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Structural Design User Guide

AVEVA Solutions Ltd

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Structural Design User Guide

Structural Design User Guide

Contents

Page

Structural Design
Read This First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
Scope of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About the Tutorial Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1

How the Guide is Organised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:2 Further Training in the Use of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:3

Introducing PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1


Introducing the Structure of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 Strengths of PDMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 PDMS Structural Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:2

Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1


How PDMS Stores Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 PDMS Design Data Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Logging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 PDMS Startup Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Starting the Structural Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Creating Some Administrative Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5

Creating a Simple Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1


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Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 How PDMS Represents Structural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1


Straight Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2

Some Initial Setting Up Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2


Setting Default Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Setting the Default Specification for Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3

Creating Sections Explicitly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:4 Viewing the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7


Defining What Appears in the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7 Manipulating the Displayed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:10

Event-Driven Graphics Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:10 Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:11 Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 Copying Parts of the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:17 Completing the Initial Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:18

Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 Enhancing the Basic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1
Restoring a Previously Saved Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:3 Adding Standard Bracing Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:7 Representing Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9 Dominant Versus Subordinate Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:12 Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry . . . . . . . . . . 6:13

Adding Panels and Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1


Starting the Panels & Plates Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 How PDMS Represents Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Setting Default Storage Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 Creating Simple Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:3 Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4

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Splitting a Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7:5 Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Moving Panel Edges to New Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Creating Negative Extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9

Using Panel Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1


How Panel Fittings are Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 Creating a Panel Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1

Penetrating One Item With Another. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1


How a Penetration is Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Creating a Steelwork Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:2

Checking and Outputting Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1


Checking for Clashes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:1

Obstruction Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Extent of Clashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Clash Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2

Generating a Data Output Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4


Generating a Tabulated Data Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4

Querying Mass Properties

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5

Plotting the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6

Adding Some Curved Steelwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1


How PDMS Represents Curved Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Creating a Semicircular Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Creating a Runway Beam with Multiple Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:4
Defining a Working Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5 Creating a Curved Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5 Modifying a Curved Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:6

Production Features for Outfit Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:7

Structural Design Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A:1 Structural Catalogue Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B:1


Basic Features of the Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 P-line Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1

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Some Standard Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Some Standard Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:12


Column Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleated Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baseplate Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double Notched End Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Notched End Plates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:13 B:14 B:15 B:16 B:17 B:17

Some Standard Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:17


Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:18 Fire Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:19 Lifting Lugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:19

Other Relevant Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C:1


PDMS Introductory Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1 PDMS Reference Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:1 General Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:2

Sample Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D:1

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Read This First

1
1.1

Read This First


Scope of this Guide
This guide introduces some of the facilities provided by the AVEVA Plant Design Management System (PDMS) for the design and documentation of logically interconnected structures. It explains the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and shows how you can apply these to your own design projects. The chapters of this guide take the form of a hands-on tutorial exercise combined with frequent explanation of the underlying concepts. As you work progressively through the exercise, you will gain practical experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS while learning about the powerful facilities it provides.

1.1.1

Intended Audience
This guide has been written for engineers familiar with structural design practices, who may or may not have prior knowledge of PDMS.

1.1.2

Assumptions
For you to use this guide, the sample PDMS project, Project SAM, must be correctly installed on your system, and you must have read/write access to the project databases. It is assumed that you know: where to find PDMS on your computer system you know how to use the Windows operating system installed at your site you are familiar with the basic Graphical User Interface (GUI) features, as described in the AVEVA document Introduction to Common Functionality.

Contact your systems administrator if you need help in either of these areas.

1.1.3

About the Tutorial Exercise


All the steps of the exercise are numbered sequentially throughout the guide.

1.1.4

Further Reading
You can find a list of relevant AVEVA documentation in the appendices of this guide.

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1.2

How the Guide is Organised


This guide is divided into three parts, including some appendices, as follows: Read This First Introducing PDMS Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy introduces this guide and summarises its scope. gives a general overview of the main design facilities provided within the structural application. explains how PDMS stores its design data and shows you how to organise your data. Also describes the logging in procedure and how to create some administrative elements. A running tutorial exercise is used from this chapter on, to illustrate essential concepts. guides you through the steps needed to create a simple structure comprising only vertical columns and horizontal beams. demonstrates a useful facility which provides an alternative method for creating a regularly configured structure rapidly. shows how to add diagonal bracing members, how to model joints between connected members, and how to modify the design by moving interconnected parts of the structure. shows how to clad the structure by adding panels and plates. introduces the concept of panel fittings. shows how to configure those locations where one item penetrates another. shows how to check your design for clashes, and how to generate reports and plots directly from the design data. explains how curved sections are represented and illustrates their use. summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to store your structural design data. comprises a sample catalogue of structural steelwork sections. identifies other sources of information which supplement, and expand upon, the brief details given in this guide. shows some examples of typical plots of structural designs which may be created using PDMS.

Creating a Simple Structure Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure Enhancing the Basic Structure Adding Panels and Plates Using Panel Fittings Penetrating One Item With Another Checking Outputting Data and Design

Adding Some Curved Steelwork Structural Database Design

Structural Catalogue Guide Other Relevant Documentation Sample Plots

The guide concludes with an index, allowing you to refer back to any specific topics about whose details you need to be reminded.

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1.3

Further Training in the Use of PDMS


This guide teaches you to about the key features of using PDMS for structural designs only. If you wish to learn more about the wide-ranging facilities of PDMS, AVEVA provides a wide range of training courses, covering all levels of expertise and all design disciplines. For details of courses, and to arrange course attendance, contact your nearest AVEVA support office.

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Introducing PDMS

Introducing PDMS
This chapter provides: an introduction to the structure of PDMS the strengths of PDMS structural design features.

2.1

Introducing the Structure of PDMS


PDMS comprises the following functional parts: modules applications.

A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific types of operation. This guide covers the DESIGN module, which you use for creating the 3D design model An application is supplementary program that has been tailored to provide easy control of operations that are specific to a particular discipline. The applications you will use for structural design work in this guide are: Beams & Columns Panels & Plates

You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS.

2.2

Strengths of PDMS
In PDMS, you have a powerful suite of facilities, for the design of Process Plant, the emphasis being on maximising both design consistency and design productivity: The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of apparent intelligence that enables them to make sensible decisions about the consequential effects of many of your design choices. This allows you to implement a sequence of related decisions with a minimum of effort. You can incorporate modifications into your design at any stage without fear of invalidating any of your prior work, because data consistency-checking is an integral part of the product. PDMS automatically manages drawing production, material take-off reports, and so on, by reading all design data directly from a common set of databases, to prevent errors from being introduced by transcribing information between different disciplines. The applications let you check all aspects of your design as work progresses. This includes on-line interdisciplinary clash detection, so the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level.

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Introducing PDMS

The applications are controlled from a graphical user interface. This means that all design, drawing and reporting operations are initiated by selecting choices from menus, and by entering data into on-screen forms. For ease of use, many common actions are also represented by pictorial icons.

2.3

PDMS Structural Design Features


The PDMS structural applications offer the following key benefits: The applications are designed to use specification data when selecting structural components from the Catalogue database, so that design consistency and conformity to standards are ensured. It is important, therefore, that the structural Catalogue databases are properly maintained. You can name structural elements in accordance with a predefined set of rules, so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design process. You can set up pointers to define the storage areas in which specific types of design element are to be held in the database hierarchy. This, especially when combined with the rule-based naming facility, minimises the amount of data which you have to enter explicitly as you build up your design model. You can set up temporary lists of elements, so that you can carry out a design operation on all elements within the list simultaneously. This can avoid a great deal of repetitive work when you carry out commonly-repeated design modifications. The applications incorporate a number of geometric design aids, such as 3D positioning grids, to make it easy for you to position structural elements accurately within the design model. Where possible, the Design applications create and maintain connectivity of the structural network automatically. Non-standard structural components, such as complex panels and floor plates, may be created by defining the required shape as a 2D profile and then extruding this to the desired thickness. Negative primitives and shapes may be used in the structural catalogue to define complex joint geometry and end preparations for structural sections, so that weld preparations and fitting allowances can be modelled easily. Templates may be used to define the basic structure of built-up girders and similar components, so that the detailed design of such items becomes simply a matter of entering the required dimensional and positional data. Multiple copies of design components may be created simply by specifying the number of copies required and their relative positions and orientations. For example, a complete roof structure can be created by designing a single roof truss and then, in one operation, making as many copies as are necessary to support the length of the roof, with each truss displaced by a given distance relative to the preceding one. Much repetitive work can be avoided in symmetrical designs by making copies of interconnected parts of the structure and reflecting them about specified axes, so that the design pattern is repeated as required. Joint positions may be finely adjusted to ensure accurate assembly, using any standard datum line to define the precise alignment of a joint with its attached sections. Sections and panels (wall plates, floor plates, etc.) may be divided at intersections, after the overall size and shape have been defined, without affecting any of their logical interconnections. This enables you to design the macrostructure (for example, complete areas to be covered) first and then to subdivide this into a manageable microstructure for fabrication purposes at a later stage (typically, to make the most efficient use of stock panel sizes). The edges of panels may be notched to fit around

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Introducing PDMS

section profiles, and the edges of adjacent panels may be shaped such they interlock automatically. Penetrations may be created as catalogue elements. Such a penetration, which can incorporate appropriate sleeving, kick plates, etc., may be inserted into a structural section or panel as a complete entity, with the dimensions and position of the penetration derived automatically from the dimensions of the pipe/duct/cable tray passing though it. The applications make it easy for you to create panels and to connect them to existing panels or sections via linear joints. This facility uses intelligent pointer picking to enhance the interaction between the displayed graphics and the design creation process. You can derive panel vertices simply by picking appropriate datum lines on existing sections; connections between panels and sections are then created automatically to give a fully connected structural model. Such panels can be used either to represent floors/walls or to build up complex plated connections. You can carry out multi-disciplinary clash checks at any stage of the design, thus avoiding spatial conflicts within the overall model which could be expensive to rectify at the construction stage. This is particularly important where different features of the design model are under the control of different designers. At any stage of your work, you can create reports listing specified data from the current database. You can specify a standard report template, so you can derive lists of commonly-required information very quickly, or you can design a report format to suit your own particular needs. The resultant output, which can include data from any design discipline, sorted in any way you require, can be either displayed on your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing).

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Introducing PDMS

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Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy

Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy


In this chapter, you will learn: about the PDMS database hierarchy how PDMS stores design data how to log in to PDMS and begin the tutorial exercise how to create some administrative elements

In this chapter you will enter the structural steelwork design application and create some administrative data elements which will enable you to organise your detailed design in a logical way.

3.1

How PDMS Stores Design Data


All PDMS data is stored in the form of a hierarchy. In the case of a PDMS DESIGN database, the topmost data level is called the World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*), below which are the administrative sublevels Site and Zone. The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. In the case of structural design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are Structure (STRU), Framework (FRMW) and (optionally) Subframework (SBFR). The data which defines the physical design of the individual structural components is held below Subframework level, giving the following overall format:

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3.2

PDMS Design Data Definitions


All data is represented in the database as follows: Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Each element has a number of associated pieces of information which, together, completely define its properties. These are known as its attributes. Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-specified name. Additional items of information about an element which could be stored as attribute settings include: element type element physical dimensions and technical specifications element physical location and orientation in the design model element connectivity

Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a new element, others will be defined automatically by PDMS. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly linked below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can have only one owner. When you are modifying a database (for example, when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes), you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element (often abbreviated to CE). You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing the current element, by following the owner-member links up and down the hierarchy. In many cases, commands which you give for modifying the attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise, so you must understand this concept and always be aware of your current

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position in the database hierarchy. The Design Explorer displays this information continuously.

3.3

Logging In
This is the first step of the tutorial exercise Exercise begins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the PDMS Login form give the name of the Project in which you want to work: enter SAM. Give your allocated Username: enter STRUC. Give your allocated Password: enter STRUC. Give the part of the project Multiple Database (MDB) you want to work in: enter STRUC. Give the name of the Module you wish to use: select Design. Make sure that you leave the Read Only box unchecked, so that you can modify the database as you work. When you have entered all the necessary details, the form looks as shown:

Click OK.

3.4

PDMS Startup Display


When PDMS has loaded, your screen looks as shown:

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Setting Up the PDMS Database Hierarchy

As labelled above, the display comprises the following: Title Bar - shows the current PDMS module, and its sub-application if applicable. Main Menu Bar - the area you use to make menu selections. Main Tool Bar - has a number of icon buttons and drop-down lists that offer shortcuts to a selection common PDMS operations and standard settings. Design Explorer - shows your current position in the PDMS database hierarchy. To move to a different point in the database, you click on the appropriate item in the list. 3D Graphical View - the window in which you display the design model graphically as you build it. A pop-up menu (which you access with the right-hand mouse button) enables you to control how the model is represented. This window also has its own tool bar. Status Bar - displays information about the current status of your operations.

You can reposition or minimise these windows at any time using standard window management facilities.

3.5

Starting the Structural Application


Excercise continues: 6. The first structural application which you will use is that for designing interconnected beams and columns. To access this application, select Design>Structures>Beams & Columns from the main menu bar. When loading is complete, the main menu bar and tool bar shows some extra options:

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3.6

Creating Some Administrative Elements


You will now create some administrative elements at the top of the DESIGN DB hierarchy, as previously explained. Exercise continues: 7. Check that you are at World level ( icon) in the Design Explorer, then select Create>Site. On the displayed Create Site form, enter the name TESTSITE in the Name text box.

Press the Enter key to confirm the name; note how the system adds a / prefix automatically to conform to PDMS naming conventions. 8. 9. Click OK to create the Site element. Your first new element appears in the Design Explorer as the current element. Repeat this process, using the appropriate options from the Create menu, to create a Zone named TESTZONE, a Structure TESTSTRU, a Framework TESTFRMW and a Subframework (Sub-Frame) TESTSBFR, in that order. Your Design Explorer should now look like this (only newly created elements shown):

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Note: If you or other users have accessed this database before, the list may also contain other elements. 10. Click on the menu option Display>Draw List and you will see that the Structure element has been automatically added to it. The Draw List is covered in more detail later, (see Viewing the Design). In the next chapter, you will start to build up a design model by creating some structural members.

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Creating a Simple Structure

Creating a Simple Structure


In this chapter you will start to build up a structural design model by creating a simple configuration of interconnected columns and beams. Before doing so, however, it is important to understand how some of the items which make up the design are represented and accessed in the PDMS databases, as explained in the following sections.

4.1

Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing
To ensure design consistency and conformity with company standards, the basic definitions of all items which you may use in the structural design are held in a Catalogue database. This holds definitions of all available profiles and materials for structural columns/beams/ bracing etc., all standard types of joint, all auxiliary fittings, and so on. When you add an item to your design model, you store the position, orientation etc. for the item in the DESIGN database, but you specify the physical properties of the item by setting up a cross-reference (called a Specification Reference or SpecRef) which points to an appropriate entry in the Catalogue database.

4.2
4.2.1

How PDMS Represents Structural Members


Straight Sections
Each individual straight structural member (column, beam, etc.) is represented in PDMS by a Section (SCTN) element. The geometry of a Section is defined by two types of attribute setting: Its cross-section is defined by reference to a Catalogue Profile (SPRF) element (Ibeam, T-section, Channel, etc.). All other aspects of its geometry are defined by setting specific design attributes (in most cases these are set automatically by PDMS as you manipulate the model graphically). Two of the most important attributes are the Start Position (POSS) and the End Position (POSE), since the positions of these points effectively determine the length and orientation of the item. These and some other attributes of Sections will be looked at in more detail later.

To provide a method for referring to individual edges and faces of a Section, each is identified by a named line running along the length of the Section. These reference lines (which are derived from the Sections Profile definition in the catalogue) are called P-lines. As an example, some of the most commonly used p-lines for an I-shaped Profile might be positioned and named as follows:

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LTOS

TOS

RTOS S e c tio n P ro file

P -lin e (TOS )

LTBS NAL NA LBTS NAR

RTBS En d P o s itio n (P OS E) RBTS P -lin e N a m in g Ke y : NA = Neu t r a l Axis TOS = Top of St eel BOS = Bot t om of St eel LTBS = Left Top Bot t om of St eel a n d so on S ta rt P os itio n (POSS)

LBOS

BOS

RBOS

Note: For further deails of how this and other profiles are specified see Structural Catalogue Guide.

4.2.2

Nodes
PDMS uses the concept of Nodes to represent basic analytical points within a structure. Nodes have two main functions: To identify the points at which logical connections are made between adjoining Sections. To define how applied stresses can affect individual points in the structure (for passing design data to separate stress analysis programs).

Primary Nodes have their positions specified independently of other elements. Secondary Nodes are positioned along an owning Section, at a specified distance from the Sections Start Position. If you move a Section, its Secondary Nodes move with it.

