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Title: Collaboration with Music: A Noteworthy Endeavor. By: Cane, Susannah, Music Educators Journal, 00274321, Sep2009, Vol.

96, Issue 1 Database: Academic Search Complete HTML Full Text Collaboration with Music : A Noteworthy Endeavor
Hushed melodies have been known to lull infants to sleep; preschoolers can memorize the alphabet through song; marching bands arouse patriotism; and choirs inspire spiritual renewal. As music educators, we are well attuned to the power of music to alter mood, provide motivation, and link learning. Yet, music often has been viewed in educational settings as a frivolous learning tool. Such an underestimation must be addressed by both music teachers and researchers devoted to the formation of curriculum and instructional design. One approach to bolster the standing of music is to add more opportunities to express the art through educational collaboration. Effective music collaboration consists of equal partnering in the planning, implementation, management, and assessment among educators concerned in maintaining the integrity of music as a viable discipline and classroom teachers interested in providing enhancement of content as well as support for diverse learning styles. Integration and Collaboration Some music teachers refuse to endorse the use of music with other subjects out of fear that such an endeavor will compromise their art. "For as soon as administrators believe it is possible to teach music while teaching other subjects, generalists will replace music educators, and music education will be removed from the timetable."[ 1] Understandably, most music educators shudder when attempts to integrate music consists of, for instance, creating lyrics to a familiar children's song to reinforce learning about the cycle of growth from seed to reproducing plant. However, the integration of music into other subjects and the collaboration of music with other subjects can produce divergent outcomes. Integration is "an act or instance of combining into an integral whole."[ 2] At first glance, the definition of collaboration, "to work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort,"[ 3] appears to be synonymous with integration. However, on closer examination, integration places an emphasis on the struggle to resolve two approaches, while collaboration begins with an assumption of inevitable harmony. Although subtle, such a distinction between these two terms can play a substantial role in achieving a positive outcome. Even if educators agree to begin a partnership from the perspective of collaboration, as opposed to integration, is it possible that such efforts can enrich the learning process? Why Collaborate? From a musical perspective, collaboration affords students a more thorough and enriched arts education. According to researchers Hilary R. Persky, Brent A. Sandene, and Janice M. Askew, Richard Riley, then the U.S. Secretary of Education, stated in 1997,

The major reason more students do not achieve at higher levels in music is that too many schools systematically deprive them of opportunities to learn by failing to provide sufficient time and staff for

curriculum-based instruction leading to the skills and knowledge called for in National Standards for Arts Education.[4]
Furthermore, educational partnerships make it more feasible for learners to achieve the recommended standards published by MENC: The National Association for Music Education that specify that "children in elementary school receive at least a total of 100 minutes of instruction e ach week."[ 5] Last, music collaboration enables students to fulfill the eighth of the National Standards for Music Education, described as "understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts."[ 6] Collaboration has the potential to bolster music education, but can the process enhance learning in other disciplines? Research demonstrates that collaboration between music and other subjects provides solid links for learning. Researcher V. N. Brunk conducted a study where music was assimilated into the social studies and science curriculum of young learners.[ 7] The experimental group engaged in a semester of two thirty-minute sociomusic lessons per week, while the comparison group immersed in separate subject instruction in music, science, and social studies. "The conclusion of this study was that learner achievement in social studies, science, and music concepts resulting from the integrated socio-music curriculum was superior to that resulting from the separate subject curriculum."[ 8] Causal linkage is evident with other subjects, such as language arts. As educator Diane De Nicola Orlofsky put it,

Even a cursory review of the literature supports the vital link between elements of language arts and music. Many authors attempt to show the connection between teaching a familiar song and the concepts of structural analysis, contextual analysis, phonic generalizations, repetitive-cumulative patterns, figurative language usage, and syllabication, to name only a few.[9]
Numerous research studies surmise that an interdisciplinary collaboration improves achievement, but it also has the potential to affect other factors, such as motivation. Researcher Rita Weisskoff led a study where teachers gauged student motivation through the completion of a threepoint Likert-type scale measurement. At the conclusion of the research, Weisskoff surmised that "students who received the music condition scored significantly higher with regard to continuing motivation."[ 10] If heightened achievement, improved motivation, and increased enrichment are key outcomes for interdisciplinary collaborative endeavors, what management concerns should be addressed? The Formation of a Team Instead of selecting members of a collaborative team on the basis of social implications, participants should consider group contribution, balance, and cohesion. "An effective team will have members with complementary skills the ability to raise important questions, the ability to analyze data, the ability to focus the team on its larger purpose, or the ability to communicate team decisions."[ 11] In other words, a successful team is resilient enough to thrive in the presence of creative friction. According to educator Katherine Strand, "Four personal teacher characteristics strong convictions, tenacity, flexibility, and trust had to be balanced for the collaboration to be successful."[ 12] Such membership components contribute to the formation of brilliant ideas and subsequent realization of learning.

