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1 Peter 2.

11-25
I. Exegetical Issues A. Establishing the Text

Metzger lists v.2:19 as containing two important variants. is clarified with in C ( 33 omit ) 1739 al, and in 2464, and in 623. The difficult phrase also received a number of scribal treatments. is replaced with in C 94 206 322 323 424 614 915 1175 1518 1739 2298 syr, h. appears in A* 33 and in P72 81. In v.2:21 is replaced by in 209* 2127 syr arm. has strong support from P72 A B Cvid 33 81 614 1739 itar, , z vg syr cop, bo, vid. In v.2:25 the manuscripts attest both and (-: A B 1505 2464 al; -: P72 C and most minuscules). The former takes the subject of the participle to the be the readers , while the later takes the participle as referring to the sheep, .1 Other important variants include v2:12 where (is placed in the subjunctive (L P 69 614 623 1243 1505 1739 al syh**) intensifying the hypothetical nature of the statement. In v.2:23 some mss have (pc t vg; CLlat Cyp) instead of changing the intended referent from God to Pilate.
B. Boundaries, Placement, Function of the Passage in its Context What marks your passage off as a distinct unit? How does your passage relate to its literary context? What are significant verbal/conceptual links with other parts of the work? C. Literary Structure Make a brief outline that will help you see the overall structure and movement of the passage. What is the logic and dynamic of the passage (cf. outline)? Does it have a central subject or point to make? Where are climactic points? What literary techniques are employed to create impact (e.g. repetition, use of imagery, play on words, recurrent motifs)? D. Issues of Interpretation (this is the widest category; it will usually be the longest section)

- Should Peters description of the community as resident aliens and strangers ( , cf. 1 Pet. 1.1) be taken as a metaphorical description setting up a contrast between earthly citizenship and heavenly (cf. Phil 1:27, 3:20)? Or should Peters statement be taken as a description of the social makeup of the churches Peter addresses? Could resident alien and stranger be taken prescriptively in light of the following exhortation calling the churches to leave their former lives?2 - As with the Pauline writings how should Peters use of imagery related to life and the body be understood ( - v.2:11, -vv.1:9, 22, 2:11, 25, 3:20, 4:19)? What sort of duality is Peter setting up? A cosmological corporeal versus incorporeal contrast? Or is Peter, like Paul, setting up a contrast between the realms of Sin and Spirit? -How should in v2:13 be understood? Possible translations include every human creature (Elliott), or every human creation (NRSV institution). The former plays well into Peters exhortation to submit to the emperor and governors, while the latter still encourages submission while expressing a hint of the illegitimacy of the Roman government.
Explore the text by considering: key words/phrases difficulties for translation/interpretation (comparing translations & noting differences often reveals points that repay closer analysis)

Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (Stuttgart: Deutsche Biblegesellschaft; United Bible Societies, 1994), 619. 2 See the discussion in Elliott, 1 Peter (37B; New York: Doubleday, 2000), 457-462.

NT3426: Philippians & Philemon

E. Use of Other Texts/Traditions - v.2:12 (cf. Lk 19:44) may quote

from Is 10.3LXX , but similar phrases occur elsewhere (Jer 6:15 LXX, 10:15LXX , cf. Wis 3:7, Sir 16:18, 18:20, Ps Sol. 11:1, 6). In each of these cases the day/time of visitation is a reference to the eschatological day of Judgment. - vv.2:22 25 directly quote from the suffering servant passage of Is 52:13 53:12 four times: v.2:22, Is 53:9; v.2:24, Is 53:4,12; v.2:24, Is 53.5; v.2:25 Is 53.6.
1 Peter 2:22 1 Peter 2:24 Is 53:9LXX , Is 54:4LXX 54:12LXX Is 53:5LXX Is 53:6LXX

1 Peter 2:24 1 Peter 2:25

- vv.2:22,24 identify Christ as the servant of is 52:13 -53:12. v.2:22 following the LXX closely while substituting for ( is attested by ult. AQ, by BSLC). v.2:24 brings together Is 54:4 and 54:12, and then quotes from Is 54:4 changing the 3rd person plural endings to second plural. Finally in v2:25 the broader is changed to the 2nd plural . The servant passages of Isaiah (42:1-9; 49:1-13; 50:4-11; and 52:13-53:12, cf Is 11) are interpreted in a number of ways in the Second Temple period. It is generally agreed that Daniel 11:33, 35, 12:3 identifies the wise who suffered under Antiochus IV with Isaiahs servant as does the Habakkuk Peshers interpretation of 1:12-13.3 The Servant Songs are interpreted messianically in the Similitudes of Enoch (esp. 1 En. 48, 62-63- possibly a midrash on Is 52.13 53.12).4 The Targum of Isaiah also treats the Servant messianically adding the Messiah after my servant in 52:13. In both of these messianic treatments the elements of suffering are interpreted out. In 1 Peter, by contrast, Christs suffering as Messiah provides the pattern for the Christian community to follow drawing upon elements of both traditions of interpretation.
F. Relation to Other NT Texts Look first at other texts by the same author, then at other canonical texts. How do these parallel/similar passages illuminate your text? (For Matt, Mark and Luke, a gospel synopsis is particularly helpful). G. Historical Issues How does this text relate to its historical, social, political, and cultural settings? What customs, events, practices, beliefs of the text's larger setting need to be understood to interpret the text?

II. Significance for Theology and Preaching


Briefly reflect on ways in which this text makes a claim on its hearers. What would it mean for us to hear this passage as scripture, as God's word to the community of faith today?

III. Discussion Questions


3 4

Moyise and Menken, Isaiah in the New Testament (London ; New York: T&T Clark, 2005), 30. Ibid., 31.

NT3426: Philippians & Philemon

Pose three incisive questions to guide our group discussion of the passage. These questions should invite us to engage with the text itself rather than simply explore our own feelings about the text.

Bibliography Elliott, John Hall, 1 Peter. The Anchor Bible 37B. New York: Doubleday, 2000. Metzger, Bruce Manning, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Stuttgart: Deutsche Biblegesellschaft; United Bible Societies, 1994. Moyise, Steve and M. J. J. Menken, Isaiah in the New Testament. New Testament and the Scriptures of Israel. London ; New York: T&T Clark, 2005.