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Lab 3: Computer Simulation of Cardiovascular Dynamics

1. Circulatory Pause (stop the flow of blood)


a. What happens when the heart suddenly stops? Arterial pressure goes to 7 mm Hg, venous
pressure goes to 7 mm Hg
b. Arterial pressure decreases Ratio of compliances
Venous pressure increases
c. Mean filling pressure is the pressure at NO FLOW  7 mm Hg

2. Hemorrhage
a. Role of the Central Nervous System
1000 ml 1000 ml 1500 ml
CNS inactive CNS Active CNS Active
Arterial pressure ↓ ↔ ↓
Cardiac output ↓ ↔ ↓
Heart rate ↔ ↑ ↑↑
L EDV (end diastolic ↓ ↓ ↓↓
volume)
L ESV (end systolic ↓ ↓ ↓
volume)
Mean systemic filling ↓↓ ↓ ↓↓↓
pressure
R atrial pressure 0 1 -1
Stroke volume ↓ ↓↓ ↓↓↓
Systemic resistance ↔ ↑↑ ↑↑
3. Cardiac Preload
a. Effect of infusing saline (increasing preload)
The steady state PV loop marked A in the figure above corresponds to which of the following?
A. A patient with reduced contractility and no compensation
B. A patient with reduced contractility after volume retention
C. A patient with decreased contractility and decreased afterload
D. A patient with normal contractility and increased afterload
E. A patient with increased contractility and increased afterload
Explanation: an increase in the height of the loop corresponds to an increase in afterload. The shift to
the left (decrease in end systolic volume) indicates an increased contractility. Thus, the correct answer
is E, increased contractility and increased afterload.

In the cardiovascular computer simulation, hemorrhage with no neural reflexes resulted in which of the
following?
A. An increase in sinus rate.
B. A decrease in left ventricular end diastolic volume.
C. An increase in left ventricular end systolic volume.
D. An increase in mean systemic pressure.
E. No change in mean arterial blood pressure.
Explanation: in hemorrhage, there is a decrease in blood volume that causes a decrease in mean
systemic pressure (Psf). This decreased Psf decreases cardiac output and lowers pressure. In the
absence of reflexes, there are no rapid accommodations to this change and we see a decrease in left
ventricular volume (the correct answer). Sinus rate would not change because there is no change in
sympathetic or parasympathetic activity to the heart. Blood pressure would drop because of no
compensation. This drop in afterload would result in a decrease in left ventricular end systolic volume.

In the cardiovascular computer simulation, an experiment was performed in which the heart was
stopped in the absence of any reflexes. Arterial pressure fell and venous pressure increased. The ratio
of the fall in arterial pressure to the rise in venous pressure was:
A. dependent on the contractile state of the heart.
B. approximately equal to the ratio of venous compliance to arterial compliance.
C. equal to the blood volume in the arteries divided by the blood volume in the veins.
D. 10 to 1.
E. 100 to 1.
Explanation: when the heart stopped, no more blood was being pumped out of the venous side and into
the arterial side. Since blood continues to flow from arteries to veins, blood accumulates on the venous
side. The same amount of blood leaves the arterial side as fills the venous side. Since the change in
pressure is equal to the change in volume divided by compliance, and since the change in volume on
both sides is opposite, the ratio of the change in pressure is equal to the ratio of the compliances, or
about 25 to 1.

In a normal heart, an acute increase in systolic aortic blood pressure of 15 mmHg is most likely to
result in which of the following immediate changes.
A. Decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure.
B. Increased left ventricular end systolic pressure.
C. Pulmonary edema with elevated right atrial pressure.
D. Systemic hypotension and reduced preload.
E. Reduced right atrial pressure and increased cardiac output.
Explanation: an increase in systolic blood pressure causes blood to accumulate in the heart at the end
of systole. This results in an increase in end systolic pressure. End diastolic pressure may also increase
very slightly. This modest increase in afterload would not result in pulmonary edema. The increased
systolic pressure is not hypotension. Cardiac output would be maintained because stroke volume would
be maintained (end systolic volume minus end diastolic volume)