4.3

Some Initial Setting Up Operations


In the next part of the exercise you will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit your planned method of working. Exercise continues:

4.3.1

Setting Default Storage Areas


11. First, you need to specify where the principal structural elements are to be stored in the Design database hierarchy. Select Settings>Storage Areas. The displayed Storage Areas form allows you to specify storage areas for Primary Nodes and Sections independently. At this stage, both areas are shown as unset. 12. Both types of element will be stored directly under the Sub-Frame which you created previously. Check that the sub-frame /TESTSBFR is the current element in the Design Explorer, then click on each line in the Storage Areas list in turn. The new storage area settings are as shown:

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Close the form by clicking the button. Note how the current storage area settings are shown below the main tool bar, like this:

Section storage area

Node storage area

4.3.2

Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations


13. By default, each time you create a new Section, it will automatically be associated with a Profile from the Catalogue. Also by default, Primary Nodes will not be created automatically at unconnected section ends. For your present purposes, leave both of these default settings in force, as shown (and controlled) by the following buttons below the main tool bar:

4.3.3

Setting the Default Specification for Profiles


The current default profile, justification line, member line and joint line (these terms will be explained later) are shown below the main tool bar. If these have not yet been set (which is the case here), the data area looks like this:

The first structural sections which you create are columns, so the default profile is set to something suitable. Exercise continues: 14. Click on the Default Profile Specification button . The resulting Section Specification (Default) form allows you to select any specification from the available catalogues. For the purpose of this exercise: Set the Specification to British Standard Set the Generic Type to Universal Columns. From the displayed list of profiles applicable to BS Universal Columns, select 203x203x46kg/m:

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15. Leave the Justification list (justification determines the Setting out position of the Section, that is the axis about which the geometry is offset), the Member line list (which determines how sections are shown in wireline views and drawings), and the Joint Line list (which determines the position of a joint relative to an attached section) all set to NA (Neutral Axis). You will see the effects of these later. 16. Click Apply to use this setting as the new default, noting that the current specification is now shown as:

Dismiss the Section Specification (Default) form when you have finished with it.

4.4

Creating Sections Explicitly


You will first create four vertical columns, to the following design, using explicit positioning; that is, you will position the columns at given positions within the coordinate system of the site rather than by positioning them relative to existing structural sections (since you have not yet created any).

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Co lu m n 2

Co lu m n 3

Co lu m n 4 Co lu m n 1
9000 9000

5000 4000 N

U E

5000

5000

7000

Orig in

Note: Keep these column designations in mind; as they will be referred to throughout the rest of the exercise. Exercise continues: 17. Select Create>Sections>Straight. You will see both a Section form and a Positioning Control toolbar, which together control how the start and end points of sections are specified. The Positioning Control toolbar is not relevant for your current purposes (you will see what it is used for later). 18. On the Section form, check that the String Method is set to Single (which means that you will define independent start and end positions for each section) and that the Secondary Nodes check box is selected. Select the Confirm check box (so that you can check where each new section will be positioned before it is added to the database). The forms settings should now look as shown:

19. Click the button, which tells the system that you want to define a position by entering explicit coordinates (this is the only practical option at this stage). You will see a Define section start form. You want to position the start of the first column at the site

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origin, so leave the East/North/Up coordinates at the default position (E0, N0, U0), as shown:

Note: The default entry wrt World, meaning with respect to the World, defines the coordinate system within which the position is specified. 20. Click OK. The Start position will be shown in the centre of the 3D View. Rather than specifying all three coordinates for the Sections end position explicitly, its position will be defined relative to the Sections start. 21. Click the button. You will now see a Define section end form in a format which lets you enter the required data. You want to create a vertical column 5000mm high, so enter the Direction as U and the Distance as 5000, as shown:

22. Click OK, then click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the creation of the Section. Check the Design Explorer: the Section will appear as SCTN 1. The Section will also be added to the Draw List, and will appear (as a very small rectangle) in the centre of the 3D View. 23. Using the same procedures, create the following three Sections: Start Position E0 N7000 U0; Length 9000 Start Position E0 N12000 U0; Length 9000

Start Position E0 N17000 U0; Length 4000 (Do not forget to Accept each Section on the Section form after you have defined it.) When you have created all four columns, Dismiss the Section form. Your Design Explorer should now show four Sections (SCTN 1-4), like this:

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Note: Each newly created Section is placed before the current list position, so that SCTN 1 in the list was the last Section created (corresponding to Column 1 in the diagram).

4.5

Viewing the Design


In order to see what your design looks like as you build it up, and to enable you to identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than by navigating to them in the Design Explorer, you will now display your current design in a 3D View window and learn how to manipulate this display.

4.5.1

Defining What Appears in the View


Exercise continues: 24. The Draw List will contain the four Sections you have just created, as well as the owning Structure element. To view the Draw List, select the option Display>Draw List from the main menu bar. Notice how there is a ticked box adjacent to each element. 25. To see all of your current design, click on the (Walk to Draw List) button on the View Manipulation toolbar on the left-hand side of the main Design window. All four Sections will appear within the 3D View window in cross section, as if you are looking down on them. Notice how the view is automatically scaled so that all four Sections fit neatly within it. 26. It is often useful to display coordinate Axes. To do this, click the button on the Main toolbar or select Query>Axes. The Define Axes form is displayed:

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By default, the axes are positioned at the origin of the current element, but other positioning options are available from the forms Select pull-down menu. Ordinal (X,Y,Z) or cardinal (North, East, Up) directions can be specified, as can the size of the axis arrow lines. 27. Select the Cardinal Directions check box, change Size to 1000, then select Close>Retain Axes from the forms pull-down menu. 28. Other looking directions can be selected by positioning the mouse pointer within the 3D View window and pressing the right-hand mouse button. Do this and select Isometric>Iso 3 to set an isometric view direction. You should now see all four columns as shown:

Note: The status line shows the viewing direction. See Manipulating the Displayed View for the meaning of ROTATE on the status line. 29. Observe the effect of selecting different view directions (Look, Plan and Isometric from the right-hand mouse button. Revert to Isometric>Iso 3 when you have finished.

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4.5.2

Manipulating the Displayed View


You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. The three basic manipulation modes are: Rotate the view Pan the view across the display area Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view

The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View window (it is set to ROTATE in the preceding illustration). To change the view manipulation mode, look at the Middle Button Drag options on the 3D View shortcut menu. By pressing and holding down the middle mouse button with the pointer within the 3D View, the view can manipulated in the selected way simply by moving the mouse. The options of interest are Zoom Rectangle, Zoom In/Out, Pan and Rotate. Alternatively, you can change the manipulation mode by pressing one of the function keys, or by using the View Manipulation tool bar buttons, thus: selects Zoom mode selects Pan mode selects Rotate mode F5 or (Try these selection options and observe the effect on the Middle Button Drag shortcut menu; a tick appears against the selected option.) Exercise continues: 30. Select .

F2 or F3 or

31. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed model. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate; starting with a left or right movement causes the observers eye-point to move across the view. 32. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the mouse away from you and towards you; this time the observers eye-point appears to rotate up and down around the model. 33. Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Control key. Note that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased. 34. Repeat the rotation operations, but this time hold down the Shift key. Note that the word Slow appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is decreased. For an alternative way of rotating the model, first press the F9 Function key to display horizontal and vertical sliders, and then try dragging the sliders to new positions along the view borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any time, regardless of the current manipulation mode. 35. Select .

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36. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly in all directions. Note that it is the observers eye-point which follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse; in effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see. 37. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Control key (to increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the panning speed). 38. Select .

39. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly up and down. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in, effectively magnifying the view; moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms out, effectively reducing the view. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a camera lens); they do not change the observers eye-point or the view direction. 40. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Control key and then the Shift key. 41. Position the pointer near the centre of Column 1 and click (do not hold down) the middle mouse button. Notice how the view changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view. Whenever you click the middle button, whatever the current manipulation mode, you reset the centre of interest. Switch to Zoom mode (if not already selected), set the centre of interest to the top of Column 2, then zoom in for a close-up view of the top of the column. You will find this a very useful technique when making small adjustments to the design: it will be used later to see the effect of realigning sections where they are connected at a joint. 42. To restore the original view when you have finished, select .

43. Finally, observe the effect of clearing some of the ticked check boxes and changing the colours and translucency of the elements using the controls in the Draw List.

4.5.3

Navigating in the Database by Picking Elements Graphically


44. Notice that the pick mode prompt at the top of the 3D View says Navigate. Position the pointer over each column in turn and click the left-hand mouse button. Notice how this navigates to the picked element, which is highlighted in a different colour in the 3D View and becomes the current element in the Design Explorer. Compare the identifier of each SCTN element in the Design Explorer with its designation in the labelled view shown in Defining What Appears in the View; SCTN 1 should correspond to Column 1, and so on.

4.6

Event-Driven Graphics Mode


Before begining the next part of the exercise, it is necessary to understand a new way of using the pointer to pick points in the graphical view. Whenever the Positioning Control form (which you saw but did not use earlier) is displayed, the graphical view is switched automatically into event-driven graphics mode (you may have noticed that the pick mode prompt, immediately above the graphical view, changed while you were defining positions in Creating Sections Explicitly). This means that when you pick a point in the displayed graphics, your action is interpreted in whatever way is appropriate to your current design

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operation (i.e. the current event) rather than simply as a request to navigate to a new current element. In the examples, picking in event-driven graphics mode will always be used to specify a position. The position derived from your pointer pick can be the exact point at which you have placed the pointer or, more commonly, it can be a position which is related to the picked point in a specified way. The main concept involved is that of the snap function, which automatically chooses the nearest Start, End or (optionally) Secondary Node position to the picked point, so that you do not need to be very accurate when positioning the pointer. The full range of options available for identifying positions is extensive. For example, you can specify a position at: a given offset from the nearest snap point; the mid-point of a picked item; the intersection of two picked items; a given proportion along the length of a picked item.

You will use several of the available facilities in the rest of the exercise.

4.7

Creating Sections Using Graphical Picking


In the following part of the exercise, you will add horizontal beams to your four columns. You will identify the start and end positions for these beams by using the pointer and left-hand mouse button to pick the columns to which they are to be connected. This has the advantage that you do not need to remember which section is which in the Design Explorer; you work visually, as you would on a drawing board. The design to be built is as follows (with column heights shown as a reminder):
Beam 1

Co lu m n 2
(9000)

Co lu m n 3
(9000)

Beam 2 Beam 4 Beam 3 Co lu m n 4 Co lu m n 1


(4000) N (5000) U E

Note: Keep these beam designations in mind; as they will be referred to throughout the rest of the exercise. For demonstration purposes, you will create a single beam in the position occupied by Beams 3 and 4 and then split this into two separate beams, with automatic length and connection adjustments, in a subsequent step. Exercise continues: 45. Click on the Profile Specification button and set the default profile specification to British Standard, Universal Beams, 305x165x40kg/m. Leave the Justification,

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Member Line and Joint Line set to NA for the purpose of this exercise (you will see later that this would not be your normal choice of justification setting in practice; this setting is used for demonstration purposes only). Apply and Dismiss the form. 46. Select Create>Sections>Straight to redisplay the Section form, which you used earlier, and the Positioning Control form, which this time you will use to identify positions by picking them with the pointer in the graphical view. 47. Set the String Method to Single, since you will begin by specifying the start and end points independently for each section. Select the Secondary Nodes check box so that secondary nodes and joints will be created automatically at all connections between sections. Select the Confirm check box to begin with and clear it Off later when you feel it is no longer necessary. Note that the Secondary Joint (SJOI) element forms the basis of the analytical model Rather than enter explicit coordinates, you will define the Start Position as a point on one of the existing columns (namely the top of Column 3) which is picked using the pointer. 48. On the Positioning Control toolbar, set the Pick Type option (left-hand drop-down list; see tool tip) to Element. This means that you are going to pick sections themselves, rather than individual plines, for identifying positions within the design model. 49. The Pick Method setting (right-hand drop-down list) specifies how you want your pointer picks to be interpreted as positions (remember, you are now using the eventdriven graphics mode). Set this to Snap, meaning that you want to snap to the position of the nearest Start or End of a picked section; this option will remain in force until you change it. The settings will look as shown:

Notice that the pick mode prompt above the graphical view shows the current event as Define section start (Snap). Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 3. Note that the word Start appears in the view to mark the specified start point and that the snap action has placed this at the upper end of the column. 50. The pick mode prompt will have changed to Define section end (Snap). Pick a point anywhere in the upper half of Column 2 to define the End Position of the new beam. Note how the proposed route of the new beam is shown in the 3D View. Click the Accept button on the Section form to confirm the section creation. Beam 1 will be shown with its start connected to the top of Column 3 and its end connected to the top of Column 2. 51. The length of the beam is calculated automatically, with allowances for the section dimensions, but you will see that the beams position is too high. This is because the justification datum is set to the Neutral Axis (NA), as shown by the Profile Specification setting /BS-SPEC/305x165x40kg/m (NA/NA/NA). This will now be corrected by resetting the justification datum to the Top of Steel (TOS) pline. The result is as shown in the diagram:
Node NA of Beam Node TOS of Beam

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Exercise contines 52. Switch temporarily from event-driven graphics mode to graphical navigation mode by clicking the Navigate to Element button on the main tool bar (check the pick mode prompt). Change the view direction to Look>East, move the centre of interest to the approximate mid-point of Beam 1, and zoom in to see more clearly what happens at the ends of the beam. Pick the new beam to ensure that it is the current element and select Modify>Sections>Specification. On the Section Specification form, set the Justification to TOS, as shown:

53. Select the Use as default profile check box, so that the next beams which you create will be aligned correctly without further adjustment. Apply the change and the beam should move down to the correct position. Notice that the default specification has changed:

You could, alternatively, have realigned just the current beam by selecting the Modify>Sections>Justification option, but this would not have let you reset the default specification for subsequent beam creation. 54. You will now create Beam 2, with its Start Position at the top of Column 4, running horizontally to connect part-way up Column 3. Reset the view, if necessary, to show all sections so far created. Return to event-driven graphics mode by Dismissing the Section form and selecting Create>Sections>Straight again, ready to position the start of the next Section (check the pick mode prompt again). Position the Start for Beam 2 at the top of Column 4. 55. To pick the End Position, you will use the snap facility with a specified offset distance along the picked Section. From the Positioning Control toolbars Pick Method list, select Distance and, in the adjacent Method Value field, enter 5000 (i.e. the height of Column 4):

The pick mode prompt should now say Pick section end (Distance [5000]). Pick anywhere in the lower half of Column 3. The End Position is calculated by snapping to the bottom of the column and then moving up (i.e., towards the pointer) by 5000mm. Accept the Section on the Section form. 56. In the preceding step, you had to remember the height of Column 4 in order to set the correct snap offset distance. You will now create a beam from the top of Column 1, running horizontally to Column 3 (equivalent to Beam 3 plus Beam 4 in your design sketch), without remembering any dimensions. Position the Start of the new beam at the top of Column 1 as before (remember to reset the pick option to Snap). 57. Two alternative ways of achieving the required End Position will now be compared. Make sure that Verification: Confirm check box is selected so that you can cancel the first method to try the second.

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58. Method 1 Because the beam is to be horizontal, its End Position can be constrained to have the same elevation as its Start Position. To do this, the explicit positioning form is used, but now the coordinates are entered on the form by graphical picking rather than by typing them in. This step demonstrates the ease with which you can mix the different ways of defining positions (using the Section, Positioning Control and Define section end forms) to suit the current circumstances. Click the button on the Section form to display the Define section end form. The latter will initially show the coordinates of the last point picked, namely the top of Column 1. Select the Lock check box next to the Up field, as shown:

Note: The Up coordinate is greyed out to show that you cannot change it. You can now pick any part of Column 3 to specify the beams End Position, since the elevation of the snap point will be ignored in favour of the constraint that the End Position must be at the same elevation as the Start Position; only the East and North coordinates of the pick are used. OK the Define section end form, then click Reject on the Section form to cancel the creation. 59. Method 2 The Start Position will still be shown at the top of Column 1. The and buttons on the Section form both let you create a section which is perpendicular to another section. You will constrain the new beams End Direction to be perpendicular to Column 3. Click the Perpendicular to button , then pick Column 3. The derived End Position will be the same as for Method 1. This time Accept the section creation. 60. When you have created the three beams, dismiss the section creation forms. (Note that clicking Dismiss on the Section form also removes the Positioning Control toolbar and returns the pick mode prompt to Navigate.) Zoom in close to the beam which you created last and notice how it passes straight through Column 2. You will now split this beam into two separate sections to form Beam 3 and Beam 4. 61. Select Modify>Sections>Split. Set the controls on the Split Sections form as shown:

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Note: The lengths of Beams 3 and 4 are to be adjusted automatically where they meet at Column 2 (Connections at split set to Trimmed). 62. Click Apply. When prompted to identify item to be split on (see the status line), pick the element which corresponds to the split point, in this case Column 2. Cancel the next prompt (since you are splitting the beam in one place only) by pressing the Esc key. When prompted to identify section to be split, pick any part of the beam which is to be split to form Beams 3 and 4. Esc the next prompt (since you are splitting one section only). Notice how the proposed split point is identified in the graphical view. Confirm the splitting and then dismiss the Split Sections form. When using this facility, the items to be split on and the items to be split must actually intersect at the required split points. Projected intersection points will not work. You have now completed the creation of the substructure illustrated at the start of this part of the exercise, namely (looking East):

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Beam 1

C o lu m n 2

C o lu m n 3

Beam 2 Beam 4 Beam 3 C o lu m n 4 C o lu m n 1 U E N

If you look at the Design Explorer, you will see that each column (SCTN) element now owns one or more Secondary Nodes (SNODs; marked in the above diagram) at the locations of the ends of the beams. Each Secondary Node owns one or two Secondary Joints (SJOIs) with connection references to the attached beams. This provides the logical connectivity between the sections.

