments, divorce, misunderstanding, and dissimilarities at your own backyard can lead to stress. If one lives in a roof where bad talks are endless and parental arguments occur often, stress is heightened. Because family means a lot to many, any problem at home causes us to worry. Losing a loved one, getting pregnant early, or maybe relocating from one place to another can all lead to family issues. A family issue is a bad vibe causing you stress. 4. Personal concerns are also among the roots of causes. Everyone has personal expectations, goals, needs, and wants. What to do and what not usually preoccupies you on a daily. Many find it hard to be able to spend so much time with the kids when they're too occupied at work. Maintaining cleanliness at home, driving your kids to school, staying in good condition, and cooking for the family at night are your personal concerns that might lead to stress when not observed. When time seems lacking, many find it hard to manage. A few others are stressed out of personal concerns because they have legal issues or bad mannerisms. Some are undertaking the transition of their personal life like puberty, becoming a single mom or dad, or enrolling back for school, which can all be the roots of stress. 5. Death takes the fifth spot as one of the causes of stress. Losing a loved one is the most tragic there is to experience. Death is feared, whether sudden or expected, and it can cause us to be worried, depressed, and severely stressed. Some people might hard to accept the death of a family member, co-worker, or a friend. That state can lead to stress. Many people can grieve shortly but there a few who can't get over it for years. Financial worries, work pressures, family problems, personal concerns, and death occurrences are the common roots of stress. Because we have different levels of lifestyles and outlooks in life, the roots of stress can vary. Managing Stress Fighting Fit Fighting fit: Why you need to be in top shape to be a leader
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People are surprised I lead a team of over 700 people and find time to stay in shape. For me, one isnt possible without the other. And my advice to you is to take your physical wellbeing seriously if you want to have impact over the long haul. I believed for a long time that my impact at work was simply the product of the quantity of time by the quality of how I used it. Quantity just means hours spent. Quality means what I spend those hours doing, that is, how effectively I use my time. Ive never met a successful person who doesnt work hard and use their time effectively. And for you that means: work hard and smart, and youll have the basic ingredients for success. But it turns out for me that this basic equation doesnt work for the long haul. There are two other ingredients for me: physical and mental condition. If my physical condition is great I am fighting fit then Im alert, less stressed, positive, less prone to illness, confident,balanced, and slower to burn out. Being mentally in top shape is critical too, particularly making sure I find meaning in what Im doing, and getting the balance right between family and work time (a topic for another time). So, these days Id argue that my impact at work is something like: quantity times quality times physical condition times mental condition (with some constants that I dont yet understand). In this post, Im going to tell you why you should stay fighting fit too. This is an entirely non-technical post from a primarily technical person. Take it with a grain of salt, and Top 10 Tips for being Fighting Fit Let me just cut to the chase, and tell you the top ten things that you can use to be fighting fit: 1. Dont eat wheat. Better still, dont eat grains 2. Avoid high sugar foods. If it has more than 10g of sugar per 100g of product, dont eat it 3. Drink lots of water. Aim for at least 96oz or 3 litres per day 4. Get a decent nights sleep. It feels to me like 8+ hours is the sweet spot 5. Have a big breakfast 6. Have a small dinner 7. Work the big muscles with resistance training three times per week 8. Stretch 9. Do cardiovascular exercise 10. Ignore the above nine items for just one day each week (and be perfect the other six) Thats in priority order. The top six are all about nourishment, the next three are about fitness, and the last one is a rule that governs how to apply the others. To be fighting fit, its 70% nutrition and 30% exercise. Ive worked incredibly hard at exercise and weighed 15 pounds more than I do today. These days, Im pretty much at my high school weight, stronger than Ive ever been, and the difference is nutrition (and perhaps more focus on strength or resistance training). Nutrition Do you want to be 15 pounds lighter? Follow rule #1 and youll be well on your way. Dont eatgrains because theyre full of carbohydrates, and that causes insulin to spike, and the body to enthusiastically store carbohydrates as body fat. Same with high sugar foods like sodas. Instead, eat more protein, and healthy fats. Im big on egg whites, nuts, avocado, meats, and so on. Try a salad for lunch, with plenty of chicken, turkey, or tuna. Fats dont make you fat. Fats are just an intense source of energy, and you need to avoid eating too much. Eat nuts, avocado, egg yolks, and other healthy fats in moderation. Carbohydrates are the bad news problem. Drink lots of water to keep yourself hydrated, and your metabolism running efficiently. Everything I read says drinking lots of water is a good idea. I eat a massive breakfast, and try and go easy at dinner (though I struggle to do that effectively). The rationale is that in the morning, I need energy to get through the day. In the evening, Im going to bed, so theres no sense in consuming a ton of calories. Try and tilt your plan in that direction. If thats all too hard, follow rule#1: dont eat wheat. Youll get somewhere, trust me. Exercise Exercising is my passion. I hit the gym four or five days a week, run a couple of times per week, do yoga once a week, and add in some exercise at home (like mountain biking, boxing, jump rope, or agility work) on the weekends. It just plain makes me feel great, lowers my stress, and gives me space and time to think about ideas and problems that are important in life and work.

