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Furnace Design

FURNACE DESIGN
CALCULATIO OF TOTAL HEAT REQUIRED CALCULATION OF AMOUNT OF FUEL REQUIRED RADIATION SECTION CALCULATION
HEAT DUTY NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED RADIATION SECTION AREA

CONVECTION SECTION CALCULATION


HEAT DUTY NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED CONVECTION SECTION AREA

Furnace Design

MATERIAL IN The materials to be heated are Methane mCH4=536.24 lb/hr Sulfur mS =4717.17 lb/hr Total in =5253.4 lb/hr DATA REQUIRED The mean heat capacity values of methane and sulfur at different temperature are shown in table Temperature (F) 77 266 831 1296 Methane Cp(Btu/lbF) 0.55 1.26 Sulfur Cp(Btu/lbF) 0.24 0.274 0.277

Latent heat of vaporization of sulfur =123.85 But/lb

CALCULATIO OF TOTAL HEAT REQUIRED


Heat require to raise the temperature of methane from 77 oF to 1296 oF is calculated as

Cp mean= (0.55+1.26)/2 =0.905 Btu/lboF T=1296-77 =1219 oF


QCH4 = mCH4CpmeanT

=589632.6Btu/hr
Heat require to raise the temperature of sulfur from 130 oF to 1296 oF is calculated as

Furnace Design

Cpmean1= (0.24+0.274)/2 =0.257 Btu/lboF Cpmean2= (0.274+0.277)/2 =0.276 Btu/lboF T1=831-266 =565OF T2=1296-831 =465 oF QS = mS Cpmean1 T1+ mS + mS Cpmean2 T2 =1868265.94 Btu/hr Total heat required Q= QCH4+ QS =2457898.5 Btu/hr Taking efficiency of furnace 75% Net heat required Qn=Q/0.75 =3277198Btu/hr CALCULATION OF AMOUNT OF FUEL REQUIRED
Fuel consumption mF =
Qn Btu / hr lower heateing value of fuel Btu / hr

Methane is fuel and lower heating value of methane = 21500 Btu/lb

mF =

3277198 21500

mF = 152.43 lb/hr

Furnace Design

The combustion reaction is CH4 + 2O2 Oxygen used in 25% Excess From reaction equation for 25% excess oxygen the amount of air required is
lb air =17.26 lb fuel

CO2 + 2H2O

So amount of air (mair) used is

mair= mF*17.26 =2630.90 lb/hr RADIATION SECTION CALCULATION


1) HEAT DUTY 2) NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED 3) RADIATION SECTION AREA

RADIATION SECTION HEAT DUTY


The cheapest overall cost will be obtained if the radiant heat absorption rate is made as high as practicable. Normally modern heaters will handle about 70-75% of the total duty in the radiant section. Assumed 70% of total heat is absorbed in the radiation section. So radiation section heat duty (QR) is

QR=0.70*Q =1720529 Btu/hr PROVING HEAT OF RADIATION IS BEING ACHIEVED


Assumed average heat flux = 8000 Btu/hr /ft2

Furnace Design

Q ACP

= 2 average flux = 2 8000

= 16000 Btu/hr/ft2
Assumed Overall Exchange factor

f = 0.5
ACP f

= 32000 Btu/hr ft2

TUBE SURFACE TEMPERATURE


Inlet temperature of methane = 77oF Inlet temperature of sulfur

= 266oF = 1292F
TF =731.75F Tt = TF+100 Ts =831.75oF

Inlet temperature of fluid in the tube (average) = 171.5oF Out let temperature of fluid from the tubes Average temperature of fluid Average tube wall temperature

Temperature of the flue gas leaving the radiant section (TG ) from fig 19.14 kern

TG = 1610F
ENERGY BALANCE

Entering air temperature

= 77F

Furnace Design

Enthalpy of entering air HAir = 10.782 Btu/lb

QAir =HAir mair QAir is the sensible heat in combustion air above 60oF QAir = 28366.41 Btu/hr QW = 2% at QF
QW is the heat loss through furnace walls, (1 to 10% of QF, 2% is a good design figure) Where QF is the hear liberated by fuel I.e.

