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CHAPTER ONE 1.

1 Poultry is the category of domesticated birds which some people keep for

the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their meant and or feathers. These most typically are members of the super order Galloanserae (Fowl), especially the order galliformes (which includes chickens and turkey) and the family anatidaw (in order Anseriformes) commonly known as water fowl (e.g. domestic ducks and domestic geese). Poultry also include other birds which are killed for their meat, such as pigeons or doves or birds considered to be game, like pheasants. The term also refers to the flesh of such birds. The meatiest parts of a bird are the flight muscles on its chest, called breast meat, and the walking muscles on the first and second segments of its legs, called the thigh and drum stick respectively. The meat is generally white meat and is characterised by less oxygen carrying myoglobin than the walking muscles, or dark meat, and is thus lighter in colour. Dark meat tends to come from muscles more heavily exercised, which therefore also have more fat stored in them. This accounts for both dark meats reputation as being sinheal their and yet more flavourful.

1.2 a.

SOME BRANCHES OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY Poultry breeding: this branch specialises in upgrading the genetic make up of the poultry stock. This branch is responsible for the development of breeds, strains and hydrides of chicken and turkey that from the backbone of the poultry industry.

b.

Broiler production: This branch specializes in the production of table eggs. They obtained day old birds, feed them intensively until maturity and slaughter for meat.

c.

Egg production: This branch specialises in the production of table eggs. They may obtain day birds and raise them till as replacement stocks or obtain point of lay birds from reputable farms. At the end of the production year, old birds are slaughtered or sold as pent layers. N

d.

Poultry feed manufacturing: This branch specializes in the supply of feed to the branches where live birds are kept.

e. 1.3 1. 2.

Marketing: This branch specialises in the marketing of poultry products. ECONOMICS IMPORTANCE OF POULTRY TO MAN Source of food, mainly in form of meat and egg. Research and medicinal purpose

3. 4. 5. 6.

Socio religious role. Poultry droppings in used as manure Poultry species are involved in daily activities of humans. Features from poultry have been used for adornment and ornamental purposes.

1.4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

PROBLEMS OF THE POULTRY PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA Lack of capital Problem of breed with low generate potential Diseases Marketing problems Inadequate supply of food Climatic factors Poor management

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 2.1 MATERIALS AND METHODS EXPERIMENTAL SITE The animal production sub-programme of the 2012/2013 Field Practical Training (FPT) for the broiler starter phase was conducted at the animal science emit, samaru at latitude, 11011N and 7038E, attitude 686m above sea level.A total of 14 pens were made six pens were in a row and were demarcated from one another by wire mesh respective on both lefts and right hand side and the remaining 2 pens were the further demarcated by cartons to form a pen like cubicle. Lightening bulbs (60 watts) one for each pen which hung 2 meters from the floor were provided for proper lightening. This activity took place a week before the arrival of the birds. The pens were numbered 1-12. 2.2 ARRIVAL OF (BIRDS) ACTIVITIES Prior to the arrival of the birds, wood shavings were spread on the floor of each pen. Lightening bulbs were put on. The windows of the room were covered with cartons and sucks to reduce the cold and provide some level of warmth, a foot

bath / dip was constructed. The poultry house was thoroughly washed with omo detergent and water and was later fumigated with the germicide izal and morigad and later in that week the group or option representative were sent to the markets / feed mill to purchase feed ingredient. Enough feed to suffice for the might and the following morning was compounded especially feed type B. feeders and drinkers were placed in the brood room (pen). The drinkers were filled with water treated with glucose an anti-stress (so as to relief the birds of pains of a long journey). The birds finally arrived at about 2:50pm to animal farm transported by Dr. P.A Ominisi in 5 rectangular carton containing 50 birds each on the 28/09/12. Chicks were then vaccinated with NDV (i/o) 200 dose against new castle diseases, administered through the eye. Birds were served feed with water and heat provided for brooding with the aid of a lantern for illumination and heat at night. This is aimed at inducing the formation of feathers. On the 29th 30th October, 2012, feed was formulated for feed A and C using on-floor mixing. Medications (Antibiotics, Keprocery) WSP 5g a prophylactic and multivitamins, vitalyte 3g a stimulant dissolved into 12-13 litres of water and served into the drinkers. On the 1 st October, 2012, some medications was given as above and birds grouped into twelve pens.

