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Branch / Semester 6th sem, Information Technology. Faculty Name:Ms.

Snehlata Mandal Suject Name: Database Management System

Unit No. - 1 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Questions What is database? Discuss the concept of database management system(DBMS) and list the componets of database system. What are the facilities provided by DBMS? Discuss overall system architecture of DBMS. Describe the structure of database management system. What is DBMS and what are its functions? Describe traditional file organization techniques in brief. Compare it with database approach. What are the advantages of DBMS over traditional file accessing approach in handling a database? Write advantages and disadvantages of DBMS in short. Explain schemas and instances. What is data independence? Describe the three level schema architecture(university question,May-2008) What is data independence and why it is important? Explain the term data independence. Also explain various views of data. What are the different levels of data abstraction? Explain each of them. What are the functions of database administrator (DBA)? Explain. What is the role of database administrator? Also explain data dictionary. Describe the responsibility of database manager. What are the entities and attributes? Discuss them. What are the entity types? Explain. Explain the concept of weak and strong entity set. What is an attribute? Explain various types of attributes. Explain the concept of keys with its type. What is relationship? Discuss the relationship types. Discuss the design issues of E-R model. Write short notes on E-R model. Explain the concept of mapping. Explain the mapping constraints. What are weak and strong entity sets? How they are represented in E-R diagram? What do you mean by specialization? Differentiate between specialization and generalization. Draw an E-R diagram for banking system. Assume necessary information. In Extended ER-features explain specialization and generalization with examples(university question,May-2008) What is the difference between primary and secondary storage? Contruct ER diagram for the database of Hospital Mannagement system(university question,May-2008) What are weak entity sets? How they are converted into strong Entity set.(university question,May-2008)) Describe the file organization technique in brief compare it with database approach?

UNIT No.- 2

S.No. 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Questions What do you mean by relational data model?(university question,May-2008) Discuss the term domain. what do you know about the attributes? What do you mean by relations? Discuss.(university question,May-2008) Discuss various kinds of relations. What do you understand by the term key? Discuss various types of keys. What do you mean by relational database? Give an example and draw an E-R diagram for it. Write down the notes on the database schema. What are integrity constraints? Explain. What do you mean by relational query languages? Discuss about relational algebra. Explain the term relational calculus. Explain the fundamental operations of relational algebra. What is union compatibility? What are the relational algebra operators that require the relations on which they are applied be union compatible? What are the extended relational algebra operations? Explain the following join's giving examles:- (i) Natural join (ii) Full outer join (iii) Left outer join (iv) Right outer join. Discuss the referential integrity in SQL. What do you mean by relational calculus? What are its types? What do you mean bydomain relational calculus? Explain the following with respect to tuple calculus:- (i)atom (ii) query (iii) Formula What do you mean by domain relational calculus? Explain its operations in brief. Differentiate between tuple relational calculus and domain relational calculus. What do you understand by the term 'SQL'? Explain. Discuss different parts of SQL. Explain the term DDL, DML and DCL? Give the basic structure of SQL. Write data retrieval queries in SQL with example. Explain about update statement. What are views? Explain its uses. Write down the operations that can be applied on views with example. How the modification of database is done SQL? Write short notes on embedded SQL. Explain following command/clause :- (i) Create table (ii) Insert (iii) Order by (iv) Group by.

18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 UNIT NO.- 3 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12

Questions What do you mean by database design? Discuss. Give the brief introduction to the normalization. Why is it needed? Write short notes on normalization. Explain various normal forms. What is 2NF? How is it achieved and what are its advantages over 1NF? What is partial dependency? What is normalization? Define 3NF. Explain 3NF with an example. Explain Boyce-codd normal form? Explain forth normal form. What is 5NF? Explain.

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What do you mean by functional dependency? Explain with an example. (University Question April May 2008) What are different types of functional dependencies? Explain in brief. Explain in trivial and non-trivial dependencies. What do you mean by closure of a set of functional dependencies? Explain the term dependency preservation. What do you mean by lossless join? Write short notes on multivalued and join dependies with examples. ( (University Questin April May 2008) Explain different types of joins. Consider the relation R = {A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J} and the set of functional depenencies: F = {{A,B} -> {C}, {B,D} -> {E,F}, {A,D} -> {G,H}, {A} ->{I}, {H} -> {J}} Determine the superkey for R. Decompose R into 2NF, then 3NF relations. What is dependency preservation property for a decomposition? Why is it important?