In a collaborative effort, teachers might be called to embrace different styles of teaching as well as shed routines and molds. Thus, it would be prudent for members of a collaborative team to discuss classroom expectations and procedures, such as disciplinary tactics, noise level, assessment options, and differentiated instruction. During the initial stages of the shared effort, interested educators might opt to complete a Collaboration Inventory Sheet (see Figure 1). Although some might regard the use of such a worksheet as too formal and, thus, an unnecessary step, a procedural discussion would establish team reliance and therefore enhance the success of the group effort. Components of a Successful Collaboration After the establishment of a cohesive team, it is vital for members to clarify a philosophical intent for the collaboration. In the words of Strand, "Partners must come to agreement that the arts are not to be treated as projects' that demonstrate learning in other disciplines, but rather that arts are another way to learn."[ 13] Therefore, when music educators gather with classroom teachers to collaborate, the expectation should be purposeful methodology for both disciplines, where students are encouraged to use higher-order thinking skills as the process and product of learning are assessed. Once a foundation has been established, teachers can construct learning goals, instructional strategies, and assessment tools, where methodology equally relies on the teaching skills of both educators. In other words, instead of merely viewing the endeavor as an opportunity for two educators to occupy the same learning environment, collaborative teaching underscores the use of unique teaching capabilities. Whether participants teach together, alternate instruction, or teach small groups simultaneously, a reliance on the team concept encourages members to acknowledge the potential of participants as well as reflect on personal strengths to fortify the merger. As educator Wendy W. Murawski says,

Both educators need to model the techniques they expect of their colleagues; these include consistency, structure, good teaching practices, punctuality, behavior management techniques, creativity, and high standards that also address different learning styles and needs.[14]
Exemplary standards and techniques are vital to the workings of an effective team, but underlying administrative approval also will affect successful collaborative initiatives. Equally important in a collaborative endeavor is the endorsement of administration to support partnerships and protect curricula. However, even if administrators back collaborative projects, new plans often do not come to fruition. As educators Deborah L. Begoray and Francine Morin put it, "Many new curriculum plans fail to be implemented. This may, in part, be due to the ineffectiveness of the professional development models used rather than to individual teachers' resistance to change."[15] Administrators can thwart such shortcomings by providing access to appropriate teacher training sessions. Designed for classroom teachers and arts specialists, summer training sessions and educational workshops offer the means to encourage curriculum change. According to a summer institute study by Begoray and Morin in which language arts were partnered with fine arts, "Findings indicate that an intensive professional development experience targeted at specific curricular demands may be one way to encourage sustained change in teaching approaches."[ 16] Effective professional development encourages curriculum change by linking theory to practical application. Collaboration between Music and Language Arts Currently, fifth-grade teacher Jackie Loehwing and I are immersed in an ongoing collaborative effort that employs a balanced disciplinary approach. Loehwing and I focused our first endeavor on the art and mechanics of musical