QF= Qn QW = 0.02 3277198 Btu/hr QW = 65543.96 Btu/hr

COMBUSTION GASES Amount of fuel consumed

mF =

152.43 16

= 9.53 lbMoles/hr
From equation

CH4 + 2O2
Oxygen Consumed = 9.53 2

CO2 + 2H2O

= 19.05 lbMoles/hr
As oxygen is supplied in 25% excess so Oxygen supplied

= 9.53 1.25 = 23.82 lbmoles/hr

Furnace Design

Oxygen in flue gas = 23.82 19.05

= 4.76 lbmoles/hr
Nitrogen in flue gas = 23.82
0.79 0.21

= 89.60 lbmoles/hr
CO2 in flue gases H2O in flue gases

= 9.53 lbmoles/hr = 2 9.53 = 19.05 lbmoles/hr

At TG = 1610F the enthalpy of different gases is shown in the table Name of gas N2 CO2 H2O O2 Enthalpy (Btu/lbmole ) 11687 18328 14264 12355

QN2 = 11687 89.60


= 1047117 Btu/hr

QO2 = 12355 4.76


= 58851.4 Btu/hr

QH2O = 14264 19.05


= 271779 Btu/hr

Furnace Design

QCO2 = 18328 9.53


= 174606 Btu/hr QG = q N2 + qO2 + qH2O + qCO2 = 1047117 + 58851.4 271779 174606 QG = 1552352.99 Btu/hr
Now Net heat load

QR = QF + QA QW QG QR = 3277198 + 28366.41 65543.96 1552352.99 QR = 1.69 106 Btu/hr


(It is very closed to actual heat load i.e. 1.72 106 Btu/hr) CALCULATION OF NUMBER OF TUBE OD of tubes = 4.5 in ID of tubes = 4.026 in Centre to centre distance Assume tube length Surface area Flow area

= 8 in =10.5ft

=1.178 ft2/ft
=12.7in2

Surface area per tubes AS =1.178 10.5

=12.37 ft2
Flux per tube

=ass.flux AS =800012.37

Furnace Design

Qtube =98952Btu/lb
As our furnace is vertical tube single layer No of tubes = Qtube
QR

1720529 98952

Ntube = 18 tubes
EQUIVALENT COLD PLANE SURFACE

ACP ACP per tube = (length of each tube) (C C distance) = 10.5 8/12 ACP per tube = 7 ft2
(Effectiveness factor) Ratio =
C C dis tan ce 0 . D of tubes

Ratio =

8 4.5

= 1.8

From Fig 19.11 Kern

= 0.917 ACP/tube =0.9177 ft2 =6.42 ft2


Taking 2 shield tubes, also for shield tubes =1

ACP for shield tubes =712 ft2 =14 ft2

Furnace Design

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ACP for other tubes =166.42 ft2 =102.7 ft2


Total ACP

=102.7+14 =116.7 ft2

REFRACTORY SURFACE Length of tube Tube in one row

=10.5ft =7 = (7+1) 8/12 =5.33ft5.5ft

Height (HR) = (7+1) (C C distance)

Width (WR) = (shield tubes+1) (arc tubes+1) (C C distance)

= (2+1) (2+1) 8/12 =4ft


End walls =2HRWR

=25.54 =44 ft2


Side walls=2LHR

=210.55.5 ft2 =115.5 ft2


Floor and arch=2LWR

Furnace Design

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=210.54 ft2 =84 ft2


ART = Total area of radiant section

ART=44+115.5+84 ft2 =243.5ft2


So refractory surface (AR) is

AR = ART - ACP =243.5-116.7 ft2 =126.8ft2 Radiant surface (ARt) is ARt = FLUX ARt =
1720529 8000

QR

ARt =215 ft2


Volume of radiant section

VR=LWRHR =10.545.5 ft2 =231 ft3


AR 126.8 = = 1.08 ACP 116.7

Mean beam length For dimension 1-1-2 mean beam length is

Furnace Design

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L=

2 3 2

Furancevolume 224

(table 19.1 kern)