22 23 24 25 UNIT NO.- 4 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

What is Normalization? What are the steps used in 1st & 2nd normalization. Explain with example
Define Relational Data model and Relational Algebra? (University Questin April May 2008)

Questions Write short notes on query processing. Describe query processing stages. Write methods for join table scans. Discuss different types of failures. Explain structure of query optimizer. Write short notes on multiple index access. Write short notes on transaction processing. What do you mean by transaction processing? Discuss transaction state. Explain ACID properties.(University Questin April May 2008) What problem may arise as the result of concurrent execution of transaction. What do you mean by serializability? Explain with its type. Explain different types of failures in transaction processing. What is deadlock and how can we deal with it? How can we detect the occurrence of deadlock and how can we recover it? List the ACID properties of transaction. Explain the usefulness of each. Discuss the atomicity, durability, isolation and consistency preservation properties of a database transaction. Discuss the problems of deadlock and starvation. Explaint different approaches to deal with deadlock and starvation. List all possible sequences of states through which a transaction may pass. Expalin why each state transcation may occur. (University Questin April May 2008) Expalin the structure of query optimizer. (University Questin April May 2008)

UNIT NO.- 5 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Questions Discuss the different types of failures. What is meant by catastrophic failure? Write short notes on security of database. What do you mean by recovery? Explain various concurrency control mechanism in brief.

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Explain various integrity constraints. Explain various recovery techniques. How do the log records help in recovery from failure. Why there is a need of concurrency control? Why recovery is needed? What is two phase locking protocol? Discuss the time stamp ordering protocol for concurrency control. Discuss two multi version techniques for concurrency control. How do optimistic concurrency control techniques differ from other concurrency control techniques? Discuss the typical phases of an optimistic concurrency controlmethod. What types of locks are needed for insert and delete operation? Explain procedural and non-procedural integrity constraints. Describe the shadow paging recovery techniques. Write short notes on checkponts. Explain online backup during database updates. Write short notes on optimistic techniques. What is multiple granularity locking? Under what circumstances is it used? Discuss integrity constraints specifications in SQL. Discuss the differed update technique of recovery. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this technique? Why differed update is called NO-UNDO/REDO method? Discuss the immediate update recovery technique in both single user and multiuser environments. What are the advantages and disadvantages of immediate update? Define concuuernt execution? Explain the following of Timestamp ordering protocol. (University Questin April May 2008) What is deferred modification technique of Log based recovery scheme for ensuring transaction atomicity. (University Questin April May 2008) Expalin the recovery procedure that needs to take place after a disk crash. (University Questin April May 2008)

Difficulty level of questions are to be categoized as follows : Very Easy ( VE) Easy (E) Moderate (M) Difficult ( D) Very Difficult ( VD)

QuestionTypes are : Theoretical (T) Numerical (N) Derivation ( D) Logic Based / Programming ( L) Combination of any of the Above ( C)

Marks Should be in multiples of 5 and Maximum Marks = 20 ,Min marks = 5

You have to mention the approximated required Time for Answering a question for an average student.

Difficulty Level Question Type Marks Time Required E T 2 5 M M D D M M E M E D D D D D D D M M M E D M M D M D M D D D M E M M M T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T L T T T T T 7 2 7 7 7 7 2 2 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 2 7 2 7 7 2 7 7 7 10 5 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 5 10 5 10 10 5 10 10 10

Difficulty Level Question Type Marks Time Required M T 2 2 E T 2 4 E T 2 4 E T 2 4 M T 7 10 E T 2 2 E T 2 2 M M D D M M D VD D T T T T T T T T T 7 14 14 2 7 2 7 7 7 7 14 14 4 10 2 10 10 10

VD D M M M M M M M M M D M D D D M D

T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T

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Difficulty Level Question Type Marks Time Required M T 2 2 M T 2 2 M T 2 2 M T 7 7 D T 7 7 M T 7 7 M T 7 7 M T 10 10 M T 2 2 M T 2 2 M T 2 2

M M M D M M M M

T T T T T T T T

10 14 10 10 10 10 10 7

10 14 10 10 10 10 10 7

D M D VE

L T T T

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10 10 10 2

Difficulty Level Question Type Marks Time Required M M D M M M M M M M M D M M M M E M M M M T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T 2 10 10 14 10 2 7 7 7 10 10 10 14 10 14 7 7 10 10 7 7 2 10 10 14 10 2 7 7 7 10 10 10 14 10 14 7 7 10 10 7 7