composition and the districtwide required reading of the Newberry Award-winning novel The Westing Game.[ 17] After reading the book in the fifth-grade classroom, Loehwing and I taught together during language arts instruction to model the first step of our collaboration. My colleague and I demonstrated how we individually used Finale Notepad to exemplify understanding of scene development.[ 18] After comparing unique components and similar qualities in our compositions, Loehwing and I each guided half the class to create a new composition. Students then gathered in small groups to use the free software program to display their understanding of one of four scenes (see Figure 2) on student laptops. My coworker and I rotated among the groups to ensure that the students were exhibiting a link between language arts and music. Most groups selected the scene in the book where main character Turtle Wexler enters an empty mansion on a dare but, upon the discovery of a mysterious corpse, flees the residence (see Figure 3). In our technological society, I was confident the students would be able to handily navigate the music software, but was convinced they would require a great deal of guidance relative to music composition. I was prepared to offer all levels of support, but I am elated to convey that the groups required a minimal amount of guidance and, further, composed without reserve! For instance, some of the groups chose a minor key to represent an ominous setting; an instrument, such as the organ, to project a mysterious quality; a stepwise melodic contour to demonstrate movement up a set of stairs; a single, high-pitched, sustained ledger note to represent a reactive scream at the discovery of the body; a frenzied array of sixteenth notes to convey panicked movement after the sighting; and a final, dotted pattern to simulate a rapid heartbeat after a terrifying exit from the mansion. Even though most students focused on the same scene from the book, they were able to compare and contrast the compositions and, thus, noted similarities and differences among the pieces. Assuming Loehwing and I repeat the endeavor in the future, I also would like to focus on the author's use of clues in the text, which center around the lyrics of "America the Beautiful." In The Westing Game alliance, literary text inspired the musical compositions. However, a more recent project undertaken with Loehwing relies on music to serve as inspiration for poetry. My fifth-grade classes just finished composing Chinese and Japanese melodies that soon will serve as inspiration for haiku writing. Although the music was written as part of general music instructional time, the poetry will be written in the fifth-grade classroom. Additionally, Loehwing and I are currently meeting to construct plans to align musical aspects in program music with the key components of descriptive writing. As evidenced in the timetable for implementation of the collaborative projects with the fifth-grade class, my teaching schedule affords two small slots of afternoon time each week to interact in the grade-level classroom. Previously, I have used this much-appreciated time to collaborate with members of the third-grade staff as well as a guidance counselor. Although some might be stunned with this heightened level of administrative support for the arts, in actuality, it is surprising that more learning communities do not avail such opportunities. After all, most school districts seem eager to discover more effective ways for students to learn. Maintain Integrity Even though my collaborative experiences with colleagues have produced beneficial outcomes, such partnerships are not necessarily advisable in every teaching situation. It is entirely possible that collaboration will not mesh with every unit or even with every discipline. An educational partnership should be a relationship that is naturally assimilated into the learning environment and one that maintains the integrity of each discipline. Effective music collaboration consists of equal partnering in the planning, implementation, management, and assessment between educators concerned with maintaining the integrity of music as a viable discipline and classroom teachers interested in providing enhancement of content as well as support for diverse learning styles. Music educators need not fear that collaborative endeavors will jeopardize the art as long as they understand "the secret to integrating with integrity is to be flexible about the context, but rigid about the content."[ 19] With the backing of current research, perhaps finally, our energy can shift from defending music in the schools to expanding our position as collaborative partner outside our classroom. Integrating music with other academic subjects can yield many positive results for your students and for your school as a whole. Notes

1. Kari K. Veblen and David J. Elliott, "Integration: For or Against?" General Music Today 14, no.1 (2000): 6. 2. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1). http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ integration (accessed July 5, 2007). 3. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/collaboration (accessed July 5, 2007). 4. Quoted in Tonya Gray Propst, "The Relationship between the Undergraduate Music Methods Class Curriculum and the Use of Music in the Classrooms of In-service Elementary Teachers," Journal of Research in Music Education 51, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 323. 5. Propst, 323. 6. Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, National Standards for Arts Education: What Every Young American Should Know and Be Able to Do in the Arts (Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1994). www.menc.org/publication/books/standards.htm (accessed July 5, 2007). 7. V. N. Brunk, "Validations of a Sociomusic Curriculum: Music Integrated with Social Studies and Science (PhD diss., Texas A&M University, College Station, 1981). 8. Isreal Eady and Janell D. Wilson, "The Influence of Music on Core Learning," Education 125, no. 2 (2004): 244. 9. Diane De Nicola Orlofsky, "Language Arts and Music," Music Educators Journal 81, no. 2 (1994): 10. 10. Cited in Eady and Wilson, "The Influence of Music," 243. 11. Daniel L. Kain, "Choose Colleagues before Friends for Teaching Teams," Education Digest 72, no.1 (2006): 5455. 12. Katherine Strand, "The Heart and the Journey: Case Studies of Collaboration for Arts Integrated Curricula," Arts Education Policy Review 108, no.1 (2006): 36. 13. Ibid., 39. 14. Wendy W. Murawski, "Addressing Diverse Needs through Co-teaching: Take Baby Steps!" Kappa Delta Pi Record 41, no. 2 (2005): 80. 15. Deborah L. Begoray and Francine Morin, "Multiple Literacies in Language Arts: Sustainable Teacher Change through a Summer Institute," Reading Online 6, no. 4 (2002): 11. 16. Begoray and Morin, "Multiple Literacies," 9. 17. Ellen Raskin, The Westing Game (New York: Puffin Books, 1978). 18. See http://www.fnalemusic.com/notepad/. 19. Beth Ann Miller, "Integrating Elementary General Music: A Collaborative Action Research Study," Council for Research in Music Education 130 (1996): 108.
FIGURE 1: Collaboration Inventory Sheet

