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Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Applied Marketing (Market Research Methods) Topic 4: Attitude measurement


Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Measurement

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale

Measurement involves using numbers to represent marketing phenomena


Buying behaviour Intention to purchase Preferences Motivations Beliefs Attitudes

Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Hence we need to construct a scale

Types of scale: Nominal


Numbers serve as labels to categorise objects or events Require simple classication (brands, store types, religion, employment types, gender, product types) Can calculate percentages and test for association between variables Beer Wine Soft drinks Male 80 15 5 100 Female 20 60 20 100 Total 100 75 25 200

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Types of scale: Ordinal (ranking)


Dene the ordered relationship between objects

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement

In the order of importance, please rank the reasons for using the product Any series of numbers that preserves the ordered relationship can be used Distances between responses are not considered to be equal Satisfaction scales etc. Proportions, measures of association

Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Types of scale: Ordinal (ranking)

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

Preference ordering First Second Third Total

Beer A 15 50 35 100

Beer B 35 25 40 100

Beer C 50 25 25 100

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Types of scale: Interval


On the scale from 1 to 10, please indicate how much you like this product Zero point is xed arbitrarily Can calculate mean, standard deviations, correlations and do signicance tests the most widely used scales Differences between positions on the scale are identical, for example the distance between 7 and 8 is the same as the distance between 9 and 10 However, we cannot claim that a product that scored 8 is four times better than a product that was scored 2
Temperature example: Take 80o F and 20o F and convert them into celsius: 80o F = 26.6o C and 20o F = 6.6o C

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Types of scale: Ratio


All the properties of the interval scale, plus an absolute zero Absolute zero indicates absence of the characteristic Examples:
Weight Height Age Sales Market share Number of customers

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Question

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire

What type(s) of scale would be more appropriate for a market research study trying to determine which brand of cookies consumers prefer the most and why?

Rating scales

Difculty of measurement

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement

In marketing, we want to study concepts and constructs A construct is dened as the mental abstraction formed by the perception of a phenomenon (sales, product positioning, attitudes, brand loyalty, image) There is no ready-made scale for measuring constructs Questions are subject to measurement error

Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Measurement error

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

Measurement error is the lack of correspondence between the measuring outcome and the phenomenon being measured Measurement error = Systematic + Random Observed score = True score + Measurement error

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Sources of measurement error


Respondents characteristics (mood, fatigue, personality, etc.) Situational factors Questionnaire design Coding errors Data collection method used Interviewer error

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Attitude scaling

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

Validity of an attitude scale: The extent to which the measurement process is free from systematic and random error Reliability of an attitude scale: The extent to which the measurement process is free from random error

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Validity

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale

Denition: Does the scale measure what it is supposed to measure?


Content validity: established by experts personal judgement (measure the image of a retail store using a set of 15 items the validity of those items will be judged by experts) Concurrent validity: correlating two different measurements of the same marketing phenomenon which have been administered at the same time point

Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Validity

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement

Denition: Does the scale measure what it is supposed to measure?


Predictive validity: correlating two different measurements of the same marketing phenomenon which have been administered at different time points Construct validity: relate the construct of interest to other related constructs (job satisfaction with job performance)

Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Reliability

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

Denition: Stability and consistency of the results obtained from research


Same results are obtained if the measure used in the research is replicated Necessary, but not sufcient, condition for validity

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Reliability is tested
Test vs. re-test: repeat a given test and compare the outcomes under similar conditions (give the 15-items test to two groups of shoppers at different times) Equivalent forms comparison: giving two forms which are judged to be equivalent Split-half: divide the multi-item measurement in equivalent groups and correlate the responses from the different groups Measured as correlation coefcient usually in social sciences this does not exceed 0.9

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Case study
Gillette makes extensive use of consumer measures about advertisements that are shown on television These measures include:
Awareness Brand association Recall Believability

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Gillette has standard measures for each entry in South Korea, Japan, Singapore and Indonesia Concern has been raised about the appropriateness of these standard measures

Case study: Questions

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

How could each of these constructs be measured? What scale level would these constructs be? What steps should Gillette take to determine the appropriateness of these measures in new markets?

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Attitude measurement
An attitude is an individuals enduring perceptual, knowledge-based, evaluative and action-oriented processes with respect to an object or phenomenon Components of attitude include:
Cognitive: persons beliefs awareness/knowledge Affective: persons feelings liking/preference Behavioural: persons readiness to respond behaviourally to the object intention to buy/purchase

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Attitude measurement: Examples

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling

Cognitive: I believe that type of car should last 10 years Affective: I dont think that colour is any good Behavioural: If that car was sold in my own town, I would buy it

Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Concerns when measuring attitudes

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement

What are the characteristics of the construct being measured? What number system or scale will be appropriate for the construct?

Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Methods of attitude measurement

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement

Communication techniques
Self-reports Responses to unstructured interviews Performance of a task

Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Observation techniques

Principal scaling methods

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire

Construction of scales depends on statistical and mathematical models It involves a lot of preparation

Rating scales

Some commonly used scales in marketing


Construct: Attitude
Scale descriptor: Very bad; Bad; Neither bad nor good; Good; Very good

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Construct: Importance
Scale descriptor: Not at all important; Not important; Neutral; Important; Very important

Construct: Satisfaction
Scale descriptor: Very dissatised; Dissatised; Neither dissatised nor satised; Satised; Very satised

Construct: Purchase intent


Scale descriptor: Denitely will not buy; Probably will not buy; Might or might not buy; Probably will buy; Denitely will buy

Construct: Purchase frequency


Scale descriptor: Never; Rarely; Sometimes; Often; Very often

Use of questionnaire
Nominal scale: Does your house have gas heating? Have you heard of Odeon cinemas? (Yes/No) Rating scale (ordinal, interval, ratio): Do you agree, disagree or are you indifferent about the European constitution?

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Graphic rating scales: Respondents indicate their position on a continuum dened by symbols

Rank order scale: The respondent ranks various objects with regard to the attitude in question

Verbal rating scales


Verbal rating scales are the most often used in marketing

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

Very favourable

Somewhat favourable

Indifferent

Somewhat unfavourable

Very unfavourable

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Major issues to consider:


Number of categories (5 or 6?) Odd or even number of categories (neutral category?) Balanced vs. unbalanced Extent of verbal description Category numbering (interval scale?) Forced vs. non-forced scales Comparative vs. non-comparative scales (point of reference?)

Paired comparison scales


In a paired comparison scale respondents are presented with a set of objects that they have to rank n objects involve n(n 1)/2 comparisons For example objects A, B, C, D and E involve a total of (5 4)/2 = 10 comparisons A A B C D E 0.10, 0 0.36, 0 0.86, 1 0.73, 1 B 0.90, 1 0.68, 1 0.98, 1 0.79, 1 C 0.64, 1 0.32, 0 0.85, 1 0.64, 1 D 0.14, 0 0.02, 0 0.15, 0 0.48, 0 E 0.27, 0 0.21, 0 0.36, 0 0.52, 1

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Thurstones equal-appearing intervals (differential scale)


Thurstones equal-appearing intervals involve a long development process:
Large number of statements collected by researcher Statements are independently assessed by a large number of judges, who classify them in 11 groups, from most favourable to least favourable the median values of each group are calculated Between 20 and 25 statements are nally selected These statements are presented in random order to respondents, who are asked to conrm all those statements with which they agree Respondents total scores are calculated simply by taking the mean of all the statements that have been conrmed

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Thurstones equal-appearing intervals (differential scale)

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study

Drawbacks:
Judges attitudes may bias the selection of the items used in the test Caution should be given to the selection of judges Small number of judges might be sufcient (300 judges or 50 have been used)

Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Likert scales type of verbal rating scale


Large number of statements is collected by researcher Statements are administered to a group of people representative of those whose attitudes are being studied and they respond by indicating whether they:
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Likert scales

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling

These ve categories are then scored, usually using 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 respectively Individual scores are obtained by totalling the item scores of each statement the total is compared with the maximum possible score (10 items 5 categories: 50 = maximum score; 10 = minimum score)

Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Likert scales
Simple to construct, high reliability Item analysis is done to select the most discriminating items by computing for each item the correlation between item scores and the total of all item scores Those with the highest correlations are retained for inclusion in the survey questionnnaire Likert scale is not an interval scale The middle point of the scale is not necessarily the precise middle between the two extreme scores They give freedom to the respondent in placing his/her views

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Likert scales Example

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement

Items

Strongly agree (5)

Agree

Neither agree nor disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire

(4)

(3)

(2)

(1)

Rating scales

Is generally a friendly store Is a well-laid out store Has lots of good bargains

Semantic differential scales


Semantic differential scales were developed to measure the connotative meaning of concepts Very popular methodology often used for brand image research Weights are assigned to positions: -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 Respondent is asked to evaluate an object on a 7-point rating scale that is bipolar with each extreme dened by an adjective or adjectival phrase

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Semantic differential scales

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling

New Good Successful Savoury Contemporary Organised Fast Orthodox

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Old Bad Unsuccessful Tasteless Obsolete Unorganised Slow Liberal

Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

Stapel scales

Attitude measurement Dr James Abdey

Attitude measurement Types of scale

Stapel scales are a type of semantic scale They are unipolar 10-point non-verbal rating scales with values ranging from 5 to +5 For example: Circle your answer

Difculty of measurement Attitude scaling Case study Attitude measurement Use of questionnaire Rating scales

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Value for money