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# Furnace Design

FURNACE DESIGN
CALCULATIO OF TOTAL HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION OF AMOUNT OF FUEL REQUIRED RADIATION SECTION CALCULATION
HEAT DUTY NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED RADIATION SECTION AREA

## CONVECTION SECTION CALCULATION

HEAT DUTY NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED CONVECTION SECTION AREA

Furnace Design

MATERIAL IN The materials to be heated are Methane mCH4=536.24 lb/hr Sulfur mS =4717.17 lb/hr Total in =5253.4 lb/hr DATA REQUIRED The mean heat capacity values of methane and sulfur at different temperature are shown in table Temperature (F) 77 266 831 1296 Methane Cp(Btu/lbF) 0.55 1.26 Sulfur Cp(Btu/lbF) 0.24 0.274 0.277

## CALCULATIO OF TOTAL HEAT REQUIRED

Heat require to raise the temperature of methane from 77 oF to 1296 oF is calculated as

## Cp mean= (0.55+1.26)/2 =0.905 Btu/lboF T=1296-77 =1219 oF

QCH4 = mCH4CpmeanT

=589632.6Btu/hr
Heat require to raise the temperature of sulfur from 130 oF to 1296 oF is calculated as

Furnace Design

Cpmean1= (0.24+0.274)/2 =0.257 Btu/lboF Cpmean2= (0.274+0.277)/2 =0.276 Btu/lboF T1=831-266 =565OF T2=1296-831 =465 oF QS = mS Cpmean1 T1+ mS + mS Cpmean2 T2 =1868265.94 Btu/hr Total heat required Q= QCH4+ QS =2457898.5 Btu/hr Taking efficiency of furnace 75% Net heat required Qn=Q/0.75 =3277198Btu/hr CALCULATION OF AMOUNT OF FUEL REQUIRED
Fuel consumption mF =
Qn Btu / hr lower heateing value of fuel Btu / hr

## Methane is fuel and lower heating value of methane = 21500 Btu/lb

mF =

3277198 21500

mF = 152.43 lb/hr

Furnace Design

The combustion reaction is CH4 + 2O2 Oxygen used in 25% Excess From reaction equation for 25% excess oxygen the amount of air required is
lb air =17.26 lb fuel

CO2 + 2H2O

## mair= mF*17.26 =2630.90 lb/hr RADIATION SECTION CALCULATION

1) HEAT DUTY 2) NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED 3) RADIATION SECTION AREA

## RADIATION SECTION HEAT DUTY

The cheapest overall cost will be obtained if the radiant heat absorption rate is made as high as practicable. Normally modern heaters will handle about 70-75% of the total duty in the radiant section. Assumed 70% of total heat is absorbed in the radiation section. So radiation section heat duty (QR) is

## QR=0.70*Q =1720529 Btu/hr PROVING HEAT OF RADIATION IS BEING ACHIEVED

Assumed average heat flux = 8000 Btu/hr /ft2

Furnace Design

Q ACP

## = 2 average flux = 2 8000

= 16000 Btu/hr/ft2
Assumed Overall Exchange factor

f = 0.5
ACP f

## TUBE SURFACE TEMPERATURE

Inlet temperature of methane = 77oF Inlet temperature of sulfur

= 266oF = 1292F
TF =731.75F Tt = TF+100 Ts =831.75oF

Inlet temperature of fluid in the tube (average) = 171.5oF Out let temperature of fluid from the tubes Average temperature of fluid Average tube wall temperature

Temperature of the flue gas leaving the radiant section (TG ) from fig 19.14 kern

TG = 1610F
ENERGY BALANCE

= 77F

Furnace Design

## Enthalpy of entering air HAir = 10.782 Btu/lb

QAir =HAir mair QAir is the sensible heat in combustion air above 60oF QAir = 28366.41 Btu/hr QW = 2% at QF
QW is the heat loss through furnace walls, (1 to 10% of QF, 2% is a good design figure) Where QF is the hear liberated by fuel I.e.

## COMBUSTION GASES Amount of fuel consumed

mF =

152.43 16

= 9.53 lbMoles/hr
From equation

CH4 + 2O2
Oxygen Consumed = 9.53 2

CO2 + 2H2O

= 19.05 lbMoles/hr
As oxygen is supplied in 25% excess so Oxygen supplied

Furnace Design

## Oxygen in flue gas = 23.82 19.05

= 4.76 lbmoles/hr
Nitrogen in flue gas = 23.82
0.79 0.21

= 89.60 lbmoles/hr
CO2 in flue gases H2O in flue gases

## = 9.53 lbmoles/hr = 2 9.53 = 19.05 lbmoles/hr

At TG = 1610F the enthalpy of different gases is shown in the table Name of gas N2 CO2 H2O O2 Enthalpy (Btu/lbmole ) 11687 18328 14264 12355

= 1047117 Btu/hr

= 58851.4 Btu/hr

= 271779 Btu/hr

Furnace Design

## QCO2 = 18328 9.53

= 174606 Btu/hr QG = q N2 + qO2 + qH2O + qCO2 = 1047117 + 58851.4 271779 174606 QG = 1552352.99 Btu/hr
Now Net heat load

## QR = QF + QA QW QG QR = 3277198 + 28366.41 65543.96 1552352.99 QR = 1.69 106 Btu/hr

(It is very closed to actual heat load i.e. 1.72 106 Btu/hr) CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF TUBE OD of tubes = 4.5 in ID of tubes = 4.026 in Centre to centre distance Assume tube length Surface area Flow area