Teacher Name----1. The reason why I want to engage in a collaborative endeavor is because----2. I would describe my style of teaching as----3. I believe my strengths are----4. I have reservations about----5. My preferred time to plan is----FIGURE 2: The Westing Game by Ellen Raskin: You are about to write a melody to demonstrate your understanding of scene/setting development in The We sting Game. Your task is as follows:

1. Select one of the scenes/settings: -----Turtle enters the Westing mansion on a dare -----Sam Westing's will is read for the first time

-----J. J. Ford's dinner party -----The meeting to solve the Westing Game 2. Construct written description of your scene/setting (think about what happened, how the characters felt, the mood, etc.). 3. Select musical strategies to describe your scene: High or low pitches? Melodic contour? Instrument? Major or minor key? Time signature? Clef? Form? Straight or syncopated rhythm? 4. Log onto Finale and use the following composition guidelines: a. Determine clef, time signature, instrument, and key signature. b. Compose an 8- to 12-measure melody. c. Play back your melody; make corrections. 5. Peer review your melody; make revisions. Please complete a Self-Reflection Checklist Name of Composer(s)-----FIGURE 3: Self-Reflection Checklist

Did I ------1. use my chosen clef? ------2. use my intended time signature? ------3. use my chosen key signature? ------4. review my piece for errors? Does my composition -----1. have the correct number of beats in each measure? -----2. have a rhythmic component that matches my chosen scene? -----2. have a melodic contour that matches my chosen scene? -----3. reflect my description of my chosen scene, incorporating a

beginning, middle, and end? When all spaces are checked, please proceed to Peer Editing Name of Composer(s)----Description of Scene----Name of Editor(s)----Peer Editing

1. Does the piece contain all necessary musical parts, such as time signature, key signature, bar lines, double bar lines, etc? -----yes-----no If the answer is "no," please explain:----2. Do you believe the piece accurately describes the scene/setting? -----yes-----no If the answer is "no," please explain: When completed, please return to composer for revisions. Thank you!
Finale Music Program