4.8

Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists


The next design operation will be to create multiple copies of the current substructure, with a specified spacing distance between them. In order to demonstrate another useful facility, you will put all members of the Sub-Frame (Sections, Secondary Nodes and Joints) into a List - a temporary collection of elements which lets you carry out operations on the list as a whole. Each list definition is valid only for the duration of the current PDMS session (although you can save such definitions in a binary file for reloading into a future session). Exercise continues: 63. Select Utilities>Lists from the main menu or click the button on the main tool bar. You will see a Lists/Collections form for controlling the existence and contents of all lists for the current session. If any lists existed, you would be able to select the one which you wanted to modify from the list available from the option button. Since you have not yet used this facility, this will simply say No List. 64. From the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>List. In the Description box on the Create List form, enter TESTLIST. 65. Ensure that your current element is the Sub-Frame by clicking on it in the Design Explorer and then, from the Lists/Collections menu bar, select Add>CE Members. All elements owned by the Sub-Frame will now be shown as items within TESTLIST, like this:

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Select Control>Close to dismiss the Lists/Collections form when you have finished with it. Note: The new list automatically becomes the current list:

4.9

Copying Parts of the Design Model


Rather than create many more columns and beams individually, you are now going to copy the ones you have already created and reposition the copies:

Existing Subframe
U N E

Origin
6000 6000 6000

As explained in the preceding part of this exercise, the list containing all members of the Sub-Frame will be copied rather than the Sub-Frame itself.

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Exercise continues: 66. Select Create>Copy>Offset. A Copy with Offset form displays which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object), where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy (to), how many copies you want, and how each copy is to be positioned relative to its preceding neighbour (Offset). 67. Set the Object to be copied to List; since only one list exists, its name (TESTLIST) is shown without further selection. Set the to option to Rel. (Relative). This creates the new element copies in the same part of the database hierarchy as the original elements; that is, as members of the SubFrame. 68. Set the Number of Copies to 3. 69. Note that the Offset must be specified in terms of the local X,Y,Z coordinates of the geometric primitives making up the structural items, rather than the E,N,U coordinates used to position items within the overall design model. In our case, by default, X=E, Y=N and Z=U. Note that the axes are shown automatically in the displayed 3D View as a guide. Set the X Offset to 6000, leaving Y and Z set to 0. The form settings should now look as shown:

70. Click Apply to create the three offset copies and, when prompted, confirm that you want to retain the copies (assuming that they look correct in the graphical view). Dismiss the Copy with Offset form when you have finished. 71. Click and select Isometric>Iso3 from the 3D View shortcut menu so that you can see the whole of the current design. 72. Study the Design Explorer to see what elements have now been created and where they fit into the hierarchy. Note that the Sub-Frame now owns 32 Sections, comprising 16 columns and 16 beams, together with all of the necessary Secondary Nodes and Joints needed to define their interconnections.

4.10

Completing the Initial Design


The final design model which you want to achieve in this part of the exercise has beams running in an East-West direction to give the structure stability, as shown in the following diagram:

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U N E Orig in

In creating these beams, you will include some variations of the ways so far used to define the start and end positions of the beams. Exercise continues: 73. Start by creating the three most southerly beams (show in black on the diagram). Do this by creating a single beam and then splitting it into three lengths to fit between the columns (use the technique described previously featuring the Split Sections form). 74. Next, you will create the three beams directly to the north of those which you have just created (shown cross-hatched on the diagram). This will be done in a sequence of operations in which the start of each section (after the first) will be situated automatically at the end of the preceding section. Set the String Method to Continuous on the Section form to begin creating a chained configuration of sections. By default, the start of the next section is assumed to be at the end of the previous section (as shown in the 3D View); click the Redefine Start button to override this. 75. On the Positioning Control toolbar, set Pick Method to Intersect to show that you will identify positions at the intersection points of pairs of existing sections. To create the first beam, pick first Column 3 and then Beam 2 (whose intersection is at the Start Position of the first required beam, labelled A in the diagram), then use the same method to pick the intersection which identifies the end of this beam (B in the diagram). If Confirm is selected, click Accept to create the beam (otherwise your next picks will simply redefine the end of this section). It is important to stress the behaviour of not picking the attached member first as the sequence of picking the intersections determines the ownership of the SNOD/SJOI and therefore the connectivity model 76. The start of the next beam will be positioned automatically at B (as shown in the 3D View). Use the same procedure to pick points C and D to create the next two beams. Click the Redefine Start button on the Section form to define a new start for another section or sequence of sections. 77. Complete the design using a combination of the techniques which you have learned, plus any other options that you want to experiment with. Switch Confirm to Off to speed up the process as you gain confidence. If you make a mistake in the middle of defining a section, click Redefine Start to go back a stage. Note: you will probably need to use the Middle Button Drag view manipulation options available from the 3D View shortcut menu in order to be able to have a clear view of the correct Sections prior to clicking on them. Dismiss the Section form when you are satisfied with your results.

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Note: If you simply copy beams, either singly or as a composite list, the copies will be positioned but will not be connected automatically. 78. To update the database so as to store the most recent changes to the design model which you have created, select Design>Save Work from the main menu bar or click the button.

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Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure

Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure


If a significant part of the model that you want to design comprises a regular array of beams and columns, a special facility is provided to speed up the creation of all the necessary elements to define the fully connected structure. Even if your model is not completely regular in layout, you might find it quicker to use this facility first and then to modify the design as necessary, rather than build up the design section-by-section as you have done so far. In this chapter you will build a new structure using this method, so that you can judge whether or not it is relevant to your own types of design work. Exercise continues: 79. You will store your new model under a separate Structure element in the hierarchy, so that it can easily be distinguished from the design model which was created in the earlier parts of the exercise. Navigate to Zone level and below this create a new Structure, Framework and Subframework, giving them different names from those specified in the previous design model (for example, /REGSTRU, /REGFRMW and / REGSBFR, respectively). 80. Check that automatic Profile allocation is On and Primary Node creation is Off, as in Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations. (As you will see soon, storage areas and specifications need not be set yet.) 81. Select Create>Sections>Specials. The resulting Section Creation form lists all available methods: the options available depend on how your system has been set up, but they should include the following:

82. To initiate the use of any available method, you click on it in the list. In this case, select Regular Structure, then Dismiss the form. You will see a Regular Structure form which gives you complete control of the whole design process. In the following steps, this form is looked at in three distinct parts. 83. The areas labelled Column Data and Beam Data allows you to set the storage areas, profile specifications and justification p-lines independently for the two types of section. Set these as follows (replacing /REGSBFR by whatever name you gave the Subframework).

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To enter each Storage area name, navigate to the Subframe and type CE. The name of the current element will be entered automatically. To enter the Profile specifications, click the Profile button to display the Section Specification form and pick the required specification and pline settings.

84. The Grid Origin area allows you to define how your structure is to be positioned spatially. Enter the following settings:

The Datum setting defines the element whose reference axes will determine the origin and orientation of the structure. The Underside of Base-Plate setting allows you to set the lowest point of your structure (underside of baseplate) relative to the datum axes. This lets you define the elevations of the structural members relative to a plane which does not correspond to the base of the overall structure. This has been set to 1000, so that the bottoms of the columns will be truncated at an elevation of 1000mm. (The effect of this will be seen when the completed model is viewed.) 85. The East Spacings and North Spacings lists specify the relative spacing between adjacent columns in the given directions. The Elevation list specifies the absolute elevations of the beams representing the floor levels. Type in the following values:

These settings will create 16 columns on a 4x4 rectangular grid, with a uniform intercolumn spacing of 3000mm in the East direction and 5000mm in the North direction. The columns will be 4000mm high, to accommodate two floors at elevations of 3000mm and 5000mm relative to the datum plane, but with the bottoms of the columns

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truncated so that they do not extend below the 1000mm elevation specified by the baseplate setting. 86. Select the Trim sections to Plines check box, so that the beams will have their lengths calculated to fit between the columns to which they are connected. 87. With view limits set for zone and view direction set to Iso 3, click the Preview button to display a stick representation of the specified structure. It should have the following configuration:

5000 3000 1000 5000

5000 3000 5000

3000

Shaded area is datum plane

3000 Y/N

Z/U X/E

Origin

Check and, if necessary, correct the settings, then click Apply to create the structure. The sections will first have the specified profiles applied to give them their 3D geometry, then they will be trimmed to length and connected. This process involves a lot of calculation, and might therefore take a minute or two to complete; progress will be shown in the status bar. 88. The structure is now modified by removing beams as follows:
* * * * * *

* *

Select Delete>Identified and then pick the 14 beams which are to be removed. Escape the prompt when you have finished picking and confirm the deletion. 89. Finally, you will reduce the heights of the eight outermost columns (marked * in the preceding diagram). Rather than modify each one separately, create a new list (select

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Utilities>Lists, as in Collecting Elements into Temporary Lists) and use the Add>Identified option on the Lists/Collections form to add the columns into the list by picking them with the pointer. (If you make a mistake, click on the column again to deselect it; press Esc when you have finished.) 90. Select Position>Extend>By. When prompted to Identify Section, pick any of the columns and then, on the resulting Extend Section - Explicit form, select your new list as the item to be modified. 91. The Extend option list requires you to specify which end of the item is to be moved. You need to adjust the upper end of each column, but is this its Start or its End? To check this, make any one of the columns the current element and select Settings> Graphics>Mark Section. The Start and End will be tagged in the graphical view. Set the Extend button appropriately. 92. Select the Maintain Sections Node Positions check box so that the positions of secondary nodes will not be affected by the length adjustments. (This is only really relevant if you move the Start positions. You are leaving the nodes in place here simply to demonstrate another facility in the next step.) Set the Extension by to a Distance of -2000, since you want to reduce the length of each item in the list by 2000mm. Apply the settings, then Dismiss the form. The result should be as shown:

93. You will notice that the secondary nodes which were at the tops of the deleted columns are still present, even though they no longer serve any useful purpose. To delete these, navigate to the Subframe and select Delete>Tidy Nodes. A Tidy Nodes form is displayed telling you that 8 redundant nodes have been identified. Select the Mark Nodes for Deletion check box to tag these nodes in the graphical view, then click OK to delete them. 94. Now, for practice, extend the bottoms of all sixteen columns downwards by 1000mm, so that they rest on the origin plane (shown shaded in the first illustration of this chapter). 95. Update the DESIGN database to save your work (by selecting Design>Save Work).

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Enhancing the Basic Structure

Enhancing the Basic Structure


In this chapter, you will revert to your original structure and add some bracing members. You will then select some joints from the catalogue. Finally, you will modify the structure by moving part of it to a new position and then restoring the correct geometry between its members semi-automatically.

6.1

Restoring a Previously Saved Setup


Exercise continues: 96. In order to continue developing the first structural model which you created, navigate to TESTSTRU in the Design Explorer and select it as the current element to restore the graphical view.

6.2

Trimming Connected Section Ends to Correct Geometry


When you create a section connected to an existing section, the end points of the new section are usually positioned automatically by reference to the currently defined Pline Rule. If this rule has not been set up properly, the geometry at the point of connection may be inappropriate. For example, in plan view, the connection between a column and an incoming beam may look like this:

or

rather than the intended configuration:

or

To correct this, you can trim the length of the incoming section to an explicitly picked pline of the owning section. Before you develop your model further, you will correct any errors of this type which might currently exist (otherwise you could have problems connecting your bracing correctly).

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Exercise continues: 97. Zoom in to the graphical view and change the viewing direction so that you can see the detailed geometry of each connection point in turn, looking for any examples where an attached section has been trimmed to the wrong length. If you find any, correct them as follows. Select Connect>Trim to Pline>Pick (force). When prompted to Identify section end to be trimmed, pick one of the ends which you want to correct (as shown shaded in the preceding diagram). You will then be prompted to Identify pline to be trimmed to; change the view if necessary and pick the pline which corresponds to the required section end point (typically NAR/NAL for a web connection or TOS/BOS for a flange connection, as shown by the black dots in the preceding diagram, see also Structural Catalogue Guide). Note how the pointer shape changes when it is positioned on a pline and how the status bar helps you by identifying which pline is selected at any given moment. Press Escape to action the change. Note: You will need to make full use of the graphical manipulation facilities detailed in Manipulating the Displayed View, in particular it is advisable to zoom in close to the joint of interest. Also, it is advisable switch to wireline display mode by pressing F8 (this toggles between wireline and shaded display modes). 98. Repeat this sequence, alternately picking section ends and plines, until all errors have been corrected. Note that, if you are confident that you have made the correct selections, you can pick any number of section/pline pairs before pressing Esc. 99. To check the current pline rule (if any), select Settings>Picking Filters>Plines. You will see a Pline Filter form showing all currently defined rules; this probably shows No Rule and Normal, with the former selected. The Normal rule will handle the connections that the rule being created below is going to handle. You will set a rule to give appropriate results for the rest of this exercise. To do so, click the Define Rule button to display the Define Rules form. Enter the Name as Extremities (this will be used to identify the rule in subsequent lists) and the Description as Flange or web face for trimming at connection. Enter the Rule as follows (taking care to include the apostrophes and commas exactly as shown:

PKEY inset (TOS,BOS,NAL,NAR,FOC,BOC,TOC)


Click the Include button to add the new rule into the list. The result is as follows:

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100. Click OK. Select the Extremities rule on the Pline Filters tab of the Snap Settings form to make this the current rule. Click OK and close the Picking Control form. Note: A full explanation of the ways in which pline rules are set and applied is beyond the scope of this introductory guide. Suffice it to say that the rule you have set here may be interpreted as Select a pline which has any of the PKEY settings specified in the list. (See Structural Catalogue Guide for diagrams showing how these plines are positioned for typical steelwork profiles.)

6.3

Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing


In the next part of the exercise, you will insert some simple diagonal bracing and then use a short-cut facility to modify the spacing between the ends of the bracing members and some reference plines. You will create bracing members connected between columns, as shown by the thick black sections in the following diagram:

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U N

A
E

(The letters and numbers identifying the columns and beams, respectively, in the above diagram will be used for reference purposes in the steps which follow.) The first bracing member will be connected to Columns A and B and its end positions will be specified in terms of their spacing from Beams 1 and 2. You will then use the Mirror Copying facility to create the other two bracing members. This facility lets you create a copy of an existing element and to reposition the copy automatically by reflecting it about an axis in a specified plane (so that the original and copy elements are mirror images of one another). Exercise continues: 101. Click the Default Profile Specification button and reset the default specification to British Standard, Rect (Rectangular) Hollow Sections, 200.0x100.0x10.0 with Justification, Member Line and Joint Line all set to NA. This will be the profile used for the bracing members. 102. Select Create>Sections>Straight. Using Pick Type: Element and Pick Method: Intersect on the Positioning Control form, create a single bracing member with its Start at the intersection of Column A and Beam 1 (A1 for short) and its End at B2. Important: When you pick the sections defining each intersection point, your first pick defines the section to which the connection is made. In this case, therefore, you must pick the column before the beam when defining each end, otherwise the bracing gap trimming facility will not work correctly. Do not worry if the vertical alignment of the bracing member ends looks wrong at this stage; you will correct this in the next step. Accept the beam, then Dismiss the Section form. 103. Check that the bracing member is the current element and select Modify>Bracing Gap. The Brace Gaps form displays listing the different ways of specifying the required gap. Ignore the Default Gap setting and select Distance on picked Pline from a fixed point, noting how the diagram on the form is updated to show the relevant dimensions and picking sequence. 104. Click Apply. In the displayed Brace Gap(s) form, select the Confirm check box, but do not enter the Gap A data yet. 105. You are now in event-driven graphics mode, ready to pick the plines from which the bracing gap is to be calculated. You first position the lower end of the bracing member

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(currently at A1 in the preceding diagram). Using the diagram on the Brace Gaps form as a guide, pick plines in the following order: A pline on the lower face of the bracing member, such as BOS. Pick close to the connection, so that the gap is calculated for the correct end. A pline on Column A along which the gap is to be defined, such as NAL or NAR. A pline on the upper face of Beam 1, such as TOS.

Note: As previously mentioned, you might find it easier to pick the plines if you switch the graphics to a wireline view. (Press F8).