Difficulty Level Question Type Marks Time Required E T 14 14 E T 7 7 E T 2 2 M T 7 7

M D M M M M M M M M M M M M M D D M M M M VE M M M

T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T

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In relational model relation is the only construct required to represent the association among the attributes of an entity as well as att

The values for an attribute or a column are drawn from a set of values is known as domain

The properties that characterize any entity set is called its attribute. An attribute is also referred by the terms data item, data elemen An association among entities is called a Relationship. A collection of relationship of the same type is called relationship set. A relationship between 2 sets X and Y in correspondence or mapping between members of the set. A possible Definition: A database key is a attribute utilized to sort and/or identify data in some manner. Each table has a primary Key A key is a single or combination of multiple fields. Its purpose is to access or retrieve data rows from table according The schema (pronounced skee-ma) of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management Relational Integrity Constraintssystem (DBMS). In a relational database, the schema defines the tables, the fields in 1. A relational database schema A language that allows a user to select records from a database. It may be in the form of typed commands such as the widely used SQL language, a predefined query menu or a query by example (QBE). Query languages are usually included in DBMSs, and stand-alone packages are available for interrogating non-DBMS files A language that allows a user to select records from a database. It may be in the form of typed commands such as Relational SELECT SELECT is used to obtain a subset of the tuples of a relation that satisfy a select condition. JOIN Operator JOIN is used to combine related tuples from two relations: JOIN Operator Definition: Referential integrity is a database concept that ensures that relationships between tables remain consistent. When one table has a foreign key to another table, the concept of referential integrity states that you may Relational calculus consists of two calculi, the tuple relational calculus and the domain relational calculus, that are In computer science, domain relational calculus (DRC) is a calculus that was introduced by Michel Lacroix and Alain Pirotte as a declarative database query language for the relational data model.[1] Formulas

3. CREATE: CREATE TABLE<table name> (<column name 1 ><Data Type>(<size>), <column name 2 ><Data Type>(<size>), unit 3

Normalization is a process that helps analysts or database designers to design table structures for an application. It helps us to redu Normalization is a process that helps analysts or database designers to design table structures for an application. It helps us to redu First normal form According to Date's definition of 1NF, a table is in 1NF if and only if it is "isomorphic to some relation", which means, Second normal form Second form (2NF) is a normal where form used database dependant normalization. 2NF was originally defined by E.F. A partialnormal dependency is a dependency A is in functionally on B ( A B), but there is some attribute on A that can be removed from A and yet the dependacy stills holds. For Normalization is a process that helps analysts or database designers to design table structures for an application. It Boyce-Codd normal form Boyce-Codd normal Fourth normal form form (or BCNF) is a normal form used in database normalization. It is a slightly stronger version ourth normal form Fifth normal form (4NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. Introduced by Ronald Fagin in 1977, 4NF Fifth normal form (5NF), also known as Project-join normal form (PJ/NF) is a level of database normalization,

What is Functional Dependency? what are the different types of Functional Dependencies? Functional Dependencies are fundamental the process of Normalization Dependency describes the What is Functional Dependency? what are to the different types of Functional Functional Dependencies? Note that in the Movies relation:

JOIN Operator JOIN is used to combine related tuples from two relations: Answer: In Normalization, the goal is to generate a set of relation schemas that allows us to store information without

unit 1 A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. DBMS is the collection of inter related data &set of programs to access those data Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data (usually called database) and a set of OVERALL SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF DBMS DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM STRUCTURE

Data Independence The ability to modify a schema definition in one level without affecting a schema definition in Data Abstraction:For the system to be usable, it must retrieve data efficiently. The need for efficiency has

Entity- The term entity defines all inclusive definitions. Entity is a thing that exists & distinguishable, that is, we can say, an entity is a thing or object which has some properties.

We must have a way to specify how entities within a given entity set are distinguished. Conceptually, individual entities are distinct; from a database perspective, however, the difference among them must be expressed in terms of their

Mapping Cardinalities, or cardinality ratios, express the number of entities to which another entity can be associated via a relationship set. to the description of relationship set that involve more than two entity sets. following: One to one: An entity in A is associated with at most one entity in B, and an entity in B is associated with at most one entity in A. A B

One to many: An entity in A is associated with any number (zero or more) of entities in B. An entity in B, however, can be associated with at most one entity in A. A B

Specialization An entity set may include sub-groupings of entities that are distinct in some way from other entities in the Specialization Generalization Top-down design process A bottom-up design process Extended E-R Features :- The basic E-R concepts can model most database features,some aspects of a database may be more aptly expressed by certain extensions to the basic E-R Model.