Page 1: Please fill in the following: Title (Name of your composition) ----Composer (Your name) Once filled in, click on NEXT Page 2: Select your choice of instrument. Once chosen, click on ADD. Page 3: Choose the 1. time signature (most compositions will be in 3/4 or 4/4) 2. key signature (most compositions will be in C major or A minor) After completed, click on FINISH. Page 4: Begin to write your composition by choosing icons from the tool bar!
DIAGRAM: THE DEAD DIAGRAM: The Dare DIAGRAM: The BIG Dare

~~~~~~~~ By Susannah Cane Susannah Cane is a general music teacher and choral director at Ore Valley Elementary School, Dallastown Area School District, York, Pennsylvania. She currently is pursuing a doctoral degree in Curriculum and Teaching from Northcentral University. She can be contacted at Susannah.Cane@dallastown.net. Copyright of Music Educators Journal is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Title: Collaboration and Access for Our Children: Music Educators and Special Educators Together. When Music Educators and Special Educators Work Together, All Students Are Likely to Benefit By: McCord, Kimberly, Watts, Emily H., Music Educators Journal, 00274321, 20060301, Vol. 92, Issue 4 Database: ERIC Collaboration and Access for Our Children: Music Educators and Special Educators Together
Ricardo couldn't wait to be in the fourth grade. In the fourth grade, students could learn band or stringed instruments, and Ricardo wanted to play the drums. He made sure his mom signed the permission form and marked the date for the parents' meeting on her calendar. Ricardo brought the form to school the next day, gave it to his teacher, and counted the days until the meeting.[ 1] Sandi, Ricardo's special education teacher, knew that the last three band educators had denied her students who were deaf a place in the band, so she decided to hand deliver the form to the new band director, Anita. Sandi explained that Ricardo was very excited about playing percussion, that his mother had given permission, and that a paraprofessional named Jordan would be coming along with Ricardo. Fortunately for Ricardo, the educators in his school believed that they shared the responsibility to leach all students. Sandi, the special educator, was committed to collaborating with the band director, Anita. Anita was open to suggestions about accommodations. The assistant principal gave Anita and Sandi time to meet by covering Sandi's class. Jordan provided sign language interpretation for Ricardo as well as valuable suggestions on how to accommodate for his needs. And Ricardo wasn't the only student with a hearing impairment in band that year. When two other fourth-graders who were hard of hearing found out that Ricardo was going to join band, they convinced their parents to give them permission as well. Sandi helped Anita understand that when teaching students who are hard of hearing, she needed to make sure she had their attention and not to turn away when giving directions. Ricardo had some residual hearing and could hear low-pitched tones with the assistance of a hearing aid, so Anita started Ricardo on bass drum rather than snare drum. Ricardo had the opportunity to play in the band, and Anita had Sandi's input about his unique needs. Americans with Disabilities Act Would you have welcomed Ricardo into your class? Would you have thought that students who are deaf could play instruments? By denying students who are deaf or hard of hearing access to instrumental music classes, the previous music educators at Ricardo's school may have violated the law and put the school district at risk for a complaint with the Office of Civil Rights or a discrimination lawsuit. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides broad civil rights protection for individuals with disabilities.[ 2] All students must have access to classes and ensembles that are available to the general school population. If students aren't allowed to participate in ensembles or general music classes that are open to all students, then the school is likely violating the intent of both the ADA and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004).[ 3]

Although the challenges of including students with disabilities may seem daunting, the articles in this special issue of MEJ can help. (See the Special Focus on Children with Disabilities sidebar for details.) You can find additional support in the books and Web sites listed the Resources sidebar, but perhaps the best resources are the special educators in your school and the information in each students Individualized Education Program (IEP). Individualized Education Programs Ricardo's band experience was successful partly because both Sandi and Anita had access to Ricardo's IEP, a document that outlines the student's capabilities, needs, and services provided. The IEP includes demographic information, diagnostic statements, and test results describing the child's current level of functioning. It also lists the student's strengths, needs, and goals, as well as the accommodations and support services required. Monitoring procedures as well as evaluation activities are also included. The IEP team develops the document and monitors the student's progress, while ensuring that his or her needs are being met. This team could include the general educator, a special educator, related service personnel, an administrator, and parents or guardians. At a minimum, there must be at least one representative from the general education curriculum on the team. When appropriate, the student is also included. Music educators can also be part of the team. IDEA allows individuals who are part of a students IEP team to have access to that student's IEP files. Other educators who are responsible for implementing IEPs are also allowed access to IEPs for their particular students. In practice, however, music educators are often unaware which students in their classroom have disabilities and don't know how to adapt instruction to meet these students' needs. In a recent survey, 201 K-12 music educators were asked about their involvement in the IEP process.