1. P line on lower of br a cin g m em ber Bracing Member Column A Gap (to be set to 150mm) Beam 1 3. Pline on upper face of r efer en ce m em ber

2. P line a lon g wh ich ga p is to be m ea su r ed

106. When you have picked the third pline, the calculated distance for the current position is shown in the graphical view and is also inserted into the Gap A text-box on the Brace Gap(s) form. The Accept/Reject buttons are now active. Note that the displayed distance is measured downwards (because of the way the plines currently intersect), whereas you want to move the bracing section upwards. To achieve this, change the Gap A data to -150, check that the new position shown in the graphical view is as required, then click Accept to move the section end. 107. Repeat the procedure to position the upper end of the bracing member with a gap of 150mm measured down Column B from Beam 2. Dismiss the Brace Gaps form. 108. Before you create the next bracing members, try this facility for checking whether or not the ends of a section are connected. With the bracing member as your current element, select Utilities>Beams & Columns. From the menu bar of the small form which results, pick Tag>All ends. The ends of the current section should both be tagged as Connected. (You will see another way of checking connectivity later.) Rather than create and position the other two bracing members B4-C3 and C5-D6 by repeating the preceding sequence of operations, a short-cut is used by copying the existing A1-B2 section. Each copy is repositioned by defining it as a mirror image of its original reflected in an appropriate plane. Exercise continues: 109. Select Create>Copy>Mirror. The Mirror form displays which allows you to specify what you want to copy (Object), where the copies are to be stored in the database hierarchy, and the plane in which the copy position is to reflected. 110. Assuming that you are still at the bracing member, set the Object to be copied to CE and set the to option to Rel. Set the Type of mirror option to Mirror Copy (since you want to create a new element rather than simply reposition the original one).

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111. The plane in which you want to reflect the copied section is represented by the shaded area in the following diagram:

Ex is tin g m e m be r

Co p ie d m e m be r

U E

This plane is specified in terms of its direction (i.e. the direction of the normal to the plane) and of the position of any point within it. The Mirror form provides several methods of specifying these by picking items in the existing model; Column B is used to define the position and the direction entered explicitly. 112. Select Cursor>Element from the Mirror forms menu and, when prompted, pick any part of Column B. The position identified snaps to the start or end of this column (depending on where you picked) and its coordinates are entered into the East/North/ Up text boxes automatically. A symbolic representation of the planes position and orientation is shown in the graphical view. Note that the Plane Direction text box now shows the cutplane direction of the columns start or end (namely Up or Down). Change this to East and observe the reorientation of the symbolic plane in the graphical view. Note: If you want to enter the Plane Direction before you pick the position, select the Lock check box to prevent its setting being updated when you pick the position. The form settings should now look as shown (the Up coordinate will be 9000 rather than 0 if you picked near the top of Column B rather than near the bottom):

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113. Click Apply to create the mirrored copy and, when prompted, confirm that you want to retain the copy. 114. Using the same procedure, create the third bracing member (C5-D6) by copying and reflecting the second member (B4-C3). 115. The two copies which you have just created should be positioned correctly, but will not yet be connected. To check this, instead of using the Tag utility for each new bracing member, select Query>End Connections. The resulting Highlight Connections form lets you see the connectivity status of all relevant members of the current element. 116. Navigate to the SubFrame TESTSBFR and click the CE button on the Highlight Connections form to update the displayed data. The numbers on the coloured buttons show the number of sections in each category: they should show 40 sections with both ends connected and 16 sections with neither end connected. Select the corresponding Highlight check boxes to colour the sections in the 3D View; click on a coloured button if you would prefer a different highlight colour. Note: You might think that the upper ends of the columns should be shown as connected. However, the beams at those points are connected (via Secondary Joints) to Secondary Nodes positioned along the columns, rather than to Primary Nodes at the column extremities. Therefore, even though the Secondary Nodes in this case happen to be coincident with the tops of the columns, the diagnoses are correct. 117. To connect the ends of the two bracing sections to the appropriate columns, select Connect>Connect and follow the status bar prompts carefully. (Escape terminates each stage of the process in the usual way.) Use the Highlight Connections form again to confirm the results.

6.4

Adding Standard Bracing Configurations


To avoid the need for creating individual bracing sections as you have just done, the application provides a quick way of adding some predefined bracing configurations. To demonstrate this facility, you will first add a cross bracing configuration (using angle sections) in the vertical plane and then a diamond bracing configuration (using universal beam sections) in the horizontal plane, in the locations shown by the thick black lines in the following diagram:

U N E

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Exercise continues: 118. Select Create>Sections>Bracing configurations. The Bracing form displays. This form does not use the default settings for section data, so first set the following: Storage area to the Subframe /TESTSBFR; Profile to British Standard, Equal Angle, 70x70x6.0; Justification to NAL (Neutral Axis Left: this will align the angle sections back-toback; see diagram in Sample Plots); Member Line and Joint Line to NA. Bracing Plane : leave the option set to Derived by Section so that the bracing members will lie in the same plane as the sections to which they will be attached.

119. In the Available Bracing Configurations list, select Cross Bracing. Notice how the parameterised diagram shows the details of the selected configuration. The diagram shows the dimensions which must be specified (A, B) and the order in which existing sections must be picked (1, 2, ...) so as to position and connect the bracing members correctly. For the cross bracing configuration it looks as shown:

Gap B Pick 2 Pick 1 Gap A Note: In our design this datum is the lower end of the column, since, there is no cross beam at this position.

120. Click Apply. The Cross Bracing form displays. Set Gap A to 150 and Gap B to 300. Select Confirm. You are now in event-driven graphics mode. Using the diagram on the Bracing form as a guide, pick the two columns between which the bracing members are to be connected. To achieve the required configuration, make sure that your first pick is near the bottom of the first column and that your second pick is just below the cross beam on the second column; that is, pick reasonably close to the required connection points for the bracing members. When you are satisfied with the configuration shown in the graphical view, accept the creation of the sections forming the bracing members and then Dismiss the Bracing form. 121. Repeat the procedure used in the previous steps to create the diamond bracing at the top of the structure. Set the Profile to British Standard, Universal Beams, 203x133x25, and the Justification, Member Line and Joint Line all to NA. In the Available Bracing Configurations list, select Diamond Bracing. The parameterised diagram shows that you need to specify the separations between the bracing members for each pair of opposing sections. 122. Click Apply to display the Diamond Bracing form on which the data can be entered. Set both Gap A and Gap B to 500, leave confirm selected, and pick the four beams (in the correct sequence, as shown in the diagram) to complete the operation. Dismiss the Bracing form when you have finished. Note: You must dismiss the Diamond Bracing form, thereby leaving event-driven graphics mode, in order to change the bracing configuration. If you want to add more sections using the current bracing configuration, however, you can simply continue picking connection points in the graphical view.

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6.5

Representing Joints
Although each connection has created a corresponding Secondary Joint element in the DESIGN database (shown in the Design Explorer as SJOIs, owned by SNODs), these do not yet have any geometry associated with them and are not therefore shown in the graphical view. In order to represent them properly, a catalogue specification must be associated with each joint (in the same way that each section profile is defined by an associated catalogue specification). Joints have a number of attributes whose settings allow you to position and orientate them and to modify the ends of sections connected to them. The most important of these attributes are looked at here, so that you can represent some simple joints in your design model. The key to success lies in the optimum design of the joint as defined in the catalogue, which is a specialised field beyond the scope of this user guide. The following topics illustrate the main features (do not try to remember them all now; refer back here when necessary): A Shelf Angle Joint as defined in the Catalogue: (only the Neutral Axis pline is shown for clarity)

Z Y X Origin plane is X,Y plane through origin. Origin plane direction is Z. Plines extrude in Y direction. Pline direction is Z direction Note: Origin plane is shown by heavy lines in the following diagrams. NA Origin

Position and Orientation of a Secondary Joint Relative to a Secondary Node:


Beta Angle (BANG) defines orientation about Z axis Origin Plane Direction (OPDI) defines orientation about X,Y axes Z Y X Owning Section (2D view only) Position Line (POSL) (here set to TOS) defines position TOS NA SNode BOS ZDIST defines position of SNode relative to POSS of Section

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Connecting a Joint to the Start of an Attached Section:


Owning Section BOS NA TOS TOS SNode POSS BANG of Joint BOS OPDI of Joint JLIN of Joint set to BOS of Attached Section JLIN of Attached Section set to NA of Joint POSL of Joint set to TOS of Owning Section Logical Connectivity: JOIS of Attached Section points to Joint CREF of Joint points to Attached Section CTYA of Joint must match CTYS of Attached Section (for connection compatibility) BANG of Section NA Attached Section

Note how the origin plane of the Joint is set with reference to the Owning Section (via the POSL attribute), while its position within the constraints of that plane is set with reference to the Attached Section (by aligning the plines defined by the JLINs of both Joint and Section). That is, with reference to the orientation of the diagram, the Joint is moved horizontally by changing its POSL and vertically by changing its JLIN. Both the Section and the Joint can be rotated independently by changing their BANGs (the Section rotates about its NA, the Joint about its OPDI). How the Section end configuration depends on the Joint to which it is attached: (using a wedge-shaped Joint to demonstrate the principles)
Owning Section NA POSS offset along NA by Cutback (CUTB) of Joint

SNode

POSS DRNS of Attached Section determined by CUTP of Joint

NA

Attached Section

Joint's Cutting Plane

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Exercise continues: For the purpose of this exercise, you will add some simple bolted flanges where the beams are attached to the columns. Remember that the joint elements (SJOIs in the Design Explorer) already exist as a result of connecting the sections together; you need only set a pointer to the joint specification in the catalogue to define each joints geometry. 123. Select Modify>Joints>Specification. When prompted to Identify end of section joint is connected to, pick the end of any N-S beam (that is, any beam which abuts a column flange rather than a web) where you want to insert a bolted joint. A Joint Specification form is displayed for the joint to which your picked section end is attached. 124. The method for selecting from the available joint specifications is the same as that which you used to select section profiles. Select Column Connections, Column Flange, 6M24_flange, leaving all other form settings at their defaults. 125. Click the Properties... button. A subsidiary Modify Properties form displays which lets you specify some local dimensional data for the selected type of joint. Set Thickness of Plt to 10, Dist from TOS to 0, and Dist from BOS to 30. OK the Modify Properties form and Apply the Joint Specification form to complete the setting of the joint specification. (The geometry of most types of joint can be modified via appropriate entries on a form such as this, depending on how the catalogue has been set up.) 126. To see a correct representation of the joint, you must set up the graphical view so that it displays holes (negative volumes) as well as solid items (positive volumes). To do so, select Settings> Graphics from the main menu bar and, on the Representation tab, select the Holes Drawn check box. OK the settings. Zoom in close to the beam end to see what the joint looks like. Notice how the height and width of the endplate have been set automatically from the dimensions of the beam and column, respectively, with adjustments to suit the values entered on the Define Properties form. This is possible because the joint dimensions in the catalogue are specified as design parameters whose values are derived from the attached and owning sections. The joint should look something like this:

Section end used to identify joint

Dist from BOS = 30 Thickness of Plt = 10

Notice how the attached beam has been shortened to accommodate the thickness of the plate and how the bolt holes in the plate have generated corresponding holes in the column flanges. 127. The position of the joint relative to the profile of the column (i.e. its owning section) is determined by the joints position line. To see the effect of changing this, select

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Modify>Joints>Position Line. The displayed Position Line form shows the current setting as either BOS or TOS (depending at which end of the beam the joint is situated). Change this to the opposite setting (i.e. TOS or BOS), select the Re-trim attached section check box, and click Apply. The joint and its attached section end will move thus:

(view rotated)
Section end used to identify joint

128. Reposition the joint correctly, then Dismiss the Position Line and Joint Specification forms. 129. Rather than set each joint specification explicitly, you can apply the specification for one joint to other joints. This facility is used to specify the joint at the other end of the beam which you have just been looking at. To do so, select Modify>Joints>Joint Like>Maintain Pline. When prompted to Identify end of section to be copied like, pick the same section end as picked previously. When prompted to Identify section end to be modified, pick the other end of the same beam. Press Escape for both of the next prompts (you are only modifying one joint in this step). Zoom in close to the second joint and notice how its geometry matches that of the first joint. The position line settings for the two joints are, however, set automatically to opposite flanges of the column (TOS for one, BOS for the other), to give the correct alignment. Note: If the joints were handed, such as a shelf angle, you would also see that the second joint has been rotated automatically about its vertical axis to match the start/end directions of the section. This is not apparent for the endplate, but if you select Query>Attributes you will be able to see which attributes differ between the two joints. 130. Using the same method as in the previous step, set the specifications for some of the other column flange joints.

6.6

Dominant Versus Subordinate Joints


When you reposition a joint which has one or more attached sections, the effect on those sections depends upon whether or not the joint has been defined as dominant or subordinate, as defined by the setting of the joints Joint Freedom (JFRE) attribute. If JFRE is set to False (the default for a new joint), the joint is said to be subordinate (also described by saying that the section is dominant). If JFRE is set to True, the joint is said to be dominant. Consider the following effects, where the joints owning section is moved thus:

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You will use this feature in the next part of the exercise.

6.7

Moving Part of the Structure and Maintaining Correct Geometry


In the next part of the exercise, you will move the columns and beams at the eastern end of our structure to increase the overall length of the design model. This will require the horizontal beams and the bracing member connected to the moved columns to be extended and, in the case of the bracing member, realigned to maintain the correct configuration. The objective is to demonstrate the dominant joint concept (as described in Dominant Versus Subordinate Joints) and to show how you can easily restore geometry between sections which has been disrupted by moving parts of a structure independently. The result which you want to achieve is as follows, where the thick black sections will be moved explicitly and the broken lines indicate the new final configuration:
The joints marked * must be dominant

* * * * * * *

Note realignment of bracing member

U N E

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Exercise continues: 131. In order to make the bracing member realign itself to maintain the specified bracing gap, the joint to which it is connected must be dominant. To ensure this, you will make the joints dominant at both ends of all bracing sections (as would be normal practice). For the purposes of this exercise, you will also make dominant the joints at both ends of each of the four N-S beams between the columns to be moved (i.e. the beams shown shaded in the preceding diagram). Select Connect>Joint Dominant. Each joint is identified by picking the section end to which it is connected. When prompted, pick both ends of each bracing member created in Adding and Modifying Simple Bracing (six picks) and the ends of all relevant beams (eight picks). Press Escape when you have finished. Note: This part of the exercise has been designed to illustrate, among other features, the concept of joint dominance. In normal practice, only the joints at the ends of the bracing members would be made dominant. 132. Use the Utilities>Lists facility to create a new list and use the Add>Identified option to add into it the four columns to be moved (shown black in the preceding diagram). 133. Select Position>Relatively (BY). The Position By form displays which allows you move an item by a given distance in a given direction. Use the option button near the top-left of the form to set the item to be moved to the list containing the columns (Current List). Enter the required movement in the By text boxes; in this case specify a move by 2000mm in the East direction. When you Apply the settings, the columns should move as shown:

U N E

At first sight, this appears to be a rather disastrous result. However, as long as you have set all of the connectivity rules correctly, particularly the joint dominance settings, you can easily rectify the problem by reconnecting all of the sections which should be connected to the columns. 134. Select Connect>Trim to Section>all attached. When prompted, pick each of the four columns in turn, then press Escape and watch the results in the graphical view as the correct geometry is restored. Note: The Trim to Section differs from the Trim to Pline option, which was used before, in that Trim to Section maintains the existing pline connectivity, thereby retaining any

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previously defined trimming, whereas Trim to Pline resets the connectivity to an explicit or rule-defined pline.) 135. Save your design changes. That concludes the introduction to the basic operations involved in the design of a simple structural framework. In the next part of the guide you look at how to add some sheet cladding (floor plates and/or wall panels) to your structure.

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Adding Panels and Plates

Adding Panels and Plates


In this chapter, you will change to another of the structural design applications, namely the Panels & Plates application, and add a floor plate to your existing structure. You will then modify this in various ways to demonstrate some of the facilities provided for detailing panels. Note: The facilities which are looked at next allow you to add planar material to the design model in any orientation. Throughout this text, the term panel is used for such items in all descriptions, regardless of whether the element represents a horizontal floor plate, a vertical wall panel, a sloping roof panel, or any similar planar item.

7.1

Starting the Panels & Plates Application


In order to access the panel design facilities, you must leave the Beams & Columns application and load the complementary Panels & Plates application. Many of the options available in the latter application are very similar to those which you have already learned to use from the preceding chapters of this guide, so only the differences will be dealt with in any detail. Excerise continues: 136. Select Design>Structures>Panels & Plates from the main menu bar, or click the button. The main menu bar and tool bar will change, although the differences may not be obvious at a first glance. They now look as shown:

Look at each pull-down menu in turn; you will see that the options in the upper parts of the menus are common to the equivalent Beams & Columns menus, whereas many of the options in the lower parts of the menus are specific to the Panels & Plates application.

