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SWITCHGEAR

The apparatus used for Switching, Controlling and Protecting the Electrical Circuits and equipment is called as a switchgear . NEED OF SWITCHGEAR : Switching during normal operating conditions for the purpose of Operation and Maintenance. Switching during Faults and Abnormal conditions and interrupting the fault currents. PARTS OF SWITCHGEAR:

1.Switching devices :
o Circuit breakers / contactors o Isolators o Earthing switch

2. Control Circuit :
o o o o service / test / isolated position selectors Tripping and closing circuit Spring charging , anti pumping arrangement Supply monitoring , space heaters , indications

3. Measurement :
o Ammeter o voltmeter o energy meter

4. Protection : o Relays o Current Transformer ( CT )

o Potential Transformer ( PT ) BASIC DESIGNING ASPECTS :


The Auxiliary power system in a power plant must form a RELIABLE source of power to all unit and Station auxiliaries. The basic function of Switchgear is to control supply of electric power and to protect the equipment in the event of abnormal conditions. Hence the Switchgears have to be RELIABLE , SAFE, and ADEQUATE . Defining the reliability, safety aspects and adequacy aspects in terms of Quantitative parameters forms the essential part in SPECIFICATIONS

Indoor , metal clad single front and fully Compartmentalized , with degree of protection IP42 and IP52 for metering compartments. For 33 KV the switchgears can be metal enclosed either. Circuit Breakers of either SF6 or Vacuum type. They shall comprise of three separate identical single pole interrupting units operated through a common shaft by a sturdy mechanism. Breakers are suitable for Switching transformers and motors at any load and also for starting 3.3 KV - Above 200 KW to 1500 KW , 11 KV- above 1500 KW for 500 MW units and 6.6 KV- above 200 KW for 210 MW units. Surge arresters are provided for all motor feeders to limit the over voltages For Coal handling plant Motors where frequent start/stop of motors is called for HRC fuse backed contactors are provided. Suitable Interlocks are provided to ensure that Breaker is off before opening the rear doors/covers.

SWITCHYARD
Switchyard is a switching station which includes the following points : (i) (ii) (iii) Main link between Generating plant and Transmission system , which has a large influence on the security of the supply. Step-up &/or Step-down the voltage levels depending upon the Network Node. Switching ON/OFF Reactive Power Control devices , which has effect on Quality of power .

SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS FOUND IN SWITCHYARD : Lightening arrestor Current transformer Voltage transformer Power transformers / I.C.T. Bus bar and clamp fitting

Support structure Isolators Circuit Breaker Wave traps Earthing switch OF EQUIPMENTS :

FUNCTIONS

TRANSFORMER : Transforms the voltage levels from higher to versa , keeping the power constant .

lower level or vice

TRANSFORMER

Circuit breaker : It is a mechanical switching device used in electrical circuits which makes or automatically breaks the electrical circuits under loaded condition.

Generally they are designed in accordance with the national/international standards & assigned with standard rating; but switchgears are tailor made to customers specific requirements. It is the most important component of an electrical power networks due to its function to protect other costly equipments Such as transformers, generators, transmission lines, motor etc. from any possible damage. Rating assigned to a Circuit Breaker: As per I.E.C. specify one A.C. ckt. Brkr. is assigned with following rating : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Rated voltage and no of phases, rated frequency. Rated normal current Rated breaking current capacities Rated making Current capacities Asymmetri Rated operating duty cal Rated short time current & its maximum duration Rated in selection level Impulse withstand voltage.

CIRCUIT BREAKER

ISOLATOR

ISOLATOR : It opens or closes the electrical circuits under No-load conditions. The following interlocks are provided with isolators : a. Isolator cannot operate unless the breaker is open. b. Bus I & II isolators cannot be closed simultaneously. c. This interlock can be by-passed in the event of closing of bus coupler breaker. d. No isolator can operate when corresponding earth switch is on. e. Only one bay can be taken on by-pass bus . WAVE TRAPS / LINE TRAPS : It is used in PLCC circuits for Communication and telemetering . LIGHTNING ARRESTORS : It safeguards the equipments by discharging the high currents due to lightning .

WAVE TRAP

LIGHTNING ARRESTOR

EARTH SWITCH : It is used to connect the charged body to ground to discharge the trapped charge to have a safe maintenance zone . Features of earth switch are as follows Used to ground sections required for maintenance . Ground induction voltages . Interlocked with breakers and isolators . Can operate from local only . Motor driven as well as hand driven . Safety driven . OVERHEAD EARTH WIRE : It protects the O/H transmission line from Lightning strokes . BUS BAR : They are the conductors to which a number of circuits are connected . VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER : To step-down the high magnitude of voltage to a safe value to incorporate Measuring and Protection logics . CURRENT TRANSFORMER : To step-down the high magnitude of current to a safe incorporate Measuring and Protection logics . Factors affecting the selection of switching scheme : System Security Operational Flexibility Simplicity of Protection arrangements

value to

Ability to limit the Short Circuit levels Maintenance Ease of extension Total land area Cost