[ 4] More than half of the music educators surveyed did not participate in IEP development for students with disabilities. To collaborate effectively with the special education faculty, the music educator must be aware of the needs and abilities of the students in music classes. To obtain this information, it's a good idea for music educators to ask the school principal or special education representative in their building if there are students with disabilities in their classes and then review those students' IEPs at the start of the school year or before, if possible. An even better way to help students with disabilities is to be part of the IEP team. Making Time for Collaboration Often the biggest challenge to collaborating with special educators or participating in IEP meetings is finding a time to meet during the school day. Music educators and special educators have many responsibilities. Usually, educators can meet during common planning periods or lunch. Unfortunately, music educators often teach classes or provide lessons at this time. Meeting before or after school is not a solution for music teachers because they often must conduct rehearsals or provide access to the music room so students can pick up or drop off instruments. It's often equally hard for special educators to find unclaimed time during the day. This means there are limited opportunities for music educators to directly participate in IEP meetings with special educators. Administrative support is needed to facilitate collaboration among the music educator, special educator, and other members of the IEP team. An administrator could cover classes or arrange for a substitute on the day set aside for IEP planning meetings. If planning and progress meetings are all scheduled on a single day, a roving substitute could cover classes, roaming from class to class as the individual educators are called upon to meet with other IEP team members.[ 5] IEP Team Meetings Ann Halverson and Thomas Neary highlight the need to respect educators' lime by using an agenda and setting a time limit for the meeting.[ 6] If the meetings are carefully structured, they won't waste your valuable time. A structured team meeting includes an agenda, an allotted time for discussion of agenda items, a way to disseminate information to those who do not attend, a designated facilitator, a recorder to take notes, a timekeeper, assigned tasks for team members, and dates for tasks to be completed. IEP team members typically rotate roles so that each member shares in facilitating the meeting and taking minutes. This reflects the philosophy that IEP team members are "in this together." For music educators who are new to IEP meetings, the responsibilities associated with different meeting roles may appear intimidating. The special educator

should model for the music educator how the IEP team meeting is facilitated and recorded. The music educator's entry into a rotating facilitator role should occur only after he or she has had time to feel comfortable. In this age of digital information, IEP team members can share information "at any time of day or night."[ 7] E-mail, chat rooms, and online discussion groups allow for flexibility in communicating and sharing information about students. When communicating electronically, team members must remember that confidentiality guidelines apply for all students with disabilities. Rather than using students' names in electronic communications, team members should use initials or pseudonyms. They should also avoid revealing other identifying personal or school information. Preparing for Students with Disabilities It's important that music educators be apprised of students who may be entering the music program. In the spring, educators who will have students with disabilities in their classrooms in the upcoming school year should have the opportunity to meet with the IEP team to plan for a successful transition into their classrooms. Meeting during the first couple of weeks of the new school year will also help the music educator plan for accommodating students with disabilities in the classroom. See figure 1 for an example of a form that might guide discussion with the special educator. IDEA allows for individualized planning at transition periods. Common transition times are from early childhood programs to primary, from primary to intermediate, from intermediate to middle school and from middle school to high school. In two years, Ricardo will be transitioning to middle school. The collaboration between the music educator and the special educator needs to continue for a smooth transition to the middle school band program. The elementary school music educator will be key to Ricardo's continued success in band as she shares her strategies with the middle school band director. Support from Paraprofessionals Paraprofessionals can be instrumental in promoting learning for students with disabilities in music classes and ensembles. Paraprofessionals who accompany students to music classes function as a source of information and ideas and can relay suggestions between the special education and music faculty. The paraprofessional can also share how classroom dynamics affect the student with a disability. For example, typical students may not choose students with cerebral palsy who have limited vocal abilities for small groups when singing canons. The paraprofessional can alert the music educator to the fact that students with disabilities aren't participating with their typical peers. Paraprofessionals also can support the music educator's teaching and actively engage the student in music learning. For example, Jordan, the paraprofessional who accompanied Ricardo to class, used sign language to interpret Anita's instructions to the class so Ricardo could participate along with his classmates. Curriculum Access: Universal Design for Learning When music educators include children with disabilities in their classrooms, they typically identify what the child cannot do and develop accommodations based on that information. Savvy music educators have discovered that many of these accommodations also are helpful to typical children. For example, Anita used her left arm and hand to model the bass drum part while keeping her conducting pattern going in the right hand. Ricardo was able to keep a steady beat by matching Anita's physical cues, and the saxophones didn't speed up as much because they could also see her steady beat. When Anita helped Ricardo feel the vibrations of the bass drum by leaning against the drum as he played, the other students wanted to try it too. The percussionists discovered that when they fell the drums vibrate the most, they might be playing too loud. Universal Design for Learning (UDL), which has a foundation in the ADA, requires architects to design public buildings that are accessible for people with disabilities. Architects have found that considering accessibility in design has resulted in buildings that are more friendly for everyone, whether able-bodied or disabled. The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) adopted the idea of universal design and applied it to school curricula.