7.2

How PDMS Represents Panels


A Panel (PANE) element can be used to represent any sheet material used to clad a structural model. Using a similar principle to that for representing a Section (which is an

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extruded 2D catalogue Profile), a Panel is represented by extruding a user-defined 2D shape. Its geometry is defined by two types of data: The panels planar area is defined by a Panel Loop (PLOO) element, which is itself defined by linking together a set of Panel Vertex (PAVE) elements, each of which has a specific position in the panels 2D coordinate system. Each panel Edge is defined by a line joining adjacent vertices. The panel thickness is defined by setting the Height (HEIG) attribute of the Panel Loop. This represents the distance through which the 2D Panel Loop is extruded to form the 3D panel.

Panel (PANE)

Panel thickness = HEIG of PLOO

= Panel Loop (PLOO) = Panel Vertex (PAVE)

Note: The resulting justification of a panel may be dependent upon the clockwise/ anticlockwise direction of creation for the panel. Each Panel Vertex can have an optional Fillet Radius setting which represents a circular arc which curves towards (positive radius) or away from (negative radius) the vertex position, as shown:

PAVE with +ve radius

PAVE with -ve radius

The default radius of zero denotes a point.

7.3

Setting Default Storage Areas


In the next part of the exercise you will set up some defaults to customise the application to suit our planned method of working, just as you did for the Beams & Columns application. You will specify where the principal panel design elements are to be stored in the DESIGN database hierarchy.

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Excercise continues: 137. Rather than using the Settings>Storage Areas option, a short-cut method is used to set default storage areas for Panels and Panel Linear Joints (which will be looked at later). Both types of element will be stored under the same SubFrame which you have been using for your basic framework design. Navigate to TESTSBFR and then click the (Panels) and (Panel Linear Joints) buttons in turn. These automatically set the storage areas to the current element. The current storage area settings are shown as:

7.4

Creating Simple Panels


You will first create a panel which defines the overall area of a large floor plate and then divide this up into more manageable sizes such as might be specified for fabrication purposes. These panels represent the schematic areas only; you will defer detailed trimming of the edges to fit around structural sections etc. until a little later. Exercise continues: 138. Select Create>Panel. The Create Panel form displays which provides, among its other settings, various ways of specifying the positions of vertices. 139. The optional names for panels are not entered in this exercise. Set the Justification to Bottom (this allows you to position the bottom face of the panels on the top of their supporting sections) and set the Thickness to 30. 140. Leave the Representation set to Predefined: Default for now. These settings (Levels and Obstruction) affect the way items are shown in 3D views and how they are dealt with when checking for clashes between design items; the defaults should be adequate for your current purposes. 141. You will define the positions of four vertices, V1-V4, which define the overall area of the floor plate shown shaded in the following diagram (all bracing members omitted for clarity):

V1

V2

V4

V3

U N E

(The broken lines A-A and B-B show where you will later split the panel into three.)

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The Create Methods buttons give you several ways to define each vertex. The methods used are: allows you pick a point graphically using any of the standard pointer picking options allows you specify a distance and direction relative to the preceding vertex In the next steps, these options are used to illustrate the principles. 142. Click the button. The Positioning Control form indicates that you are now in event-driven graphics mode, ready to pick the position of the first vertex. Set Pick Type to Element and set Pick Method to Intersect. Now pick the column and either of the beams whose intersection coincides with V1 in the preceding diagram. The text below the icon buttons on the Create Panel form will change from No vertices currently defined to 1 Vertices defined (no Panel created). Note: The first vertex defined for a new panel becomes the panels origin (as displayed) by default. You can change this later if required. 143. Repeat this point-picking procedure to define V2 and V3, in that order. As soon as you have defined three vertices, the plane of the new panel is shown in the graphical view (as a triangle) and a PANEL element added into the Design Explorer. 144. As a demonstration, V4 is positioned relative to V3. Click the button. The Define vertex form displays on which you can specify the required offset. Set the Direction to West and the Distance to 20000. Click Apply to create the vertex. The text below the icon buttons on the Create Panel form now says 4 Vertices defined (Panel created). 145. Leave the Display modification form check box clear (you would select this only if you wanted to modify the panel vertices immediately). Click OK to complete the panel creation operation. Note that the Design Explorer now includes one PANEL, one PLOOP and four PAVERT elements (as defined in How PDMS Represents Panels).

7.5

Measuring Distances/Directions in the Design Model


When you completed the Define Vertex form in the previous step, you had to enter the required distance between V3 and V4; that is, the overall length of the structure in the EastWest direction. The figure which you entered (20000) was derived from knowledge of the original design data. Instead of calculating this, you could have measured it by means of a useful utility, as follows: Exercise contiunes: 146. Either select Query>Measure Distance or click the button. The Measure form and the Positioning Control form are displayed, which together allow you to measure the distance between any two points or lines in the design model. On the Positioning Control form, set Pick Type to Element and Pick Method to Snap, then pick near the tops or bottoms (but not one of each) of the columns through the V4 and V3 positions. Note: Zoom in if necessary and pick carefully at the ends connected to bracing sections to avoid snapping to the secondary nodes rather than the column extremities.

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The Information area on the Measure form shows the direct distance between the Neutral Axes of the sections, the XYZ components of that distance, and the direction of the second point relative to the first. The distance is also shown in the graphical view. 147. Experiment with some other graphical picking options to measure a few other distances and directions, including some in skewed directions, then dismiss the Measure form.

7.6

Splitting a Panel
You will now split the new panel along the axes of the intermediate beams which support it (shown by the broken lines A-A and B-B in the previous diagram), thus forming three smaller panels. 148. Ensure that the panel is the current element (shown as PANEL 1 in the Design Explorer) and select Modify>Split Panel. When prompted to Pick ... to be split on, pick either of the beams aligned along A-A in the diagram. (You might need to change the view direction so that the beam you want to pick is not obscured by the panel; alternatively, you can pick either of the other beams which are aligned parallel to A-A in the required plane.) The panel will be split along the picked line to form two separate panels, each with its own panel loop and set of four vertices. 149. Note that your current element is still PANEL 1, which is the smaller of the two panels. Navigate to the larger panel, PANEL 2, and split this along B-B to give a total of three panels. Note: You can only split a panel along the axis of an existing element. To introduce a split line anywhere else, simply create a section where you want the split to occur, split the panel, then delete the section.

7.7

Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices


The edges of the panels which you have created run from vertex to vertex along the centrelines of the beam flanges on which they rest. While this may be an adequate representation for an overall design layout, you will usually need to detail the edges more accurately for fabrication purposes. To do so, you can add, delete or reposition individual vertices which define the shape of the panel loop. To introduce this concept, you will add intermediate vertices between existing panel corners so that the edges fit round the columns which intersect them. You will also set a radius for some of the vertices to give rounded corners. Note: When you split your original panel into three, new vertices were created automatically, so the vertex numbers for the current panels do not correspond to those of the original panel. As you insert new vertices, the numbering will change to accommodate them, so care is needed to check that you are at the correct vertex for each panel editing operation. Exercise continues: 150. Navigate to the westernmost panel (i.e. that between V1-A-A-V4 in the previous diagram) and select Modify>Extrusion/Panel. The Loop Vertex Editor form displays which allows you to modify the shape of the current panel by manipulating individual vertices, edges between vertices, groups of vertices, etc. Whatever methods you use for picking new positions, all vertices are constrained to remain in the plane of the panel loop (i.e., the underside of the panel) throughout these operations.

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151. Check that the options Settings>Confirm and Settings>Confirm on delete from this forms menu bar are both selected. The active controls on the form, and their titles, change to suit the current circumstances as you use the form. As displayed now, you will notice that many of the buttons (especially those relating to Group and Line operations) are greyed out. The upper part of the form shows that the current focus is on Vertex 1, while the lower part shows the coordinates and fillet radius of this vertex, as shown:

The geometry of the current panel in Plan view (not to scale) is as follows:

V2

V3

P
V7

E L
V6

V1
V8 V5

V4

Y
V1 V4

New vertices to be inserted

Origin at V1

You will insert four new vertices between V4 and V1, as shown in the inset view, so that this panel edge fits round the column (note that V4 comes before V1 when defining this edge, since vertex numbering is clockwise as viewed in the diagram). 152. .Each new vertex is added to the sequence immediately after the current vertex, so first navigate to V4 in either of the following ways: Click the select vertex/edge button on the Loop Vertex Editor form and pick the p-point at V4. Note that, because this position is within the column, you might find it easier to switch to wireline mode to see it. Use the up/down arrow buttons next to the displayed vertex number to step through the vertex list sequentially. Notice how the current vertex and the edge direction to the next vertex are shown in the 3D View as you do this. If you know the number of the vertex you want, you can type it directly in the Vertex number field. Do not forget, though, that the numbering may change as you edit the list; it is usually safer to pick a vertex graphically.

153. Click the Create points button in the Mode Selection area of the Loop Vertex Editor form. Set the Positioning Control to Element Snap and position the vertex at the end of the beam which joins the column from the direction of V4 (i.e. at point V5 on

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the diagram). A New vertex tag is added to the graphical view so that you can check the proposed position; if it is correct, click the Create button at the bottom of the Loop Vertex Editor form to confirm the creation. Notice that the new vertex is now the current vertex (labelled <5>), ready for the next one to be added after it. 154. Position the next vertex, V6, at the intersection of the corner of the column with the panel. To do so, click the button again, set the Positioning Control to Pline Snap, and pick the column pline which passes through the required point (RBOS or LBOS; see diagram in Straight Sections). If you cannot pick the pline you want, select Settings>Pick Filters>Plines from the main menu bar and reset the current filtering rule to No Rule (it is probably still set to Extremities). Do not forget to click Create when you have positioned the vertex. 155. Create V7 and V8 by using similar methods to those in the previous steps. Rotate the graphical model as necessary and check that the panel now incorporates a cut-out which fits round the column, as shown in the preceding diagram. At present the panel edges are abutted against the column flanges. Next a small clearance gap is introduced by moving the relevant vertices using the explicit editing facilities. 156. To change from create mode to modify mode, click the button and pick V5. Note how its current settings are copied into the Vertex area at the bottom of the form (X, Y and Radius text-boxes). To introduce a 10mm clearance, change the setting in the X box by adding 10 (the axes, shown at the panels origin, are useful here for checking directions in the panels coordinate system). Click the Modify button to confirm the new setting. 157. Repeat the procedure from the previous step, adding or subtracting as necessary, to move V6, V7 and V8 to give a 10mm clearance all round, noting that V6 and V7 must be moved in both the X and Y directions. 158. Pick V6 and change the Radius setting from the default of zero to 15mm. Update the V6 data to the new setting, then repeat the process for V7. The final result is as shown:

V7 P AN EL

V6

V8

V5

(Set the view to Look>Down and zoom in to see this in detail. You might find it easier to see the detail if you switch to wireline mode.)

7.8

Moving Panel Edges to New Positions


So far, you have aligned the panel edges along the centrelines of the beam flanges on which they are supported. You will now move the panel edges linking V4-V5 and V8-V1 to the outer edges of the beams. The new position is specified by aligning the edge with the appropriate pline of the beam on which it rests (shown as LTOS in the diagram):

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V7 P ANE L

V6

RTOS

Move edge

Move edge
TOS LTOS

V1

V8

V5

V4

Exercise continues: 159. Still using the Loop Vertex Editor form, click the select edge to modify button in the Mode Selection area and then pick a point on the panel near the edge between V4 and V5. Notice how the upper part of the form now shows the current focus as Edge 4, while the lower part shows the coordinates of the Start of the edge (i.e. V4) and the length of the edge, thus:

Notice also that the controls in the Line area are now active (they were previously greyed out). These are examples of how the form changes to suit current circumstances. 160. By default, the next modification would be applied only to the Start position of the edge; as shown by the Start option, and the fact that START is tagged in uppercase letters in the 3D View (at the V4 end of the beam). You want to move the whole edge (that is, you want to move V4 and V5 simultaneously), so change the option to Aligned, thus:

Set the Positioning Control to Pline Snap, pick the LTOS pline on the top outer edge of the beam and then click the Modify button to move the panel edge to this position. 161. Select Settings>Tag edges from the Loop Vertex Editor menu. Repeat the method of the previous steps to move Edge 8 (V8-V1) to the outer edge of its supporting beam. 162. Use the same process to move the non-abutting edges of all three panels to the outer edges of their supporting beams (but do not modify any more edges to fit round columns yet; other ways of doing this will be looked at later).

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7.9

Creating Negative Extrusions


In exactly the same way that you position Panel Vertex elements to define the shape of a 2D Panel Loop and then extrude this by the required thickness to create a 3D Panel, as illustrated in How PDMS Represents Panels, so you can also position Vertex (VERT) elements to form a 2D Loop (LOOP) and then extrude this to create a 3D Negative Extrusion (NXTR). The difference is that, as its name implies, the negative extrusion represents a negative volume, that is, a hole. (You have already encountered negative volumes used in the catalogue definition of a bolted flange, where they were used to remove the end of the section to accommodate the joint and to represent bolt holes through both the joint and the flange of its owning column). A negative extrusion is owned by the panel through which the hole is required. When created, its justification is set automatically to be the same as that of its owning panel, although you can move it later if necessary. You will use this facility to create a hole through the floor plate where one of the columns passes through it. The negative extrusion will have the same shape as that created by the interposed vertices (V5-V8) in the preceding diagram, namely:

V3
P AN EL

V4

Panel V3
V2

N EGATIVE EXTR US ION

Panel V2
V1

Note: Vertices V1-V4 in this diagram define the negative extrusion; their numbering is independent of the panel vertices. (Negative extrusion vertices are shown in italic to distinguish them from panel vertices.) Notice how the outer edge of the negative extrusion (V1-V2) extends beyond the outer edge of the panel to ensure that the hole always penetrates through the panel edge. Similarly, the thickness of the negative extrusion should exceed the thickness of the panel to ensure that the hole always penetrates completely through the panel. Exercise continues: 163. You will create the negative extrusion where a column passes through the midpoint of the easternmost edge of the largest panel (that is, at the opposite end of the structure from the vertices added in Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices). Navigate to that panel (which should be PANEL 3 in the Design Explorer) and select Create>Negative Extrusion. The Create Negative Extrusion form (similar to the Create Panel form which you used earlier) is displayed. 164. To see the negative extrusion volume in the graphical view when you create it, select Settings>Graphics>Representation and clear the Holes Drawn check box. Select the Update all Graphics check box and OK the change.

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165. To achieve the correct justification and orientation for the negative extrusion relative to its owning panel, click the Surface button in the Settings area of the form, then pick the upper face of the panel. Note: To get a better view, zoom in close to the panel and the column of interest and look along (and slightly above) the panel. The hole will penetrate into (or, in your case, through) the panel thickness from this surface. 166. Set Hole Depth (equivalent to the thickness of the negative extrusion) to 250. This large depth will make it easy to see the volume of the negative extrusion once you have created it: a depth slightly greater than the panel thickness would normally suffice, since the application automatically adds 1mm to ensure that the hole always cuts through the referenced panel surface. The settings should now be as shown:

167. Using any combination of the methods which you used to create and modify panel vertices (see Creating Simple Panels and Tailoring Panel Edges by Editing Individual Vertices), create the four vertices needed to define the required hole round the column, as shown in the preceding diagram. For ease of positioning, align V1 and V2 with the outer face of the column (although any position beyond the panel edge would be satisfactory). Introduce a clearance of 10mm round the column and set the radii of the two vertices within the panel area to 15mm. Note that the origin plane of the negative extrusion is its bottom face, as shown by the positions of the graphical aids when you are creating and modifying its vertices. 168. When created, the negative extrusion will appear as an outline volume superimposed on the design in the graphical view. If you have positioned it correctly, its upper face will just protrude from the top face of the panel, as shown:
Look>West: Look>North:

Negative extrusion V2 V1 Panel V3

Negative extrusion V2

(If not, use the Position>Relatively (BY) menu option to move the negative extrusion vertically to a position where it cuts both faces of the panel.) 169. To see the result of applying the negative volume represented by the negative extrusion to the positive volume of the panel, revert to Holes Drawn On representation. Notice how the negative extrusion creates a hole only through its owning panel; it does not affect the column. Note: The effects of the Holes Drawn setting on the Representation form: When Holes Drawn is Off, negative volumes are shown as outline shapes in the graphical view and can be picked using the pointer (you must pick a visible edge, not an invisible surface). Their effect of removing material from positive (solid) items in the

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design is not shown. Use this mode when explicitly creating or modifying a negative item. When Holes Drawn is On, negative volumes are not shown explicitly in the graphical view and cannot be picked using the pointer (although you can still navigate to them using the Design Explorer as normal). Only their effect on positive volumes through which they pass is visible. Use this mode for normal design work to view a realistic 3D representation of the design model.

That concludes the addition of simple panels to the structural framework, including two methods for representing holes in the panels where they fit round structural members. In the next part of the guide, you will look at ways of adding predefined catalogue fittings to panels.

