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MCT-212: DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN

DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN


Lets start by being literal

DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN


Three words:
Digital Logic Design

What does each of these words mean?

ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES

Analog quantities have continuous values

Digital quantities have a discrete set of values

ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES

ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES


Types of electronic devices or instruments:
Analog Digital

ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES


Combination of analog and digital:

Give 5 examples of digital and analog devices each from around you.

DESIGN
A Design is a creative plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system.

What is the engineering design process? Why is design important?


One
Two Three Four Five
PROBLEM IDENTIFICTION GENERATING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS SELECTING A SOLUTION CREATING A PROTOTYPE REFINING THE DESIGN

LOGIC AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

What is Logic? What Boolean Algebra? What is Logic Design? What is Digital Design? What is Circuit Design Digital Logic Design?
LOGIC BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

or

LOGIC DESIGN

LOGIC AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


English mathematician, Philosopher and Logician, Goerge Boole (18151864).

Boolean Algebra, developed in 1854 by George Boole in his book An Investigation of the Laws of Thought.
Computer hardware works with binary numbers, but binary arithmetic is much more old than the computers. [Ancient Chinese (3000B.C), Ancient Greek (2000B.C), Boolean Algebra (1850)]

PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC
The ancient Greek philosophers created a system to formulize arguments, called propositional logic. A proposition is a statement that could be TRUE or FALSE.

Propositions could be compounded by means of the operators AND, OR and NOT.

PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS EXAMPLE


We can assign values to propositions, for example: I will take an umbrella if and only if it is raining OR the weather forecast is bad The proposition I will take an umbrella is the result of the Boolean combination (OR) between raining and weather forecast being bad. I will take an umbrella = it is raining OR the weather forecast is bad

DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION
We can think of the umbrella proposition as a result that we calculate from the weather forecast and the fact that it is raining by means of a logical OR.

Rain Bad Weather Forecast

OR

Take Umbrella

DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION
Since propositions can only take two values, we can express all possible outcomes of the umbrella proposition by a table:

MORE COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS


We can make our propositions more complex, for example: (Take Umbrella ) = ( NOT (Take Car ) ) AND ( (Bad Forecast ) OR (Raining ) ) and as before represent this diagrammatically.

MORE COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS

Raining Bad Forecast

OR AND
Take Umbrella

Car

NOT

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
To perform calculations quickly and efficiently we can use an equivalent, but more succinct notation. We also need a to have a well-defined semantics for all the operators, or connectives that we intend to use. The system we will employ is called Boolean Algebra and satisfies the criteria above.

FUNDAMENTALS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


The truth values are replaced by 1 and 0:
1 = TRUE 0 = FALSE

Propositions are replaced by variables:


R = it is raining W = The weather forecast is bad

Operators are replaced by symbols


or ' = NOT or + = OR or = AND

FUNDAMENTALS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


Our previous complex proposition:
(Take Umbrella ) = ( NOT (Take Car ) ) AND ( (Bad Forecast ) OR (Raining ) )

Is formalized by the simpler equation: U = (C')(W+R)

LOGIC = BOOLEAN ALGEBRA


Boolean algebra (or Boolean logic) is a logical calculus of truth values.

It resembles the algebra of real numbers as taught in high school, but with the numeric operations of multiplication xy
addition x + y negation x

conjunction xy,
disjunction xy complement x

More on Boolean Algebra later on during the semester.

NUMBER SYSTEMS AND CONVERSIONS


Back to elementary.!

DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM


Any decimal number such as 2610 can be represented as: Two Thousands Plus Six Hundreds Plus One Tens Plus Zero Units
Or,

2 x + 6 x + 1 x + 0 x
However the convention is to only write the coefficients and from their position, the power of 10 is deduced.

4 3 2 1 0 . 1 2

DECIMAL AND BINARY NUMBER BASES How many digits does the conventional number system use? What are they? TEN: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
The decimal number system is known as base 10 or radix 10.

How many digits does the Binary number system use? What are they?
TWO : 1 and 0

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM


The binary number system uses only two digits: 1 and 0 Its a base 2 or radix 2 system.

What does this number stand for in decimal system : 101101.01


1x + 0x + 1x + 1x + 0x + 1x . 0x + 1x = 45.25

OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL SYSTEMS


Octal number system is the base 8 system, while hexadecimal system is the base 16 system.

How many, and what digits do Octal and Hexadecimal systems have?
OCTAL(8) : 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 HEXADECIMAL(16) : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS
Arithmetic operations like multiplication, division, addition and subtraction can be done the same way like for the decimal (base10) system. One must take care not to use any digit other than the ones allowed for that particular base.

Perform the following operations

NUMBER BASE CONVERSIONS


How to write:

Decimal

Octal

Hexade -cimal (100)10

Binary

(100)8 (100)2

COMPLEMENT OF A NUMBER
The what?!

COMPLEMENT OF A NUMBER
Complements are used in digital numbers to simplify the multiplication and subtraction process.
There are two types of complements for each base-r system: (r-1)s complement rs complement

For a number N:
(r-1)s complement = ( )
= (( ) ) +

rs complement = for N>0; 0 for N=0

Complement of the complement of a number, is the number itself!

ANY QUESTIONS?

Anyone willing to present? Time allowed : 5 mins Topic : Any Bonus Points : +3

REFERENCES
Chapter no 1: Binary Systems
Digital Logic Design by Morris Mano

Chapter no 1: Digital Concepts


Digital Fundamentals by Floyd