[ 8] Universal Design for Learning represents a shift from thinking about adjustments made for each incoming student with a disability to thinking about varying the materials, methods, assessments, and the curriculum so that they benefit a range of learning styles.[ 9]

For many years, educators have understood that people have different learning styles: kinesthetic, aural, and visual. General music educators often use multiple learning modes in their teaching. Movement is considered essential for teaching music at the elementary level. They also use visual aids, such as charts with iconic notation under the words, and they often model musical behaviors so children bear good aural examples. Using some of these in instrumental and choral ensembles can help increase learning for all students. The Learning for All sidebar includes descriptions of how music teachers have adapted their instruction to meet the needs of all their students. These educators prepared for the whole range of learners who might be enrolled in their music classes. Instead of rushing to make adaptations for students with disabilities as they show up, these educators developed materials that could be used as needed. The general music educator described in the sidebar first looked for alternate ways to notate music to help her two students with learning disabilities. The display of music notation in GarageBand allows users to see different durations and pitch represented by color and size. The band director created a video-tape of a student saxophone player for a saxophone player with a hearing impairment. In the video, the student could see the music and the saxophone player's fingers at the same time. Parents of a student with autism who transferred to the school also found the video helpful. Sharon, a typical student who struggled with a difficult saxophone passage, used the video and discovered an easier way to play B-flat. The choir educator first recorded parts of songs for a student with Down syndrome and then discovered that the recording could also help students who are blind, students with learning disabilities, and students with ADD/ADHD. The typical students also used the recordings to learn the songs. The parents of one child appreciated the Web site with music in black and white because the father was color-blind and had trouble seeing colored print on some Web sites. Making the curriculum flexible and accommodating a variety of learning styles produces better results and eliminates the need to customize adaptations for specific students with disabilities. By collaborating, special educators and music educators can contribute their individual expertise toward this mutual goal. The outcomes are access, participation, and success in music for all students. When music educators and special educators work together, all students are likely to benefit. Special Focus on Children with Disabilities This special issue of Music Educators Journal, guest edited by Kimberly McCord, offers insight into the challenges of helping children with disabilities succeed in music. Articles in this special issue focus on two topics that are sometimes forgotten in discussions of helping children with disabilities the importance of collaboration and special challenges related to inclusion in instrumental music. We hope that these articles will be a valuable resource and a source of inspiration for the many music educators who work with students with disabilities. The following articles make up this special issue: "Collaboration and Access for Our Learners: Music Educators and Special Educators Working Together," by Kimberly McCord and Emily A. Watts, discusses how you can work with the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team and develop teaching strategies to benefit all learners. "Partnering with Music Therapists: A Model for Addressing Students' Musical and Extramusical Goals," by Janet Montgomery and Amy Martinson, explains how you can work in partnership with a music therapist or other member of the special education team to meet all the goals on a student's IEP. "'I Send My Best Matthew to School Every Day': Music Educators Collaborating with Parents," by Margaret Fitzgerald, promotes a strong, positive partnership between teachers and parents to support students with disabilities in a music program. Fitzgerald speaks from the dual perspective of teacher and parent. "Children with Disabilities Playing Musical Instruments," by Kimberly McCord and Margaret Fitzgerald, provides strategies for helping students with disabilities to read music, select appropriate instruments, and play in an ensemble. "Students with Disabilities in a High School Band: 'We Can Do It!'" by Christine Lapka, shows that close collaboration between music teacher and special education teacher is the key to full integration of students with disabilities into an ensemble. Dear Special Educator,

I'm interested in meeting the needs of students with disabilities in my music classes. I thought it might be helpful for you to know the types of skills and behaviors expected in my class so you could advise me on how I can best adapt for students with disabilities. On the list below, I have checked all of the skills and behaviors needed in my class. Please make a copy for each student with special needs in my class, and list in the right-hand column your recommendations for accommodations for each student. Thank you for all your hard work for students at our school. Respectfully, Music Educator