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Using Panel Fittings

Using Panel Fittings


In this chapter the concept of Panel Fittings is introduced and then such a fitting is incorporated into the design to represent a manhole giving access through a floor plate.

8.1

How Panel Fittings are Defined


A Single Panel Fitting (PFIT) is a catalogue item which can be used to represent any type of geometric entity which is to be owned by, and positioned relative to, a panel. Typically, the catalogue might include panel fittings representing doors, windows, access manholes, lifting lugs, and so on. As with the bolted joint which you used earlier, panel fittings can incorporate (or consist entirely of) negative volumes which represent holes in their owning panels. A panel fitting is positioned relative to its owning panels origin by setting its Position (POSI) attribute and is orientated about an axis perpendicular to the panel by setting its Beta Angle (BANG) attribute. It can be justified to align its origin plane with the top face, centre plane, or bottom face of the panel by setting its Justification (SJUS) attribute. As an example, a stylised manhole might be defined like this:
Z

Positive volume representing lid Negative volume representing hole through panel

Beta Angle defines orientation about Z axis


X

Origin Plane determines justification relative to panel

Origin

When you create a new panel fitting, it is positioned automatically at the origin of its owning panel. You can then move it to the required position in any of the standard ways.

8.2

Creating a Panel Fitting


Exercise continues: 170. Navigate to the panel in which you want to insert the manhole and select Create>Fittings>Single. The Create Panel Fitting form displays giving access to all available panel fitting specifications in the current catalogue. Because you are creating a new panel fitting, rather than modifying the specification of an existing one, the form is set to show New Panel Fitting as the current element.

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Select the Specification for Standard Access, Access Cover, Standard Manhole Access, ACCESS_COVER (probably the only item in the list). Set the Justification to Top outwards. These options let you specify the panel plane (top, centre or bottom) to be used as the alignment datum and the orientation of the fitting relative to this plane, as shown:
Top outwards Centre outwards Bottom inwards

Top inwards

Centre inwards

Bottom outwards

171. By default, the fitting will be positioned at the origin of its owning panel (as shown by the Position field). We will position it by eye, using the pointer. Click the Pick Position button , set the Positioning Control to either Graphics Snap or Graphics Cursor, and pick a point somewhere near the centre of the panel area. OK the Pick Fitting Position form to transfer the coordinates of the picked position to the Create Panel Fitting form, then Apply the latter to create the fitting. The new panel fitting is shown in the Design Explorer as a PFITTING owned by the PANEL. 172. With the PFIT as your current element, select Orientate> Angle>90 Degrees to rotate the fitting within the plane of the panel. (The default orientation has the Beta Angle set to zero.) 173. To see the effects of changing the justification, select Modify>Fitting and, on the resulting Modify Panel Fitting form, try each of the Justification options in turn. Zoom in and look at both faces of the panel to see how the negative part of the fitting creates the necessary access hole. Reset whichever justification you think is most appropriate before dismissing the form. Note: Sections can also own Fittings (FITTs rather than PFITs in this case) which can serve a similarly wide range of purposes. You will not look explicitly at these in the exercise, but similar principles apply to their creation and manipulation. You may want to experiment with these yourself by switching to the Beams & Columns application: see Some Standard Fittings for some examples. Note that such a fitting is positioned along its owning section by setting its distance from the sections start (the Zdistance). More complex fittings may be represented by Compound Fittings, each of which can own a set of Subfittings. You will see an example of how these may be used when you look at Penetrations in the next chapter.

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Penetrating One Item With Another

Penetrating One Item With Another


Several of the design applications include the concept of a Penetration to allow one or more items to pass through another such that there is a logical link between the penetrating and penetrated items (in contrast to, say, a negative extrusion which can be positioned and dimensioned independently of any item which passes through it or through which it passes). In this chapter you will use this facility to show yet another way of creating a hole in a panel where a section passes through it. For information on Penetration and Hole Management refer to Introduction to Common Functionality.

9.1

How a Penetration is Defined


Each type of penetration is a selectable catalogue item whose dimensions are parameterised in such a way that they can be derived automatically from the dimensions of the component which passes through the hole. You can modify the final dimensions by specifying clearance distances etc. to allow for any special requirements of the local design geometry. Such a penetration can be used where pipes or sections pass through a panel, or, with some restrictions, through a section. The element types used to represent a panel penetration are as follows: The point along a pipe at which it passes through a penetration is represented by an Attachment (ATTA) element owned by the appropriate Branch. The point along a section at which it passes through a penetration is represented by a Fitting (FITT) element. The point at which a penetration is positioned through a panel is represented by a Compound Panel Fitting (CMPF) element which owns a separate Subfitting (SBFI) for each associated penetrating item.

When you create a panel penetration, the application sets up cross- references between the ATTA or FITT and the CMPF/SBFI, as shown:

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ATTA owned by Branch SBFI by CMPF; CMPF by panel

FITT owned by Section SBFI by CMPF; CMPF by panel

Branch

Panel

Section

Panel

CREF of ATTA points to CREF of SBFI points to ATTA

CREF of FITT points to CREF of SBFI points to FITT

(These diagrams show only single penetrations, where each CMPF owns just one SBFI. For a multiple penetration, each CMPF would own one SBFI for each penetrating pipe or section.) For your present purposes, you will consider only the case of a structural section passing through a panel, so you will be concerned with specifying a FITT and a SBFI for each penetration.

9.2

Creating a Steelwork Penetration


Your design model currently looks like this (bracing members and manhole omitted for clarity), showing the two methods so far used for allowing columns to pass through panels:

Vertices fitted round column

PANEL 1

PANEL 2

PANEL 3

Negative extrusion

Penetration to go here N U E

You will now add a penetration, as indicated in the above diagram, to allow the column to pass through the corner of Panel 1. Exercise continues: 174. You can create a penetration for a section through a panel either from the Beams & Columns application or from the Panels & Plates application. From either application, the penetrating item will be dominant in determining the penetrations position and geometry; that is, whether it is the section or the panel which is to be regarded as the owner of the penetration. Here you want the penetration to be owned by the section. Change to the Beams & Columns application. 175. Select Utilities> Penetrations. This starts the Panels Penetration subapplication, whose menu bar is displayed in addition to the existing Beams & Columns Application menu. Both menus are active: one gives access to the general steelwork design functions, the other accesses those functions specific to penetration design.

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176. From the Panels Penetration Application menu bar select Create>Penetration then select Steel Penetration. The Create Section Penetrations form displays. This form requires you to specify four types of data: Whether the penetration is to allow for a single penetrating item or for multiple items. How you want to identify the panel(s) through which the penetration is to pass (the penetrated items). How you want to identify the section(s) which are to pass through the penetration (the penetrating items).

The default specification of the catalogue penetration which is to be used (the first penetration in the selected specification will be used by default). Set the Penetration Type option to Single Penetration. Set both the Elements to be penetrated and Elements that penetrate options to Pick using cursor, showing that you will identify each item individually by picking it in the graphical view. Set the Defaults: Spec. option to Penetrations. Select the Confirm before penetrating check box and click Apply. You will be prompted to Identify item to be penetrated. Pick the panel and Escape the next prompt. When prompted to Identify items that penetrate, pick the column and Escape the next prompt. Check that the picked intersection point is correct, as tagged in the 3D view, and confirm the creation of the penetration. 177. The Penetration Item List form is displayed automatically so that you can complete the specification of the penetration elements. It shows all data settings relevant to the penetrating item (FITT) and the penetrated item (or hole; SBFI). The upper scrollable list acts as a specific Design Explorer for the rapid selection of, and navigation to, elements relevant to penetrations. It displays the penetrating and penetrated items in a hierarchic (indented) format. Leave the Show option set to Items. The List option controls how the hierarchy is sorted. Since your penetration is owned by the section rather than by the panel, the options work as follows: Penetrating Items Owner lists all FITTs for each section; Penetrating Items - Attached lists all FITTs for each panel (grouped by CMPF):

(You have only a single penetration, so the difference here is less significant than when you have several penetrations.) Select Penetrating Items - Owner.

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The middle list, labelled Penetrating Item, shows the relevant attribute settings for the current FITT (as selected in the upper list). It is in this list that you select the settings which you want to modify. The lower list, labelled Hole Information, shows the relevant attribute settings for the SBFI which is referenced from the current FITT. This data is shown for reference only; you will see how to modify it later. Select the Navigate on selection check box. Any item picked in the upper list will then automatically become the current element in the Design Explorer. 178. You have only one FITT which you can modify, so select this in the upper list. Its relevant attribute settings appear as follows:

You want to set the specification, so select SpecRef in this list (the > symbol shows that this is an editable entry). The Modify Fitting form is displayed. From the list of fitting specifications displayed, select Steel Sections, Steel Sections, Rectangular, PENI/RECT. Set the Justification to NAL or NAR (it does not matter which). The Zdist(ance), which determines the position of the fitting along its owning section, is set automatically from the calculated penetration coordinates; leave this value as it appears. Leave the Beta Angle (which determines the orientation of the fitting about the section) at the default value of 0. 179. Click the Properties... button. The resulting Modify Properties form allows you to set the local geometry for the fitting (similar to the way in which you specified joint details previously). Set the X-Clearance and Y-Clearance to 20 so that the fitting extends beyond the section extremities by 20mm in each direction. Leave the X-Offset and YOffset set to zero, so that the fitting is centred on the sections neutral axis. OK these settings and Apply the Modify Fitting form. When you have finished setting the specification for the FITT, Dismiss the Penetration Item List form and its associated forms. 180. Having fully specified the part of the penetration which relates to the penetrating section (the FITT), you must now do the same for the part which relates to the penetrated panel (the CMPF and its SBFI). Navigate to the panel and select Modify>Penetrations from the Steelwork Penetration Application menu. The resulting Penetration Display form allows you to specify whether you want to modify penetrating or penetrated items: select List Penetration Holes and click Apply. The Penetration List form displays. This is very similar to the Penetration Item List form which you used in the preceding step, except that the lists are now based on the CMPF and SBFI data rather than the FITT data. The upper navigation lists now look as shown, so the owner/attached definitions have been reversed when compared with the equivalent lists shown previously:

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Note: The middle list now shows Hole Information ready for modification, while the lower list now shows Penetrating Item data for the referenced FITT. 181. Select the SBFI in the upper list. Before you modify the SBFIs specification, you need to ensure that it is correctly aligned with the FITT from which it is to derive some of its settings. To do this, select Position>Align with ref. from the Steelwork Penetration Application menu. 182. Select SpecRef in the middle list to display the Modify Panel Fitting form. Set the specification to Hole Penetrations, Hole Penetrations, Rectangular, PENH/FITT/ RECT2. Click the Properties... button to display the Modify Properties form for the dimensions of the hole. Although you could set Xlength and Ylength explicitly to match those of the penetrating item, there is an easier way of doing this by copying the data automatically from the referenced item (namely the FITT). Leave all properties at their default values of zero and OK/Apply the forms to set the SpecRef. 183. From the Steelwork Penetration Application menu, select Modify>Copy like ref. The effect is to change the attributes of the current SBFI to match the corresponding settings of the FITT to which it refers. In this case, the effect is to set the X and Y dimensions of the SBFI to be compatible with those of the FITT. To check this, look at the Ref Data settings shown in the Hole Information list on the Penetration List form:

184. Close all of the forms relating to penetrations, select Holes Drawn (from Settings>Graphics>Representation...) and zoom in for a close inspection of the new penetration. Save your design changes to conclude this part of the exercise. In the next part of the exercise, you will look at some ways of checking the design model and outputting some design data derived from the database settings.

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

10

Checking and Outputting Design Data


To ensure maximum design integrity, the structural applications allow you to check the data in several ways so that any potential mistakes are drawn to your attention. In this chapter you will look at one of these checking facilities, namely the method of checking for clashes (spatial interferences) between design elements. Finally, you will look at three ways of outputting design data derived from the structural model: the generation of a tabulated report showing the material required to build the design (categorised by section profile); the analysis of some mass properties of the steelwork members (centre of gravity, surface area and weight calculations); and the creation of a plot showing the structural layout. Note: The facilities which you will be using here are available from both the Beams & Columns and the Panels & Plates applications (from all design applications, in fact), so it does not matter which application you are currently using.

10.1

Checking for Clashes


The types of clash identified depend on two factors: The obstruction levels of the clashing elements The current touch and clearance tolerances

10.1.1

Obstruction Levels
All design primitives and all catalogue primitives have an obstruction attribute (OBST) which defines the physical type of obstruction which the primitive represents: A hard obstruction (OBST=2) represents a rigid and impenetrable object, such as a steel beam or a plant vessel. A soft obstruction (OBST=1) represents a volume which is not solid but which needs to be kept clear for access. Any primitive with OBST=0 represents a freely accessible volume and is ignored for clash checking purposes.

10.1.2

Extent of Clashing
As well as distinguishing between hard and soft clashing items, the checking utility recognises three categories of clash between them, depending on how far the two primitives intrude on each others allocated space. These categories are: A physical clash: the primitive volumes overlap by more than a specified amount. This usually means that a definite interference exists.

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A touch: the primitives either overlap by less than the amount needed to cause a clash or are separated at their closest point by less than a specified distance. This may simply mean that one item is resting upon another as intended, or it may indicate a problem. A clearance: the primitives are separated at their closest point by more than the amount necessary to constitute a touch but less than a specified clearance distance. This represents a near miss, which you may want to investigate.

These three classes are illustrated below for the clash specifications: Touch limits: Clearance limit: 5mm overlap to 2mm gap 8mm

so that the following criteria apply: If the items overlap by more than 5mm, a clash is reported If the items overlap by less than 5mm, a touch is reported If the items do not overlap but are separated by less than 2mm, a touch is reported If the items are separated by more than 2mm but less than 8mm, a clearance is reported If the items are separated by more than 8mm, no interference is found

overlap > 5mm a physical clash

overlap < 5mm

gap < 2mm touches

2mm < gap < 8mm a clearance

10.1.3

Clash Detection Process


Each element which is to be checked for clashes has its own geometry checked against that of all other elements which are specified by a current obstruction list. Items which are not in the obstruction list are ignored during the clash checking operations. By default, the obstruction list includes all elements in the database, so that each element to be clash checked is tested against every other element. To control the amount of checking carried out in a large database, you can restrict the obstruction list to a few specific elements and/or you can specify a 3D volume (the clash limits) within which the clash checking is to be confined. To highlight the locations where clashes are found, the clashing and obstruction items are shown in contrasting colours in the graphical view (two shades of red, by default). Exercise continues: 185. You will start by using the defaults for all clash checking settings. To see what these are, select Settings>Clasher>Defaults to display the Clash Defaults form. Think about the meaning of each setting shown (refer to the preceding introduction; ignore the reference to Branch, which relates to piping designs only); then Cancel the form.

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186. You will check the westernmost panel (PANEL 1) for clashes against all other elements in the test framework. The default obstruction list (all elements in the current design database) will include the regular structure created in Quick Way to Build a Regular Structure, so you must edit the list to remove this. To do so, select Settings>Clasher>Obstruction>List. The Add/Remove Obstruction Items form is displayed. Remove All current entries and then Add the framework /TESTFRMW. 187. Navigate to the panel which you want to check (by clicking on it in the display, or in the Design Explorer, or in the Add/Remove Obstruction Items form) and select Utilities>Clashes. This displays the Clash Display form. The left-hand side of this form controls the clash checking process; the right-hand side consists of a 3D view in which you can look in detail at any clashes diagnosed. 188. Select Control>Check CE from the forms menu bar to run the clash checking process and, when completed, study the Clash List which shows all clashes found. You will see a hard-hard (HH) clash at both points where the panel has a column passing through it, and a hard-hard touch where the panel rests on each of its seven supporting beams and where it abuts the adjacent panel. To see a summary of all clashes found, select Query>Clash>Summary from the forms menu. The resulting Summary form shows the total number of clashes in each category:

Note: In particular, that there are no clashes where the panel has been modified to fit round the columns. 189. To study any clash in detail, select the corresponding line in the Clash List and then select Query>Clash>Detail. The resulting Clash Detail form shows the extent of the clash, the identities of both the clashing and obstruction items, and the calculated position at which the clash was diagnosed. Notice how the clashing items are highlighted in different colours in the graphical view. To change these colours, display the Clash Defaults form again and choose the colours you want to use. 190. Experiment with some of the other options on the Clash Display menus and then close the form. Note: If the Auto Clash button is selected: , each new element that you create is checked immediately for clashes as the design is built up. This can slow down progress when you are adding many new elements, but is very useful when you want to add a few new items to an existing design which has already been checked for clashes.

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10.2

Generating a Data Output Report


This section describes two ways of outputting design data derived from the structural model. generating a tabulated report showing the material required to build the design creating an plot showing the layout and associated manufacturing data.

