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# IV.

5. Real surfaces a. absorptivity (absorptance)
= fraction of incident radiation that is absorbed.

b. reflectivity (reflectance)
= fraction of incident radiation that is reflected. For an opaque surface an energy balance gives +=1

(IV.B.6)

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5. Real surfaces (cont.) c. the gray surface (useful approximation for radiative exchange in enclosures) Consider an isothermal, evacuated enclosure at uniform temperature T.

Ab

T A

## Surface Ab is black. Surface A has < 1.

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c. the gray surface (cont.) At equilibrium, the temperature of Ab is T and it emits energy Ab T 4. It also absorbs energy Ab T4. We conclude that the irradiation, G, on any surface in the enclosure is G = T4 At equilibrium, surface A absorbs and emits per absorption = AG = emission = AE. (IV.B.8) (IV.B.7)

Ab

T A

Define the emissivity (emittance) by (E = total emissive power of real surface) E (IV.B.9) = or E = Eb Eb lesson 28

c. The gray surface (cont.) T A Then for surface A at equilibrium AG = A T 4 = AE = A T 4
= .

Ab

or

(IV.B.10)

(IV.B.10) is called Kirchoffs law. It was derived for equilibrium conditions but is frequently applied to nonequilibrium situations. A gray surface is one for which, at a given T,

(, T ) =
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## E = (T ) = const. for all (T ) = (T ) = const. Eb

(IV.B.11)

c. The gray surface (cont.) Total, normal (n) or hemispherical (h) emissivities of selected surfaces. Material Al2O3 (n) SS (polished, n) SS (oxidized, n) Skin (h) Vegetation (h) Water (h) 300K 600K 0.69 0.17 0.19 0.87 0.95 0.92-0.96 0.96 800K 0.23 0.88 1500K 0.41 -

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C. Exchange Between Surfaces
1. Exchange between black surfaces a. Convex black object in isothermal black enclosure Net rate of heat transfer from 1 to 2 is T1, A1 T2, A2

## Q12 = A 1 T14 T24

(IV.C.1)

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b. Exchange between finite black surfaces Let Fij = fraction of radiation leaving surface i that is intercepted by j. This called the shape factor or view factor. 2 1

(IV.C.2)

## If T1 = T2 , Q12 = 0 and A 1F12 = A 2F21

This is called reciprocity rule. (IV.C.2) becomes
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(IV.C.3)

## Q12 = A 1F12 T14 T24

(IV.C.4)

2. Shape factors three key relationships a. The reciprocity rule

A 1F12 = A 2F21
b. The summation rule Consider a long tunnel furnace. 1 2 3
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(IV.C.3)

## F11 + F12 + F13 + F14 = 1

4

or , in general

Fij = 1
j

(IV.C.5)

c. Hottels String Rule for 2-dimensional geometries C L2

L1

F12 =
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AD + BC ( AC + BD ) 2L1

(IV.C.6)

d. Forest Fire Example What is the radiation flux on the ground in front of a forest fire? How long will it take for a piece of wood on the ground to ignite? Approximate the fire as a black, two-dimensional wall of height H and temperature Tf.

H 1 2 x
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or G2 = F21Eb1

(IV.C.7)

## Apply the string rule to find F21.

x

d. Forest Fire Example (cont.) H 1 2 x

F21 =
x

H2 + x 2 + x + x x + ( x + x )2 + H2 2x
Take limit as x 0.

F21 =

1 d 1 x /H x H2 + x 2 = 1 2 2 2 dx ( x / H ) + 1 G2 =

(IV.C.8)

## The irradiation on the ground a distance x from the fire is

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4 x /H 1 Tf (IV.C.9) 1 2 2 ( x / H ) 1 +

d. Forest Fire Example (cont.) Consider the time to ignition. Assume the following properties for wood and flame. k = 0.24 W/(m k) Tf = 1250 K (1800F) = 500 kg/m3 H=5m x=2m c = 2800 J/(kg K) = 0.17 x 10-6 m2/s =1 Ignition temperature, Tig = 530 K (500 F) Initial temperature of wood, T0 = 300 K

Recall (I.I.4)

T(0, t ) T0 =

2G2 (t / )1/ 2 k

(IV.C.10)

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d. Forest Fire Example (cont.)
2

(IV.C.11)

G2 =

## 1 2/5 W 5.67 x10 8 (1250 )4 = 4.35 x10 4 2 1 2 2 m ( 2 / 5) + 1

Note: the maximum flux that human skin can sustain for 1-2 minutes without damage is about 4.7 kW/m2 (1500 Btu/(ft2 h)).

t=

## 0.24(530 300 ) = 7 .4 s 6 0.17 x10 2( 4.35 x10 4 )

What is the rate of spread? How can our model be made more realistic?

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