= 8 in =10.5ft

=1.178 ft2/ft
=12.7in2

## Surface area per tubes AS =1.178 10.5

=12.37 ft2
Flux per tube

=ass.flux AS =800012.37

Furnace Design

Qtube =98952Btu/lb
As our furnace is vertical tube single layer No of tubes = Qtube
QR

1720529 98952

Ntube = 18 tubes
EQUIVALENT COLD PLANE SURFACE

ACP ACP per tube = (length of each tube) (C C distance) = 10.5 8/12 ACP per tube = 7 ft2
(Effectiveness factor) Ratio =
C C dis tan ce 0 . D of tubes

Ratio =

8 4.5

= 1.8

## = 0.917 ACP/tube =0.9177 ft2 =6.42 ft2

Taking 2 shield tubes, also for shield tubes =1

Furnace Design

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Total ACP

End walls =2HRWR

Side walls=2LHR

## =210.55.5 ft2 =115.5 ft2

Floor and arch=2LWR

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## =210.54 ft2 =84 ft2

ART = Total area of radiant section

## ART=44+115.5+84 ft2 =243.5ft2

So refractory surface (AR) is

AR = ART - ACP =243.5-116.7 ft2 =126.8ft2 Radiant surface (ARt) is ARt = FLUX ARt =
1720529 8000

QR

## ARt =215 ft2

Volume of radiant section

## VR=LWRHR =10.545.5 ft2 =231 ft3

AR 126.8 = = 1.08 ACP 116.7

## Mean beam length For dimension 1-1-2 mean beam length is

Furnace Design

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L=

2 3 2

Furancevolume 224

## (table 19.1 kern)

L= 3
Emissivity of Gas: EG

L=4.04ft
Partial pressure of CO2 and H2o is given by

P=0.288-0.228X+0.09X2
Where X is the % excess air i.e. X=.25 So

## From graph emissivity of the gas (g) at PL=.995 and TG = 1610F is

g=0.3
So Over all exchange factor (f) is

## (Fig. 1.8) (Fig. 1.9)

f = 0.45
(Which is very close to true assumed value of f = 0.5)
QR 1720529 = ACP 0.45 116.7

## =32761 Btu/hr ft2

TG=1620oF (From Fig 19.14 kern) o (Which is closed to actual value TG=1610 F. Hence we can consider our calculation
and assumptions correct.)

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To calculate the actual flux following check may be applied At TG=1610oF and for 25% excess air from graph
Qg Qn

=0.45

## Radiant zone heat balance is

QR Qw Qg = 1 Qn Qn Qn

## QR=Qn (1-0.02-0.45) QR=1736915 Btu/hr

QR = FLUX ARt

=8076 Btu/hr/ft2
(This is very closed to assumed value of 8000 Btu/hr/ft2)

1) HEAT DUTY

Furnace Design

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## CONVECTION SECTION HEAT DUTY

The convection section heat duty (QC) is

## (QC) =Q-Q =2457898.5-1687667 Btu/hr =770231Btu/hr

Enthalpy QS of the stack gas, given by the overall heat balance
QS = Qn (1-0.02-0.75)

QS Qw QR QC = 1 Qn Qn Qn Qn

=0.23
S Now the stack temperature TS at Qn = 0.23 and for 25% excess air from graph is

## TS=910oF The crossover temperature of the fluid=507oF

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE Hot fluid(flue gas) Cold fluid(CH4+S) Difference o 1620 F Higher temp. 507oF 1112oF 910oF Lower temp. 171.5oF 738.5oF
LMTD = 1112 738.5 1112 ln 738.5

## Gross width (G.W) = (No. of shield tubes) (C C distance)

Furnace Design

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Free width (F.W) = (G.W)-(No. of shield tubes) (tube OD) =1.33-24.5/12 =0.583ft Free area (F.A) = (F.W) (tube length) =0.58310.5 =6.125 ft2 Flue gas mass rate GF is given by
10 6 GF = 822 + 7.78 X Qn

Mass velocity

## G= F . A = 6.125 =0.152 lb/sec ft2

Overall heat transfer coefficient UC in convection section is
0.929

GF

## UC= (a+bG+cG2) (4.5/d)0.25

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Where d is the tube outside diameter (in) G is the flue gas mass velocity a=2.461-0.759Z+1.625Z2 b=0.7675+21.373Z-9.6625Z2 c=9.7938-30.809Z+14.333Z2 Z=TF/1000 average out side film temperature By putting the values

## TF= (507+171.5+912.7)/2 =795.9oF Z=795.9/1000 =0.795 a=2.886 b=11.685 c=-5.648

Hence

UC=4.528
So the area of convection section AC is
AC =
AC =

QC U C LMTD

AC=186.37 ft2 186.37 No, of tubes =1.178 10.5 =15 Say 16 tubes Height (HC) = (8+1) (C C distance) =98/12 =6ft
Width (WC) = (shield tubes+1) (C C distance)

## 77231 4.528 912.7

= (2+1) 8/12

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=2ft Volume of convection section (VC) VC=LWCHC =10.526 ft3 =126 ft3 Total volume of the furnace (V) V=VT+VC =231+126 ft3 =357 ft3

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Furnace Design

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