10.2.1

Generating a Tabulated Data Report


The reporting utility lets you read selected types of information from the DESIGN database and present the output in a convenient tabulated format. Each report can be customised by specifying some or all of the following: Where the output is to appear (on the screen or in a file ready for printing). Any introductory header which is to appear at the beginning of the report. The page length (if the report is to be paginated). The page layout, including number and positions of columns, column headings, etc. Any headers and footers which are to appear at the top and bottom of each page. The selection criteria which define which data settings are to be included in the report.

Once such a report has been designed, its specification can be saved for future use in the form of a report template file. The ways in which you define how a given report is to be generated and presented are beyond the scope of this exercise, but you will look at the results of the process by using a pre-prepared template which outputs a material take-off list for each type of steel profile used in your design. (You will probably use your companys standard templates for most reports anyway, in which case this is the method you would normally use in practice.) Exercise continues: 191. Select Utilities>Reports>Run to initiate the reporting process. This displays the File Browser listing all files in the current reporting directory (specified by your System Administrator as part of the project setting-up procedure). 192. Select the ...\REPORTS\TEMPLATES directory by clicking on it in the Sub-directories window. All files with a .tmp suffix are report templates. 193. Select steel_mto.tmp, which has been designed to produce a material take-off report for steelwork sections. 194. Click OK on the File Browser. The Report Details form that displays requires you to specify: where the report is to appear what part of the database hierarchy is to be read when extracting the required types of data. Leave the Filename text box empty (this sends the report automatically to the screen) In the Hierarchy text box, enter /TESTFRMW (this lists the material take-off for the whole of the design model). Click OK to run the report.

195. Complete the Report Details form as follows:

The tabulated report output will be displayed in a Command Output window which is opened automatically.

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This report shows the total cut length for each of the steel profiles used in the design and the number of lengths into which each profile is divided. (Do not worry if part of the heading seems inappropriate for your project; this wording is written into the template simply as an example of the type of heading which you might want to use.)

10.3

Querying Mass Properties


You can calculate the surface area, volume, mass and the position of the centre of gravity (CofG) of a structural item from a knowledge of its geometry and the properties of the material from which it is made. The calculation can be set to derive either a gross or a net result; for example: Gross weight is the weight of material needed before any negative geometry (such as end preparations) is applied. This data is appropriate for material cost estimating etc. Net weight is the weight of material after any negative geometry is applied. This data is appropriate for determining as-built weights for loading calculations, transport planning etc.

(The detailed way in which positive and negative geometry is used in calculations is determined by the Representation Level settings. These are beyond the scope of this introduction and you will use the default levels throughout this exercise.) In the same way that the geometry of a section profile, joint, fitting etc. is specified by setting the design elements SpecRef attribute to refer to an entry in a Catalogue database (as explained in Design-to-Catalogue Cross-Referencing), so its material properties are specified by setting its Material Reference (MatRef) attribute to refer to an appropriate entry in a Properties database. It is the material density which is the significant property used in the mass calculations. In the next steps of the exercise, you will first specify the material for each structural element in your design model and then use this data to derive some mass-related details. Exercise continues: 196. You will specify the same material for all structural items (sections, joints, fittings, panels etc.). Navigate to the subframework TESTSBFR and then select Modify>Material from the main menu. The Set Material form displays listing all available material specifications in the Properties database. 197. Leave the option set to CE and select the Cascade Material to all offspring check box. (The latter will set the MatRef for all elements below the current subframework to the selected material automatically.) 198. From the Materials list, select GR275 (density 7850.00 Kg/M3) and click Apply. The whole framework will be highlighted in the graphical view to show that all design elements have been selected for modification to the selected material. Confirm the change. 199. Select Query>Mass Properties. The Mass Properties form displays which allows you to make all necessary calculations based on the current material density. Set the upper option to CE (still at subframework level), Set the Results option to Gross,

Click Apply. The calculated gross surface area, volume and mass for the whole subframework is be shown in the Mass Properties list, together with the position of the centre of gravity. The centre of gravity will also be tagged in the graphical view.

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200. Change the Results option to Net, select the Append to list check box (so that you can compare the next result with the existing one in the list), and click Apply again. Note the difference between the calculated net and gross weights; this small difference is due to the material removed for joint allowances, panel cut-outs, etc. 201. Set the upper option to Pick, click Apply, and perform similar calculations for individual items or groups of items which you pick using the pointer. (Use Esc to terminate each picking sequence in the usual way.)

10.4

Plotting the Design Model


PDMSs drawing module provides very powerful facilities for generating annotated and dimensioned plots of all or part of the design model. You will use just a small part of this power to produce an isometric plot of your structural layout using default settings only. Exercise continues: In order for the drawing facilities to apply the correct rules for representing structural items, you must set a design attribute which will tell the drawing module how to interpret the design data. The attribute used for this purpose is the Function attribute of the parent Zone. 202. Navigate to the Zone which you created as /TESTZONE and select Modify>Attributes. The Modify Attributes form displays listing the current settings for the Zone. The Function attribute will probably say unset; it is this setting which you need to change. Select the Function line in the list. A small Function form displays showing the current setting. Edit the text to replace unset by Steelwork. OK/Apply the changes. You must now switch from the DESIGN module, which you have been using to create the design model, to the DRAFT drawing module. 203. Select Design>Modules>Draft>Macro Files. The DRAFT applications loads and the screen changes to show the DRAFT General menu bar and tool bar, and an empty 2D view window, the Main Display, (analogous to the 3D View which you have been using in DESIGN):

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You must next set up an administrative hierarchy to define how plots are to be stored (in a real project this would probably have been done for you already). The parts of the hierarchy with which you are concerned here are as follows:

DEPARTMENT (DEPT)

REGISTRY (REGI)

LIBRARY (LIBY)

DRAWING (DRWG) SHEET (SHEE) VIEW Design database elements to be drawn

LIBRARY (LIBY) Standard symbols, annotations etc.

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204. Create a Department element: Select Create>Department Give the Department the name STRUCDEPT. Click OK. This displays the Department Information form. Attributes set at Department level are cascaded down to all lower levels.

205. Click the Attributes button on the Department Information form. 206. On the Department Attributes form: Select the A4 drawing sheet size (this sets the Width and Height automatically). Leave all pen definitions, hatch patterns and terminators at their default settings. From the Ruleset Reference options, select /DRA/PRJ/REPR/GEN/STRU. Set Backing Sheet to Reference

Select /DRA/MAS/BACKS/MET/A4_Land from the adjacent drop-down list. This applies standard borders and data areas to all drawings created in this Department. The settings now look as shown:

207. Click Apply on the Department Attributes form, then Dismiss.

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208. Check that the Create Registry check box on the Department Information form is selected and OK this form. The Create REGI form displays. 209. Name the Registry STRUCREGI and click OK. This displays the Registry Information form. 210. Click Attributes... to see a Registry Attributes form. Note that all attribute settings for the Registry have been copied from its owning Department (any individual attribute cascaded in this way can be overwritten at a lower level if required). Dismiss the Registry Attributes form. 211. In the Registry Information form: Select the Create Drawing check box Select Explicitly. Click OK.

212. In the Create DRWG form now displayed, name the Drawing STRUCDRWG and click OK. In the displayed Drawing Definition form, enter the Title as Structural View. Note that the Date and Drawn By entries are derived automatically from your system log-in data. 213. Click Apply, then Dismiss. That completes the setting up of the drawing administration hierarchy; you are now in a position to define the content of a drawing sheet ready for viewing and plotting. 214. Select Create>Sheet>Explicitly and OK the Create SHEET form. The Main Display view shows the backing sheet specified earlier. 215. In the Sheet Definition form now displayed all settings have been cascaded down from Department level. Click Apply, then Dismiss. The detailed design data, extracted directly from the Design database, is applied to the sheet in the form of individually defined Views. 216. Select Create>View>User-defined and OK the resulting form. A User-defined View form is displayed, and a default rectangle is added to the Main Display to show where the design data for this view will be plotted. 217. You will plot a single view on the sheet, so you will first resize the default view area to fill the available space. Select Frame>Size>Cursor from the User-Defined View menu and, when prompted, pick points just inside the top-left and bottom-right corners of the drawing area within the backing sheet layout. 218. On the User-defined View form: Enter the Title as ISO3 View; Set the View Type to Global Hidden Line; Set the Direction to ISO3 (select this using the the middle Direction options list).

219. The part(s) of the design model which are to be plotted are specified by means of a drawlist. Select Graphics>Drawlist from the User-Defined View menu to display the Drawlist Management form. In the Reference List Members list, navigate to the subframework holding the design model (/TESTSBFR) and click the Add button to add it to the drawlist. Dismiss the Drawlist Management form. 220. You must now set the drawing scale so that the plotted model representation fits sensibly into the area available on the sheet. Click the Auto Scale button on the UserDefined View form. The precisely calculated scale is displayed in the adjacent textbox.

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221. To modify this to the nearest smaller standard scale, click the Nearest button. The chosen standard scale will now be displayed (e.g. 1/200). Click Apply to implement the new scale calculation. 222. The final settings in the User-defiend View form should look similar to that shown:

223. Select the Update Design button and click Apply to plot the drawlist element(s) in the Main Display at the chosen scale:

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

This is as far as you go with DRAFT in this exercise. The full range of 2D drafting facilities available is extensive, allowing you to add dimensioning and labelling data derived directly from the design model, and to add any other specific 2D annotation which you require. In the next, and final, chapter, you will look at some of the facilities available for creating and modifying some nonlinear structural design elements.

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Adding Some Curved Steelwork

11

Adding Some Curved Steelwork


So far you have built your design model entirely from straight steelwork sections. In this final chapter you will add some nonlinear sections. In order to provide some reference points for use when routing a curved section, you will construct a temporary working grid.

11.1

How PDMS Represents Curved Sections


Curved structural items are represented by Generic Section (GENSEC) elements, the geometry of which is defined by sweeping a 2D catalogue profile along a path. This path is represented by a Spine element, owned by the GENSEC, whose route is specified in terms of a sequence of member Spine Points (POINSP) and Curves. For example:

End POINSP CURVE

PROFILE

CURVE Sta rt POINSP = SPINE = POINSP

The Beams & Columns application menu provides options for creating two versions of the GENSEC: A ring section, restricted to an arc of a circle (up to a full circle), comprising two Spine Points separated by a single Curve. A more general curved section, comprising any number of Spine Points and Curves.

11.2

Creating a Semicircular Platform


In order to demonstrate the principles, you will create a semicircular ring section which projects out from your existing structure. The ends of the ring section will be positioned near the ends of the topmost beam at the western end of the structure, and it will be supported from below by two straight sections, like this (only sections shown, not panels):

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Looking Down: End Support 180 Ring Section Support


N E

Existing diamond bracing

Start

Looking East: End Inset 100 End Inset 100

Start
U N

Existing cross bracing

Exercise continues: 224. In the Beams & Columns application, set the default profile specification to British Standard, Equal Angle, 120x120x10.0, with Justification, Member Line and Joint Line all set to NA. 225. Navigate to the Subframe element (TESTSBFR). From the main menu bar, select Create>Sections>Ring. The Ring Section form displays, the buttons on which provide many different ways of specifying the sections geometry. You do not want to create a full circle, so click Circle Definition: Arc. 226. You will define the path of the section (the GENSECs Spine) by picking the two positions at its ends plus a third point which specifies how the arc is directed (that is, whether it curves towards the East or the West). The diameter of the circle will be derived automatically from the distance between the first two positions. To do this, click the Derived diameter button (fourth button, second row).

227. To define the start of the ring section (prompt says Define ... first point), set the Positioning Control to Pline, Distance 100 and pick near the southern end of the NA pline of the beam (see figure at start of this section. You will probably need to unset the

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pline picking rules (Settings>Pick Filters>Plines) and zoom in very close to distinguish between the plines. 228. To define the end (prompt says Define ... second point), use the same procedure at the northern end of the same pline. The third prompt says Define ... control point. The point you pick will determine the plane in which the ring section lies (the plane through all three points) and the direction in which the section curves (depends on the position of the third point relative to the line joining the first two points; or create an additional pline rule for NA only). You want the ring section to lie in a horizontal plane and to curve towards the west, so pick any point on the NAR pline of the beam. (This has the same elevation as the NA pline and lies to its west.) 229. You will now create two straight sections which run from the mid-point of the beam below the ring section, and which support the ring section at points equispaced along its length (as shown in the preceding diagram). Select Create>Sections>Straight. Both sections have the same start point, so on the Section form Set String Method to Radial. Set the Positioning Control to Pline, Mid-Point Pick the BOS pline of the beam.

230. To position the upper ends of the two supports, set the Positioning Control to Element, Fraction 3 and pick the ring section twice, about one third of its length from each end (not forgetting to Accept each support), then Esc. You may, if you wish, modify the angle sections to give more realistic geometry at their ends, although the current configuration is adequate for your present purpose. 231. The semicircular platform is completed by positioning a floor plate inside the supporting angle section. Change to the Panels & Plates application. Select Create>Panel. On the displayed Create Panel form, Set Thickness to 20 Justification to Centre.

The panel boundary is now defined by picking points around the ring section (GENSEC) whose shape it is to follow. 232. Click the Derived arc passing through three points button Pick the three points defining the panel boundary as follows: First point: snap to one end of GENSEC. Second point: snap to mid-point of GENSEC. Third point: snap to other end of GENSEC. Escape the next prompt. The 3D View shows a circle, half of which follows the ring section, as a construction aid. Notice that, although you have only picked three points, the message 4 vertices defined is shown. These vertices are positioned thus: .

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First pick

V1

V4 Third pick

fillet radius

fillet radius

V2
Second pick
Click OK to complete the panel creation.

V3

11.3

Creating a Runway Beam with Multiple Curves


To demonstrate how you can create and modify a section which follows a multiply-curved path, you will position an overhead runway beam along the southern end of the structure:

7 End

Start Y Grid origin X


N E

12 20 = existing structure = working grid (1000mm spacing) = runway beam (curved section)

The upper face of the runway beam will, for convenience, be positioned against the lower faces of the beams from which it is suspended. In practice, you would probably want to interpose hangers or bolted flanges to support the runway beam. To make it easier to position the points and curves defining the GENSECs spine, you will first create a horizontal working grid as a working aid (as shown in the diagram).

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11.3.1

Defining a Working Grid


Exercise continues: 233. Switch back to the Beams & Columns application. Select Utilities>Working Plane. The resulting Working Plane form allows you to define a plane onto which all graphical picks will be projected, with an optional grid superimposed on the plane to help you position graphical picks without needing to refer to existing parts of the design model. 234. From the Working Plane forms menu, select Define>Linear Grid. The resulting Working Plane - Linear Grid form allows you to define the number and spacing of the grid lines, and the position and orientation of the grids plane. Set both the X and Y Spacing to 1000 and enter the Number of visible lines as 40. (The grid behaves as though it is of infinite size; this setting controls only the size of the grid shown in the 3D View.) 235. The default position of the planes centre and its orientation are shown by the green dotted-line square in the 3D View. Leave the Orientation as it is (Y is N, Z is U, X is E). You want the elevation of the plane to be at the lower faces of the beams, so set the Positioning Control to Pline, Intersect and pick the BOS plines for the two beams which meet at the required origin (see preceding diagram). The Position should be East 0, North 0, Up 4696.6 (the latter is the height of the column less the depth of the beam). 236. Click the Preview button to see the grid in the 3D View. Select the Detail check box and click Preview again to number the grid lines. OK the Working Plane - Linear Grid form. 237. On the Working Plane form, select the Active and Visible check boxes (so that the grid will be both effective and visible in the graphical view). 238. Select Working Grid Snap, which means that when you later pick positions on the grid, the picked point will always snap to the grid intersection nearest to the pointer position. 239. Select Control>Close from the Working Plane forms menu to complete the operation.

11.3.2

Creating a Curved Section


Note: In the following steps, you will identify positions along the path of the spine by their (X,Y) coordinates on the working grid; for example, (X 20, Y0) is the position of the south-eastern corner of the overall structure. 240. Set the default profile specification to British Standard, Joists, 203x152x52kg/m. Set the Justification to TOS, so that the upper face of the runway beam will coincide with the working plane and, therefore, with the undersides of the supporting beams. (See generic type DINI in Some Standard Profiles for a diagram of a similar profile.) 241. Select Create>Sections>Curved. The Curved Section form displays, the buttons on which provide various ways of specifying the path of the sections spine. Because your section follows a complex path which does not conform to the simplified standard geometry provided by most of the buttons, you will use a free-form definition which will let you build up any sequence of spine points and curves. 242. Click the Free definition button .

Notice that the Working Plane toggle at the left-hand side of the Positioning Control form is now selected. This provides a way of switching the working plane on or off without having to display the Working Plane form each time. The red highlight on the toggle button is intended as a reminder when the working plane is active, since you can get unexpected results if you forget it is on when you make graphical picks.