How do I fit all that in? Pretty simply, really: I just make it my number one priority. When I was at Microsoft, my motto was Im not canceling the gym for anyone except Bill Gates. And I stuck to it and still do. My rationale is that the company needs me to be effective for the long haul, and this is what makes me effective. Im happy to be at work any time Im not in the gym. Ive learnt that to be fighting fit, you need to do more strength training and less cardiovascular exercise. The nice thing about strength training is you burn some calories while youre in the gym, and then a lot more afterwards: your body is busy repairing and growing the muscles youve worked. Most cardio burns more per minute in the gym than strength training while youre doing it, but then the burn stops afterwards. Focus on your big muscles: leg and butt, chest, core, and muscles that help you maintain a reasonable posture (given you likely sit around a lot in front of computers). Working those muscles burns more calories than the ones you see in the mirror (you can skip the biceps). Get a personal trainer, ask them to put together a strength training routine, and do it 2 or 3 times per week. The results will amaze you. It turns out that exercising hard requires maintenance. Maintenance for me is stretching, and I use yoga as the key way to do that. Yoga is seriously hard work: it requires core strength, balance, and flexibility. Im not good at it, but its helping me be flexible and loose, and that helps me stay fighting fit. I like cardio, I love going for a run (thats something Ive been doing regularly since 1995). I also love riding my bike. So, I get out and do some. But strength training is the key: if you dont have much time, skip the cardio and go do some strength training. Cheating I try hard to be good for six days in every seven. I have no trouble doing that with exercise. But with food its harder. One day a week, I let loose. I do whatever I want, and that gives me willpower for the rest of the week. This is really important for you: cheat every day and you will get nowhere. If you want to be fighting fit, be disciplined six days out of seven. Final Thoughts Personal training is a great investment. Id recommend to you that you get a personal trainer: it makes strength training safe and challenging, and helps you learn about how to make yourself fighting fit. Getting some nutritional advice from a nutritionist is a great idea too; diets are the worst thing in the world, its far smarter to eat to a plan and enjoy the results. So thats my Fighting Fit plan to make you an effective leader for the long haul. Remember the basics: dont eat wheat, avoid high sugar foods, get in some strength training 2 or 3 times per week, and cheat once per week. You will be a fighting fit machine in no time (and I look forward to hearing about your results). Please dont blindly copy my plan. Please talk to your doctor, fitness professional, or nutritionist. And remember that I am a computer scientist, so you should Read My Disclaimer. An Afterword of Thanks My trainer is David Macchi in the eBay gym. Daves awesome: hes taught me hundreds of exercises, and got me working on muscles that help posture and keep me balanced. Hes also good on the nutrition tips, and pushes me that little bit harder than Id push myself. Weve also partnered together on programs to help get our technology team at eBay more active, and help charity at the same time. Im working hard to spread the fighting fit message. Cheat day, and focusing harder on nutrition, is a strategy I learnt by participating in a 12 week challenge with the I Choose Awesome guys in Inverloch, Australia. Great guys, and I owe them a bunch of thanks for helping me explore more about being fighting fit. They also taught me some sayings: Nothing tastes as good as lean feels and Pain is just weakness leaving the body. You might need those sayings.

Busting Stress- Professor Cooper's top 10 stress-busting techniques: Be active: If you have a stress-related problem, physical activity can get you in the right state of mind to be able to identify the causes of your stress and find a solution. To deal with stress effectively, you need to feel robust and you need to feel strong mentally. Exercise does that, says Cooper.