File organization is the technique of physically arranging the records of a file on a storage media. When the

attributes of an entity as well as attributes of different entities. These models increase the productivity of the application programmer by eliminating the ne

by the terms data item, data element, data field, item etc. pe is called relationship set.

or an application. It helps us to reduce redundant data to the minimum. Through the normalization process the collection of data in a single table is replac or an application. It helps us to reduce redundant data to the minimum. Through the normalization process the collection of data in a single table is replac

f the application programmer by eliminating the need to change application programs when the change is made to the database. A relational model is rep

ess the collection of data in a single table is replaced by the same data being distributed over multiple table with a specific relationship being set up betwe ess the collection of data in a single table is replaced by the same data being distributed over multiple table with a specific relationship being set up betwe

is made to the database. A relational model is represented by a table having n columns, defined on domain D1, D2,, Dn is a subset of Cartesian produ

able with a specific relationship being set up between the table. able with a specific relationship being set up between the table.

main D1, D2,, Dn is a subset of Cartesian product D1 x D2 x x Dn.

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

OR It is a software package to facilitate creation and maintenance of computerized database. It is general purpose software th following: -

(i) Data Definition: - The DBMS provides functions to define the structure of the data in the application. modifying the record structure, the type and size of fields and the various constraints/conditions to be satis field. Specifying data types and structures, and constraints for data to be stored. To provide a way to store (ii) Constructing: - Storing data in a storage medium. To manage large and small bodies of information. mechanism for manipulation of information.

(iii) Data Manipulation - Once the data structure is defined, data needs to be inserted, modified or delete perform these operations are also part of the DBMS. These functions can handle planned and unplanned d Planned queries are those which form part of the application. Unplanned queries are ad-hoc queries which

(iv) Sharing: - Allowing multiple users and programs to access data simultaneously. If data are to be shar

(v) Data Security & Integrity: - The DBMS contains functions which handle the security and integrity o

(vi) Data Recovery & Concurrency: - Recovery of data after a system failure and concurrent access of re

(vii) Data Dictionary Maintenance: - Maintaining the Data Dictionary which contains the data definition

(viii) Performance: - Optimizing the performance of the queries is one of the important functions of a DB Thus the DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use when there is a large

Example of DBMS - Access, dBase, FileMaker Pro, and FoxBASE, ORACLE, Ingress, Informix, Sybase,

Example of DBMS applications 1. Banking For customer information, accounts, and loans, and banking transactions. (all transactions) 2. Airlines For reservation and schedule information. (reservations, schedules) 3. Universities For student information, course registrations, and grades. (registration, grades] 4. Credit Card Transactions For purchases on credit card and generation of monthly statements. 5. Telecommunication For keeping records of calls made, generating monthly bills, maintaining balanc and storing information about communication networks. 6. Finance For storing information about holdings, sales, and purchases of financial instruments such as 7. Sales For customer, product, and purchase information. (customers, products, purchases) 8. Manufacturing For management of supply chain and for tracking production of items in factories, in 9. Human Resources For information about employees, salaries, payroll taxes and benefits, and genera

Questions What is database? Discuss the concept of database management system(DBMS) and list the componets of database system. What are the facilities provided by DBMS? Discuss overall system architecture of DBMS. Describe the structure of database management system. What is DBMS and what are its functions? Describe traditional file organization techniques in brief. Compare it with database approach. What are the advantages of DBMS over traditional file accessing approach in handling a database? Write advantages and disadvantages of DBMS in short. Explain schemas and instances. What is data independence? Describe the three level schema architecture.(UNIVERSITY QUES.) What is data independence and why it is important? Explain the term data independence. Also explain various views of data. What are the different levels of data abstraction? Explain each of them. What are the functions of database administrator (DBA)? Explain. What is the role of database administrator? Also explain data dictionary. Describe the responsibility of database manager. What are the entities and attributes? Discuss them. What are the entity types? Explain. Explain the concept of weak and strong entity set. What is an attribute? Explain various types of attributes. Explain the concept of keys with its type. What is relationship? Discuss the relationship types. Discuss the design issues of E-R model. Write short notes on E-R model. Explain the concept of mapping. Explain the mapping constraints. What are weak and strong entity sets? How they are represented in E-R diagram? What do you mean by specialization? Differentiate between specialization and generalization. Draw an E-R diagram for banking system. Assume necessary information. In Extended ER-features explain specialization and generalization with examples(UNIVERSITY QUES.) What is the difference between primary and secondary storage? Contruct ER diagram for the database of Hospital Mannagement system(UNIVERSITY QUES.) What are weak entity sets? How they are converted into strong Entity set.(UNIVERSITY QUES.)

- Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data (usually called database) and a set of p OR It is a software package to facilitate creation and maintenance of computerized database. It is general purpose software that facilitat following: -

(i) Data Definition: - The DBMS provides functions to define the structure of the data in the application. These incl modifying the record structure, the type and size of fields and the various constraints/conditions to be satisfied by the field. Specifying data types and structures, and constraints for data to be stored. To provide a way to store and retriev

(ii) Constructing: - Storing data in a storage medium. To manage large and small bodies of information. It involves mechanism for manipulation of information.

(iii) Data Manipulation - Once the data structure is defined, data needs to be inserted, modified or deleted. The fun perform these operations are also part of the DBMS. These functions can handle planned and unplanned data manipu Planned queries are those which form part of the application. Unplanned queries are ad-hoc queries which are perfor (iv) Sharing: - Allowing multiple users and programs to access data simultaneously. If data are to be shared among

(v) Data Security & Integrity: - The DBMS contains functions which handle the security and integrity of data in th

(vi) Data Recovery & Concurrency: - Recovery of data after a system failure and concurrent access of records by m

(vii) Data Dictionary Maintenance: - Maintaining the Data Dictionary which contains the data definition of the app

(viii) Performance: - Optimizing the performance of the queries is one of the important functions of a DBMS. Henc Thus the DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use when there is a large volume o Example of DBMS - Access, dBase, FileMaker Pro, and FoxBASE, ORACLE, Ingress, Informix, Sybase, etc.

Example of DBMS applications 1. Banking For customer information, accounts, and loans, and banking transactions. (all transactions) 2. Airlines For reservation and schedule information. (reservations, schedules) 3. Universities For student information, course registrations, and grades. (registration, grades] 4. Credit Card Transactions For purchases on credit card and generation of monthly statements. 5. Telecommunication For keeping records of calls made, generating monthly bills, maintaining balances on prep and storing information about communication networks. 6. Finance For storing information about holdings, sales, and purchases of financial instruments such as stocks an 7. Sales For customer, product, and purchase information. (customers, products, purchases) 8. Manufacturing For management of supply chain and for tracking production of items in factories, inventories o 9. Human Resources For information about employees, salaries, payroll taxes and benefits, and generation of pay

Student Akanksha prasad Amarpal Singh Amit Sahu Anhul Singh Asha Susan B. swati Denny Matthew Faiz Khan Illesh Kumar shah Jitendra Juhi Kumar Kanchan sehgal Lakhan Singh Thakur Lovin Joy Varghese Monika Lohani Mukesh Kumar Rai Neelam Singh Nikita Das Niyati Vaishnaw p. Ashish P. Prashant Prerna Mukherjee Ranjeet Verma Rashmi Sahu Ritesh Kumar Swati Goswami Swati Mishra Sweta Swarnkar Tulsee Bisen Varghese Abraham Amiuddin Dharmendra yashmi Chaturvedi Rahul Singh Parihar R. Jyoti Swaroop

database) and a set of programs to access, update and manage those data (which form part of management system).

e software that facilitates the

application. These include defining and ons to be satisfied by the data in each way to store and retrieve database information that is both convenient and efficient.

nformation. It involves defining structures for storage of information and providing

fied or deleted. The functions which unplanned data manipulation needs. ueries which are performed on a need basis. Involves querying, updating and generating reports. It should ensure safety of inform

are to be shared among several users, then system should avoid possible anomalous results.

d integrity of data in the application. These can be easily invoked by the application and hence the application programmer need

nt access of records by multiple users are also handled by the DBMS.

ata definition of the application is also one of the functions of a DBMS.

tions of a DBMS. Hence the DBMS has a set of programs forming the Query Optimizer which evaluates the different implement here is a large volume of data and many transactions to be processed.

mix, Sybase, etc.

aining balances on prepaid calling cards,

ments such as stocks and bonds.

n factories, inventories of items in warehouses/stores, and orders for items. (production, inventory, orders, supply chain) s, and generation of paychecks. (employee records, salaries, tax deductions).

ld ensure safety of information stored, despite system crashes or attempts at unauthorized access.

cation programmer need not code these functions in his/her programs.

s the different implementations of a query and chooses the best among them.

s, supply chain)