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243. You are now in event-driven graphics mode, ready to pick the sequence of positions which will define the spine. Set the Positioning Control to Screen, Snap. Any pointer pick you make will be projected onto the working plane and will then snap to the nearest grid intersection point (remember that you set Working Grid Snap to On when you defined the grid previously). If you make a mistake at any stage, the Undo button on the Curved Section form lets you delete one or more points in reverse order. 244. With reference to the grid coordinates, pick position (X0, Y2) to define the start (origin) of the GENSEC. Set the Radius to 2000 and pick (X4, Y2) to define the position of the first curve. With Radius still set to 2000, pick the following positions, in this order: (X4, Y6), (X8, Y6), (X8, Y2), (X18, Y2), (X18, Y6), (X20, Y6). When you pick the last position, you will be warned that it is not possible to fit in a curve with 2000 radius so close to the preceding position and will be asked if this represents the end point: click Yes to complete the operation. Close the Curved Section form.

11.3.3

Modifying a Curved Section


To demonstrate how easily you can modify a curved section, you will reroute part of the runway beam as follows:

7 End

Start 1 Y 0 X 6 = original path = modified path 1 = curve number (at new fillet position) 12 20 4 5

245. Check that the new GENSEC is the current element and select Modify>Sections>Definition. The Modify Section (Curved) form displays which allows you to edit the position and/or radius for each individual point/curve in the spine. 246. Set the first Spine Point option to Start and pick the new start position at (X0, Y1). Click the Modify button to implement the move. 247. Change the first Spine Point option to Curve and set the second Spine Point option (up/down arrows) to 1. Move Curve 1 to (X4, Y1), leaving its Radius set to 2000. Note: The graphical aids show the position and radius of the current and adjacent curves as you modify the spine shape. The X and Y Attributes on the Modify Section (Curved) form show the coordinates relative to the GENSECs origin (start), not in terms of the working grid positions.

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248. Move Curve 4 to (X8, Y1) and change its Radius to 3000. 249. Select Curve 5 and change the third Spine Point option from Fillet to Centre:

Notice how the graphical aid now shows the radius centre at (X16, Y4) instead of the radius fillet at (X18, Y2). Move the centre to (X15, Y4), press Modify, then change the Radius to 3000. The latter operation illustrates the two ways of specifying a curves position:

Fillet position
Radius

Centre position
250. Repeat the clash checks which you carried out on the earlier version of the design model in Checking for Clashes. Think about the reasons for the extra clashes which are diagnosed for the current design. 251. Save your design changes and exit from PDMS.

11.4

Production Features for Outfit Steel


To take advantage of the production features for Outfit Steel, a Production Preparation Model (PPM) needs to be created. The PPM is created using the PPM addin. The PPM is a special kind of Hull Panel. Once the PPM is created, it can use the production features of Hull production system. For full details and description, see Marine Documentation, Hull Detailed Design, Production Features of Outfitting Steel.

11.5

Conclusion
This concludes both the tutorial exercise and this introduction to some of the ways in which PDMS and AVEVA applications can help you in your structural design work. You should now have an insight into the potential power of PDMS and sufficient confidence to explore some of the more advanced options on your own. For further technical details, refer to the sources of information listed in the last appendix. If you have not already done so, you are strongly advised to attend one or more of the specialised PDMS training courses, which will show you how to get the maximum benefits from the product in your own working environment (see Further Training in the Use of PDMS).

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Structural Design Database

Structural Design Database


The part of the DESIGN database hierarchy which holds structural elements is as follows (elements in italics, e.g. RELEASE, are for analytical purposes only):

STRUCTURE (STRU)

FRAMEWORK
(FRMW)

ROUTING PLANE GROUP


(RPLG)

LOAD CASE DESCRIPTOR


optional

SUBFRAMEWORK
(SBFR)

(LCDE)

ROUTING PLANE
(RPLA)

PANEL SECTION
(SCTN)

PANEL LINEAR JOINT


(PALJ)

PRIMARY NODE
(PNOD)

(PANE)

PANEL FITTING
(PFIT) (PLOO)

PANEL LINEAR JOINT


(PALJ)

negative COFITTING primitives (COFI) PANEL VERTEX (PAVE) PANEL VERTEX NEGATIVE EXTRUSION PANEL LOOP
(PAVE) (NXTR)

PRIMARY JOINT (PJOI) RELEASE


(RELE)

LOOP PRIMARY COMPOUND JOINT (LOOP)


NODAL LOAD (NOLO) (NODI) (PCOJ)

GENERIC SECTION NODAL DISPLACEMENT (GENSEC)

SUBJOINT
(SUBJ)

VERTEX
(VERT)

SPIN
(SPINE)

JOINT LINE DATUM


(JLDATUM)

POSITION LINE DATUM SPINE POINT


(POINSP) (CURVE)

CURVE

(PLDATUM) (FIXI)

FIXING

FITTING
SECTION POINT LOAD (SPLO) (SJOI) SECTION DISTRIBUTED LOAD (SDLO) (FITT)

SECONDARY NODE
(SNOD)

SECTION LINEAR JOINT


(SELJ)

SECONDARY JOINT
RELEASE (RELE) NODAL LOAD (NOLO)

SECTION VERTEX
(SEVE)

NODAL DISPLACEMENT (NODI)

SECONDARY COMPOUND JOINT


(SCOJ)

SUBJOINT(SUBJ)

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Structural Catalogue Guide

Structural Catalogue Guide


This appendix gives a much-simplified introduction to the way the structural catalogue is used in creating the design model and lists the principal features of some standard catalogue components to which you may want to refer when creating your design model. (For full details of the way in which the catalogue is built up and used, see the Catalogue and Specifications Reference Manual.)

B.1

Basic Features of the Catalogue


All profiles, joints, fittings etc. used in the design are selected from the Catalogue database by setting the Specification Reference for the corresponding design element so that it points to the required catalogue entry. Each catalogue item is defined in terms of two subsidiary sets of data: A Geometry Set, which defines the overall physical shape of the item in terms of a set of 2D and/or 3D basic shapes (known as primitives). A sectional profile is made up of 2D primitives only (which are extruded to form a 3D section in the design model); a joint or a fitting is made up of 3D primitives which define its complete volume. A geometry set can include negative 3D primitives to represent holes. Point Set, which defines a number of reference points and directions superimposed on the geometric shape so that individual parts of that shape can be identified and manipulated. These reference points can include p-points, which represent a 1D point position and a direction, and p-lines (or plines), which represent a 2D line and a direction.

A range of catalogue components with similar overall geometry will all reference the same geometry set and point set, so that the amount of data needed to represent all possible items is kept to a minimum. The dimensions of the items are not fixed in the catalogue but are expressed in terms of design parameters. Values are allocated to these parameterised dimensions when the item is used in a specific part of the design model: they may either be set explicitly or derived from associated dimensions of other design components to which the item is to be connected.

B.2

P-line Identification
Each p-line is identified by a two, three or four letter code (known as its PKEY) which identifies its relative position in the 2D profile (remember that each p-line is extruded in the design model to represent a line running along the length of a section). The most commonly

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referenced PKEYs use the following naming conventions (each profile uses only a subset of these): BBH BBHL BBHR BLW BLWT BOC BOS BRW BRWT FOC HBA HOA IOC LBOA LBOC LBOS LBTS LTBA LTBS LTOC LTOS LTTA NA NAB NAL NALO NAR NARO NAT RBOA Bottom bolt hole Bottom bolt hole, left Bottom bolt hole, right Bottom left of web Bottom left web top Bottom of channel Bottom of steel Bottom right of web Bottom right web, top Face of channel Hole, bottom of angle Hole, outside of angle Inside of channel Left bottom of angle Left bottom of channel Left bottom of steel Left bottom top of steel Left top bottom of angle Left top bottom of steel Left top of channel Left top of steel Left top of angle Neutral axis Neutral axis bottom Neutral axis left Neutral axis left outside Neutral axis right Neutral axis right outside Neutral angle top Right bottom of angle

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RBOC RBOS RBTS ROA ROC RTBS RTOC RTOS TBH TBHL TBHR TLW TLWB TOAX TOAY TOC TRWB TOS TRW

Right bottom of channel Right bottom of steel Right bottom top of steel Right of angle Right outside of channel Right top bottom of steel Right top of channel Right top of steel Top bolt hole Top bolt hole, left Top bolt hole, right Top left of web Top left web, bottom Top of angle, X orientation Top of angle, Y orientation Top of channel Top right web, bottom Top of steel Top right of web

B.3

Some Standard Profiles


The following pages illustrate the principal catalogue profiles, showing the p-lines and parameterised dimensions associated with each.

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Generic Type: BOX

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Generic Type: ANG

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Generic Type: TUBE

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Generic Type: BEAM

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B.4

Some Standard Joints


The following diagrams illustrate the principal types of joint in the catalogue, showing the parameterised dimensions (as described on the corresponding forms) which must be specified when each joint is connected to a section in the design.

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B.4.1

Column Connections
Column Flange: c a

Dist from TOS = a Dist from BOS = b Thk of Plt = c

Co lu m n We b: c a d

d b

D i s t fro m TOS = a D i s t fro m B OS = b Th k o f P lt = c

N o tc h D e p th = d

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B.4.2

Cleated Connections
B o lte d We b: 4M20_bo lte d _w e b_c le a ts

Le n g th o f c le a ts = a

Cu tba c k B o lte d Web:

Le n g th o f c le a ts = a

We ld e d S e a t:

Ex te n s io n Wid th o f B o tto m An g le = a

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B.4.3

End Preparations

Single Clearance:

a
Radius of Rathole = a

Double Clearance:

Flush_p_cutback:

a
Radius of Rathole = a

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Flush_p_cutback_with_snipe:

a
Radius of Rathole

B.4.4

Baseplate Connections
30m m _th ic k _a tta c h e d _ba s e p la te:

a
D ia o f B o lt = a

30mm_thick_user_defined_baseplate:

c e
Depth of Plt = a Width of Plt = b Bolt wrt Depth = c Bolt wrt Width = d Dia of Bolt = e

c d b d

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B.4.5

Double Notched End Plates


Dble Notch End Plate: 4M6_10mm_thk_plt

B.4.6

Single Notched End Plates


Sgle Notch End Plate: a b
1st Row = a 2nd Row = b 3rd Row = 0 (in this example)

B.5

Some Standard Fittings


The following diagrams illustrate some typical fittings from the catalogue, showing the parameterised dimensions (as described on the corresponding forms) which must be specified when each fitting is added to the design.

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B.5.1

Stiffeners
Single Full Depth: 10mm_flange_stiffener

Double Full Depth: 8mm_double_stiffener

Single Partial Depth: 8mm_single_stiffener

a b

short length = a long length = b

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B.5.2

Fire Insulation
Parallel Flange Beam:

a c b f e g

Top Flange Top Thickness = a Top Flange Width = b Top Flange Bottom Thickness = c Web Thickness = d Bottom flange Top Thickness = e Bottom flange Width = f Bottom Flange Bottom Thickness = g Position Line NA Zdistance (measured from POSS of section) determines start of insulation

B.5.3

Lifting Lugs
General Lifting Lug (GEN-

d e
Height of Pad Eye = a Width of Pad Eye = b Vertical Distance = c Shape Radius = d Hole Radius = e Pad Eye Thickness = f (not shown)

Lifting Lug, Bolted:

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Other Relevant Documentation

Other Relevant Documentation


This guide serves purely as an introduction to those parts of PDMS most relevant to structural design. Therefore, it describes only the main concepts needed to get you started. Documents that can provide you with further information are listed below.

C.1

PDMS Introductory Guides


There is a set of introductory guides like this one, that introduce a subset of principal PDMS facilities to new users. The set of guides is as follows: Accommodation User Guide HVAC Design User Guide Pipework Design User Guide Structural Design Using PDMS User Guide Pipework Support Design User Guide Introduction to Common Functionality Introduction to Templates Drawing Production User Guide Introduces the range of facilities available in the DRAFT module. Reporting Introduces the database reporting utility available from within most PDMS applications, including the use of expressions to select relevant data. Graphical Model Manipulation Guide Introduces the DESIGN Model Editor, which enables you to position and orientate selected Plant Items using the mouse pointer.

C.2

PDMS Reference Manuals


The full PDMS documentation set includes a number of reference manuals which give detailed explanations of all the technical concepts involved. These manuals also describe the underlying command syntax which can be used to control PDMS directly (should you wish to bypass the forms and menus interface). Reference manuals particularly relevant to structural design work include: DESIGN Reference Manual

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Covers concepts and commands for all design disciplines. ISODRAFT Reference Manual Explains how to create customised piping isometric plots. DRAFT Reference Manual Explains the PDMS 2D drafting facilities. Catalogue and Specifications Reference Manual Explains how to set up a PDMS Catalogue and create tabulated specifications.

C.3

General Guides
The following guides are intended for use only by experienced PDMS users who want to write their own applications: Software Customisation Guide Explains how to write your own application macros using PML (AVEVAs Programmable Macro Language) and how to design your own forms and menus interface. Software Customisation Reference Manual Supplements the Customisation Guide. Includes a list of PML 2 Objects, Members and Methods. For Forms and Menus objects, the command syntax relating to the objects is included.

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Sample Plots

Sample Plots
This appendix comprises some examples of typical (though relatively simple) plots showing the sorts of structural designs which may be created using PDMS with the AVEVA structural applications.

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Sample Plots

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A
Application Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Attachment pipe penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1

B
Bracing creating individual members . . . . . . . 6:3 creating standard configurations . . . 6:7 modifying bracing gaps . . . . . . . . . . 6:4

restoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 Distance measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Draft applications loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6 Draft database hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . 10:7 Draft module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6 Drag panel edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Drawing sheet, Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:9

E
Edge definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 dragging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 End position definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 identifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:4 Escape key/button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:15 Event-driven graphics mode . . . . . . . . 4:10

C
Catalogue database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 Centre of gravity calculations . . . . . . . . 10:5 Clash definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Clash checking checking process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2 clash limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2 extent of clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 obstruction levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 obstruction list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2 principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Clash limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2 Clashing extent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Clearance definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2 Collection See List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 Compound panel fitting penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Copying mirror option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 offset option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:17 Curve definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Curved section creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 modifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:6

F
Fillet radius definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Fitting section penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Forms and display restoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 Function attribute setting for Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6

G
Generic Section (GENSEC) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 GENSEC definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Geometry set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Graphical view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Gross weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5

D
Database hierarchy Draft data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:7 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Design Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Design parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Display

H
Hard obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Holes negative extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9 penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1

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I
Isometric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:8

J
Joint beta angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9 connection references . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 cutback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 cutting plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 dominant/subordinate . . . . . . . . . . . 6:12 joint freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:12 origin plane direction . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9 position and orientation . . . . 6:10, 6:11 position line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9, 6:11 secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 selecting from catalogue . . . . . . . . 6:11 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9, 6:11 Joint line definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:4 Justification definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:4 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:12

Negative volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9 Net weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Node definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:4 primary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2, 4:16

O
Obstruction levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Obstruction list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2

P
Panel (PANE) creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:3 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Panel edge definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 dragging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Panel fillet radius definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:7 Panel fitting (PFIT) beta angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1 Panel loop (PLOO) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 Panel origin definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Panel thickness definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 Panel vertex (PAVE) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 modifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 picking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Panel vertex creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Panning view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Penetration creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:2 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Physical clash definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Pick mode prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:10 PKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Pline definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4:1, B:1

L
Linear grid defining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5 List adding members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 Logging in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Loop (LOOP) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9

M
Mass calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Mass properties querying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Material reference (MatRef) . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Measuring facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 Member line definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:4 Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Module definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1

N
Negative extrusion (NXTR) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9

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identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Pline rule function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:2 Plotting facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6 Point set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 P-point definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Primary node automatic creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Profile (PROF) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Prompt cancelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:15 Properties database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5

sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 Start position definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 identifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:4 Startup display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Storage area specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2, 7:3 Subfitting penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 Surface area calculations . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5

T
Tidy nodes facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:4 Title bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Tool bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Touch definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:2 Trimming sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1

R
Regular structure creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 Reports templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4 Representation setting graphical view . . . . . . . . . . . 6:11 Representation level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Ring section creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:2 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Rotating view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9

V
Vertex (VERT) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:9 Vertex creation (panels) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:4 View 3D/graphical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7 centre of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:10 direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:8 panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 representation setting . . . . . . . . . . 6:11 rotating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9 View:3D/graphical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Volume calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5

S
Save work facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:20 Saving design changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:20 Secondary joint (SJOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 Secondary node (SNOD) . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 Section extending/shortening . . . . . . . . 5:4, 6:1 Section (SCTN) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 Sheet, Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:9 Snap function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:11 Soft obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1 Specification reference (SpecRef) . . . . . B:1 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Spine definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Spine Point (POINSP) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 Split facility panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5

W
Weight calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5 Working grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5 Working plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:5

Z
Zooming view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9

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