Exercise wont make your stress disappear, but it will reduce some of the emotional intensity that youre feeling, clearing your thoughts and enabling you to deal with your problems more calmly. Take control: Theres a solution to any problem. If you remain passive, thinking, I cant do anything about my problem, your stress will get worse, says Professor Cooper. That feeling of loss of control is one of the main causes of stress and lack of wellbeing. The act of taking control is in itself empowering, and it's a crucial part of finding a solution that satisfies you and not someone else. Read tips about how to manage your time. Connect with people: A problem shared is a problem halved. A good support network of colleagues, friends and family can ease your work troubles and help you see things in a different way. If you dont connect with people, you wont have support to turn to when you need help, says Professor Cooper. The activities we do with friends help us relax and we often have a good laugh with them, which is an excellent stress reliever. Talking things through with a friend will also help you find solutions to your problems, says Professor Cooper. Have some me time: The UK workforce works the longest hours in Europe. The extra hours in the workplace mean that people arent spending enough time doing things that they really enjoy. We all need to take some time for socialising, relaxation or exercise, says Professor Cooper. He recommends setting aside a couple of nights a week for some quality "me time" away from work. "By earmarking those two days, it means you wont be tempted to work overtime on those da ys," he says. Challenge yourself: Setting yourself goals and challenges, whether at work or outside, such as learning a new language or a new sport, helps to build confidence. That in turn will help you deal with stress. By constantly challenging yourself youre being proactive and taking charge of your life, says Professor Cooper. By continuing to learn, you become more emotionally resilient as a person. It arms you with knowledge and makes you want to do things rather than be passive, such as watching TV all the time. Avoid unhealthy habits: Dont rely on alcohol, smoking and caffeine as your ways of coping. Men more than women are likely to do this. We call this avoidance behaviour, says Professor Cooper. Women are better at seeking support from their social circle. Over the long term, these crutches wont solve your problems. Theyll just create new ones. Its like putting your head in the sand, says Professor Cooper. It might provide temporary relief but it wont make the problems disappear. You need to tackle the cause of your stress. Do volunteer work: Cooper says evidence shows that people who help others, through activities such as volunteering or community work, become more resilient. Helping people who are often in situations worse than yours will help you put your problems into perspective, says Professor Cooper. The more you give, the more resilient and happy you feel. On a more basic level, do someone a favour every day. It can be something as small as helping someone to cross the road or going on a coffee run for colleagues. Favours cost nothing to do, and youll feel better. Work smarter, not harder: Good time management means quality work rather than quantity. Our long-hours culture is a well-known cause of workplace illness. You have to get a work-life balance that suits you, says Professor Cooper. Working smarter means prioritising your work, concentrating on the tasks that will make a real difference to your work. Leave the least important tasks to last, says Cooper. Accept that your intray will always be full. Dont expect it to be empty at the end of the day. Be positive: Look for the positives in life, and things for which you're grateful. Write down three things at the end of every day which went well or for which you're grateful. People dont always appreciate what they have, says Professor Cooper. Try to be glass half full instead of glass half empty, he says. This requires a shift in perspective for those who are more naturally pessimistic. It can be done, he says. By making a conscious effort you can train yourself to be more positive about life. Problems are often a question of perspective. If you change your perspective, you may see your situation from a more positive point of view.

Accept the things you can't change: Changing a difficult situation isn't always possible. If this proves to be the case, recognise and accept things as they are and concentrate on everything that you do have control over. If your company is going under and is making redundancies, theres nothing you can do about it, says Professor Cooper. Theres no point fighting it. In such a situation, you need to focus on the things that you can control, such as looking for a new job. Managing Your Mind The Mental Fitness Guide by Gillian Butler and Tony Hope Oxford University Press, 2007 Review by Mary Hrovat Mar 4th 2008 (Volume 12, Issue 10) The word "managing" in the title of this book is well chosen. The book is all about what you can do to manage your mental and emotional life effectively. The book doesn't try to explain in depth how the mind works or go into psychological theories (e.g., for why past events influence current behavior), but rather to provide concrete steps for analyzing and improving the way you live your life. Reading the book without following its advice would be like reading the instructions for operating your digital video recorder without actually pushing any buttons: expect results only if you actively engage the ideas and suggestions the authors present. The authors, both mental health clinicians, seem to be guided by the assumption that you'll be happiest if you treat yourself and others compassionately and fairly, and if you focus on changing yourself rather than others, and beyond that it's up to you to set your priorities (e.g., better communication with your spouse, promotion at work, or learning effectively, either class material or a new hobby). The book gently and clearly describes the tools you can use to reach your goals. The authors generally avoid jargon, and base their suggestions on the latest research about what is helpful. In most cases they're not dogmatic; they recommend that their readers select the techniques that seem most useful to them, and to check their progress and try other approaches as needed. (The exception is the material on breaking a bad habit, where a certain amount of rigor is needed.) Much of the information may seem like little more than common sense. The book is still useful, however, because for one thing, applied common sense is not all that common, and for another, some of the advice--e.g., about effective study habits and how to take notes and review material--is widely needed but probably not as widely known as it could be. The book contains seven sections. The first two provide a foundation for any project you'd like to undertake to improve your life, describing the basic skills and attitudes necessary for change. The remaining five sections each deal with a particular set of situations or challenges (relationships, anxiety and depression, traumatic experiences, physical well-being, and enhancing memory and learning). Probably the best way to approach the book is to read the first two sections and then refer to the other sections in greater or lesser detail depending on your interests. However, the sections are nicely cross-referenced, so if you turn directly to a topic that grabs you, you will be referred to related material. The book is structured for browsing and selective reading; each section and even each chapter is fairly self-contained, with a chapter summaries to capture the key points. Points to remember and steps to follow are frequently repeated in boxes set within the text for easy reference. It's more of a handbook or instruction manual than a book for reading straight through. The book provides the basics on a number of techniques, such as breaking a bad habit, behaving assertively, or using the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy to examine your habits of thought. Of necessity, the information about any one topic is limited. However, the emphasis is on applying the information to individual circumstances and needs, and the book gives enough detail to allow you to proceed. If you do want to read more about something, an appendix lists useful books and web sites. If you're looking for clearly presented, basic information on managing a number of important areas of your life, this book could be the "missing manual" that makes being human an easier job.