2.2

FEED COMPOUNDING The feed ingredients brought were taken to the empty store adjacent to the

common or brooding pen. The formula below was used for feed A type alongside the calculated analysis for the broiler starter phase.

Table 1: Broiler starter diet Ingredient Maize GNC SBC Bone meal Common slat Methionine Lysine Vitamin premix A Total rate 56.00 20.00 20.00 3.00 0.25 0.15 0.15 0.25 100.00

CALCULATION ANALYSIS MEK cal/kg DM Crude protein % Crude fibre % Ether extract % Calcium % Phosphorus % Lysine % Methionine % 2924 23.32 4.40 3.79 1.25 0.89 1.27 0.45

The compounded feed was collected in Jute Bags, daily activities commenced and the class was divided into 12 groups each group having 8 members with 2 members in each group reporting to the farm in the morning and evening. (8:8: 30am and 5:45pm 6:15pm) respectively. 2.3 POST ARRIVAL ACTIVITIES On the 1st of October, 2012. 16 chicks from the brooding pen were weighed out for group one and allocated to feed A of the broiler starter diet..

Number of bird in group 1 = 16 Weight of 16 birds = 1250g Weight per bird = 1250 = 78.13g/bird 16

1. Days

Medication chart Drug Rate of dilution Litres of water 12-13L

29/09/12 - 03/10/12

Kepmerg and 5 grams and 2 Keprocess vitalyte grams of vitalyte 5 grams of 12 13 litres

6/10/12 10/10/12

Vitalyte

vitalyte 24/10/12 28/10/12 Amprolium or 25 30g 50 litres

coccidiostat

2. Days

Vaccination chart / schedule Age of flock Dayold Vaccination New castle i/o Route / dose Intra-ocular dose, normal water. 200 10m/s saline

28/09/12

05/10/12

7 10 days

1st

Gamboro 200 dose / 10mls

vaccine infections of saline water. bursal disease Eye drop or intraocular

vaccine (IBDV) 12/10/12 14 days NDV

Lasota 400 dose / 4 litres

new castle disease of normal saline vaccine (NDV) 19/10/12 2nd vaccine guinboro 400 dose / 4.2 litres of normal saline waters. 29/10/12 NDV Lasota 400 dose / 4.2 litres of normal saline water. drinking water orally

2.4

DAILY (ROUTINE) ACTIVITIES The group one members performed the following routine activities as

summarised below: - Chicks were fed twice a day morning and evening

- Drinkers were washed thoroughly without detergent and filled with fresh water. - Stores and lantern were lighted for the first two weeks (about 6.15pm in the evening) and put off every morning around 8:00am. - Pens surrounding were swept and wood shavings returned back into the pens - The pens swept daily - Morning activities commenced latest 8am. - Evening activities commenced, latest 6pm 2.5 EQUIPMENT USED Drinkers to supply fresh water and medications to birds. Feeders to supply feed to the birds Stoves to provide warmth Lantern for illumination and warmth in case of absence of power. Broom for sweeping pens. Bucket for fetching water Weighing scale: for measuring or weighing feed ingredients in kilograms and birds.

Shovel: used for on floor mixing of feed.

CHAPTER THREE 3.0 3.1 a. RESULT AND OBSERVATION RECORD OF OBSERVATION 29 member of birds were recorded as mortality at the end of the broiler starter phase. b. c. d. Minimum feed wastage due to proper management Rodents (rats) feeling on the feed. Birds continuously dropped feed and nood shavings into the drinkers, thereby impeding the flow of water. e. The birds were highly adapted to the weather and showed no symptom of disease except for coccidiosis disease at the third week. f. 3.2 Rate of feeding was high RESULT Initial weight of birds = 1.25kg Feed supplied = 0 Feed left over = 0

Number of birds = 16 Work Weight gain Left (kg) 1 2 3 4 5 3.00 6.80 10.00 14.00 19.00 (kg) 1.0 0.35 0.30 2.75 4.8 9.2kg over Number birds 16 16 16 16 15 of Feed supplied 4 6 9 14 18 47kg

a.

Feed consumed for broiler starter phase = feed supplied feed left over Number of birds

b.

Weight gain for broiler starter phase = final weight initial weight Number of birds

c.

Feed conversion ration (FCR) = feel consumed weight gain

d.

Feed efficiency conversion ratio (FECRR) = weight gain feed consumed