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RADIATION

efinition: - The method of propagation of energy, in which heat energy goes one place to another place
without medium is said to be radiation. (Method of propagation of energy.) Properties of Radiations: 1. They are having electro-magnetic nature so they can propagate in vacuum also 2. Their velocity in equal to the velocity of light (3 10 8 m/sec.) 3. They are having reflection, refraction interference, and diffraction like light. 4. They obey inverse square law, which means that value of intensity of radiation decreases as we go away from the source. 1 I 2 where: d = Distance from source. I = Intensity of Radiation. d 5. Heat Radiations are emitted by the body due to its temperature and they are emitted from the surface of the body. Different types of Radiations and there wavelength: SNO. RADIATION WAVE-LENGTH FREQUENCY -13 -3 0 1. COSMIC RAYS Less-than 10 m or 10 A >1021 H2 2. GAMA RAYS 10-13 to 10-11 mts. 1021 - 1019 3 X-RAYS 10-11 to 10-9 mts. 1019 10-17 4. ULTRA VIOLET 10-9 to 10-7 mts. 1017 - 1015 REGION 5. VISABLE REGION 10-7 to 10-5 mts. 10-15 - 1013 (Red to violet colours) 6. HEAT WAVES 10-5 to 10-3 mts. 1013 - 1011 7. MICRO WAVES / I.R 10-3 to 10-1 mts. 1011 - 109 -1 +5 8. RADIO WAVES 10 to 10 mts. 109 - 107 9. T.V WAVES 10+5 and above. 108 - 103H2 Apparatus to detect Radiations: 1. Differential air Thermometer. 2. Thermopile. 3. Crookes Radiometer. 4. Boyls Radiometer. Reflection , absorption ,and Transmission coefficient :When heat radiations are allowed to come on any surface or body then they divide in three parts . (I) A part of them goes back, Say Reflected. (I) A part of radiation is absorbed by the surface and (II) A part of radiation passes through the body, say transmitted by the body. If we assume that Q is the total radiations coming to the surface of body and qr ,qa and qt are the radiation reflected ,absorbed and transmitted respectively, then -: Q =qr + qa + qt
q Q qr qa = + + t Q Q Q Q
I =

r+a+t

qr = coefficient of reflection or reflection coefficient. Q qa = Absorption coefficient. a = Q qt = transmission coefficient. t = Q

r =

Reflection coefficient: -The ratio radiations reflected by body and total radiations coming to the body is said to be reflection coefficient. Absorption Coefficient: - The ratio of radiations absorbed by the body and total radiations coming to the body is said to absorption coefficient. Coefficient of transmition: - The ratio of Radiations transmitted by the body and total Radiations coming to the body is said to be coefficient of transmition.

Special Conditions :1. r + a + t =1 If a = 0 t = 0 then r =1 , Perfect Reflector . 2. If r = 0 t = 0 then a = 1 , Perfect Absorber or Black Body. 3. If r = 0 a = 0 then t = 1, Perfect transparent. BLACK BODY :- The body which absorbs all the radiation coming to it is said to black body. Practically no body is black body , but Lamp Black - 96% absorption Platinum Black 98% Absorption(maximum). Ferrys Practical Black Body: -

1.

A copper pot having double wall and a PLATINUM BLACK hole in it for coming radiations. 2. Platinum black is polished on the inner wall of the pot to increase the absorption capacity. 3. A conical projection in front of the hole to check direct reflection. 4. The radiations coming through the hole are absorbed after the reflection from conical projections absorption may be in successive reflections. 5. If we heat the copper pot then radiations CONICAL PROJECTION comes out from the hole, Spectrum of these radiations is quite similar that of to black body thats why this body is said to be PRATICAL BLACK BODY . Dependence of Radiations Emitted By Any Body:- If R are the radiation emitted by any body then 1. RA 2. R ( - 0 ) (A => Surface area of the body)
( => Temperature of body) (0 => Temperature of Surroundings)

3.R t ( t => times of emitting Radiations) 4.`R depends on the nature body. R t ( - 0 ) where E is emissivity of the substance of the body. R = t ( 0 ) For definition of E-: If A is the unit area , t is the unit time and ( 0 ) is the unit temperature difference then E = R The Radiations emitted out per unit area per unit time and at unit temperature difference with the surroundings are said to be emissivity of the substance of the body. Joule Watts or Unit of E -: 2 o m s c m 2 0 c Prevost Theory of Exchange of Radiations or Prevosts Low :- Every Body at every temperature is having continuous exchange of radiation with the surroundings in which it is kept or say body is having continuous exchange of radiations with the surroundings 1. If body is at higher temperature than surroundings then body emits more and absorbs less so net Emission. 2. If body is at less temperature than surroundings then .The radiations emitted are less than the radiations absorbed so net absorption. 3. If the temperature of body is equal to the temperature of surroundings then radiations emitted are equal to radiations Absorbed. eg-: We feel cool when we are close to ice and we feel worm when we are close to fire. EMISSIVE POWER: -The Radiations emitted out per unit area per unit time by any body is said to be Emissive power of the body or Emissive power is numerically equal to the ratio of radiations emitted out by the body and radiations emitted out by Black body is similar conditions. Denoted by e Unit is Watt/m2. Emissive power depends on-: (a) . Temperature of body. (b.)Nature of the body. Spectral Emissive power: -The Radiations emitted out per unit area per unit time having wavelength Watt between to ( + d) is said to be spectral Emissive power denoted by . ' e ' Unit is 2 m Ao e depends on :(a.) Temperature of the body. (b.) Nature of the body.(c.) Range of wavelength. Relation between e and e Absorption power or coefficient of Absorption or Coefficient of Monochromatic absorption :- The ratio of radiations absorbed by the body to the total radiations coming to the body is said to be coefficient of absorption. Denoted by a :q a= a Q qa = a Q
e = e d 0

It is a ratio having No unit.

Spectral Absorptive Power :-The ratio of radiations absorbed per unit area per unit time having wavelength to + d to the total radiations coming per unit area per unit time on the body is said to be Spectral absorptive power. Denoted by a . KIRCHOFFs LAW :-For every body and at every temperature the ratio of Spectral emissive power and spectral absorptive power remains constant and that is equal to emissive power of the black body. e or -: = Cons tan t = E a This law may be given in different forms-: 1.Good emitters are good absorbers and poor emitters are poor absorbers. 2.The body having more emissive power will be having more absorptive power. 3.The wavelengths of radiations emitted out by the body when it is at higher temperature will be same as Wavelengths absorbed by the body at law temperature. Verification of Kirchoffs Law:- Consider any body having temperature T and is kept in the surroundings of same Temperature say having temperature T .In this condition radiations emitted by the body and radiations absorbed by the body will be equal. If we assume that the radiations coming per unit area, per unit time having wavelength to + d are dQ . If a is the absorptive power of the body then the radiations absorbed per unit area, per unit time by the body will be. qa = a dQ (I) If e is the emissive power of the body then radiations emitted out per unit area, per unit time having wavelength to + d will be. q e = e e d (II) As radiations emitted by body = Radiations absorbed by body soqa = qe e dQ a dQ = e d or = (III) a d In equation III :- dQ and d both are related to the radiations coming so they can be taken constant for different bodies kept close to each other .Hence the above equation III can be written as -: e e e a = = = cons tan t 1 a 2 a 3 If we take black body in the above condition then Kirchoff `s law can be written as -:
E A =

Constant.

But A= one for black body.

e e e a = = = cons tan t 1 a 2 a 3 Verification of Kirchoff `s Law By Ritches Experiment:-

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