L= 3
Emissivity of Gas: EG

L=4.04ft
Partial pressure of CO2 and H2o is given by

P=0.288-0.228X+0.09X2
Where X is the % excess air i.e. X=.25 So

P=0.236atm PL=0.2364.04 =0.995 atm-ft

From graph emissivity of the gas (g) at PL=.995 and TG = 1610F is

g=0.3
So Over all exchange factor (f) is

(Fig. 1.8) (Fig. 1.9)

f = 0.45
(Which is very close to true assumed value of f = 0.5)
QR 1720529 = ACP 0.45 116.7

Now Using A f value of TG is CP

=32761 Btu/hr ft2

TG=1620oF (From Fig 19.14 kern) o (Which is closed to actual value TG=1610 F. Hence we can consider our calculation
and assumptions correct.)

Furnace Design

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To calculate the actual flux following check may be applied At TG=1610oF and for 25% excess air from graph
Qg Qn

(graph 1.10 Evans, F.L)

=0.45

Radiant zone heat balance is


QR Qw Qg = 1 Qn Qn Qn

QR=Qn (1-0.02-0.45) QR=1736915 Btu/hr


QR = FLUX ARt

=8076 Btu/hr/ft2
(This is very closed to assumed value of 8000 Btu/hr/ft2)

CONVECTION SECTION CALCULATION


1) HEAT DUTY

Furnace Design

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2) NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED 3) CONVECTION SECTION AREA

CONVECTION SECTION HEAT DUTY


The convection section heat duty (QC) is

(QC) =Q-Q =2457898.5-1687667 Btu/hr =770231Btu/hr


Enthalpy QS of the stack gas, given by the overall heat balance
QS = Qn (1-0.02-0.75)

QS Qw QR QC = 1 Qn Qn Qn Qn

=0.23
S Now the stack temperature TS at Qn = 0.23 and for 25% excess air from graph is

TS=910oF The crossover temperature of the fluid=507oF


TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE Hot fluid(flue gas) Cold fluid(CH4+S) Difference o 1620 F Higher temp. 507oF 1112oF 910oF Lower temp. 171.5oF 738.5oF
LMTD = 1112 738.5 1112 ln 738.5

LMTD=912.7oF =28/12 =1.33ft

Gross width (G.W) = (No. of shield tubes) (C C distance)

Furnace Design

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Free width (F.W) = (G.W)-(No. of shield tubes) (tube OD) =1.33-24.5/12 =0.583ft Free area (F.A) = (F.W) (tube length) =0.58310.5 =6.125 ft2 Flue gas mass rate GF is given by
10 6 GF = 822 + 7.78 X Qn

Where X excess air I.e. =25 Hence

GF = 32771981017/1000000 =3342.74 lb/hr =0.929 lb/sec

Mass velocity

G= F . A = 6.125 =0.152 lb/sec ft2


Overall heat transfer coefficient UC in convection section is
0.929

GF

UC= (a+bG+cG2) (4.5/d)0.25

Furnace Design

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Where d is the tube outside diameter (in) G is the flue gas mass velocity a=2.461-0.759Z+1.625Z2 b=0.7675+21.373Z-9.6625Z2 c=9.7938-30.809Z+14.333Z2 Z=TF/1000 average out side film temperature By putting the values

TF= (507+171.5+912.7)/2 =795.9oF Z=795.9/1000 =0.795 a=2.886 b=11.685 c=-5.648


Hence

UC=4.528
So the area of convection section AC is
AC =
AC =

QC U C LMTD

AC=186.37 ft2 186.37 No, of tubes =1.178 10.5 =15 Say 16 tubes Height (HC) = (8+1) (C C distance) =98/12 =6ft
Width (WC) = (shield tubes+1) (C C distance)

77231 4.528 912.7

= (2+1) 8/12

Furnace Design

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=2ft Volume of convection section (VC) VC=LWCHC =10.526 ft3 =126 ft3 Total volume of the furnace (V) V=VT+VC =231+126 ft3 =357 ft3

Furnace Design

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Furnace Design

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