General Music Band Strings Choir Other Student's Name----Particular Skills/Behaviors Needed Suggestions for Accommodations Move legs, arms, and hands Sing Read music notation Read lyrics/text Play instruments with one hand Play instruments with two hands Play instruments that require holes to be covered with fingers Play instruments that require physical support Play instruments softly and loudly (varied physical force) Play instruments that require articulating with tongue Play instruments that require hearing exact pitch March while playing an instrument (marching band) Perform movement while singing Read music in very small print Play an instrument that requires good lung capacity Listen to music and hear a variety of things, including volume,

tempo, pitches, different types of sounds, and durations of sound Listen to music with headphones on Work in collaborative pairs or small groups Attend after-school rehearsals or concerts Sight-read music under pressure Wear uniforms or choir robes Remember to bring instrument home to practice and bring it back to school for class Sit in one place for an hour or more Focus for an hour or more Take direction from the teacher and students who lead the ensemble or sections of the ensemble Take care of school-owned instruments and other property See from different locations in the room, onstage, or on a field Memorize music Write Other Figure I. Special Education Adaptation Form
Learning for All The following examples illustrate how teachers can use the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to help all students learn. General Music A sixth-grade general music educator is planning a lesson on composing. The students can invent their own notation. For example, they can use a grid system listing sounds on the left side of the page with boxes across the top of the page for eight measures of music in 4/4 time. Students can put an X in the box to show when the sound is made. Students can also create music in software like GarageBand or a notation program on the two MIDI stations in the classroom. Students can even print out their compositions in traditional notation. Computers equipped with microphones can record live audio. The special educator working with students who are blind or who have low vision might print Braille music notation or use a computer program for converting MIDI files into Braille notation. The faculty workroom copier can enlarge copies and print on larger paper as well. The teacher's composition assignment is flexible enough to work for a variety of learners. The educator presents examples of previous students' compositions in the following ways: Showing videotaped performances Spreading copies of the notated compositions on a table where students can see them Posting copies of the scanned compositions and sound files on the music Web page

Placing video clips of students performing their compositions with spoken descriptions of the performance on the Web for students with visual impairments Including closed-captioned video to describe what the music sounds like for students who are deaf or hard of hearing

Instrumental Music Example Students in high school band are preparing three pieces for a contest. The music educator chose the pieces far enough in advance to develop materials that would allow a variety of learners to work on the pieces. The music educator wrote to the publishers of all three pieces and obtained permission to put MIDI files of the music on the band Web site. The MIDI files were in formats that could be listened to on the Web site from a variety of environments. They were also available in several tempos so students could practice at tempos slower than the intended performance. The music educator asked the special educator to have the music translated into Braille for a flute player in the band. The band director created simplified parts that could be played on any instrument in the group for students with cognitive disabilities, learning disabilities, and certain physical disabilities. The band director recruited students on a variety of band instruments to play selected parts that were videotaped with close-ups of the hands and fingers. A stand with the music on it was sitting next to the player, and the band educator pointed to the music as the student played.

Choral Music Example The middle school chorus was preparing for a joint concert with the local elementary choir. The educators at both schools had been working together to plan the concert. Each choir would perform some pieces alone and some pieces together. The educators prepared the following tools to help students learn the music: Practice recordings for students to take home. Some recordings were made at slower tempos, some were excerpts only, some recordings had piano accompaniment, and some had solo voice only. (Permission may be needed to make recordings. See www.menc.org/copyright for details.) Links to Web sites where students could find professional recordings to play on school or home computers. Lyric sheets uploaded to the two schools' music Web sites. These appear as black print on a white background to help students with visual impairments who need good contrast. Lyric sheets with small icons or graphics that represent words or their meanings. Poor readers, students with cognitive disabilities, English-language learners, and young students benefit from materials with symbols or pictures. A list of commercially recorded versions of the Disney songs that the choir will be singing. Listening to the different versions of the song can motivate reluctant learners and help students apply what they have learned to different materials. A videotape of the sign language interpreter signing the words to the songs for student performers who are deaf or hard of hearing. A program that includes a canon, which is good for students with memory problems who find it hard to learn several verses of a piece. PHOTO (COLOR): Students with disabilities can be active participants in music class. Notes

1. The story presented here is true, but names have been changed to protect the student's identity. 2. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Public Law 336, 101st Cong., 2d sess. (July 26, 1990). 3. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, Public Law 446, 108th Cong. (December 3, 2004). 4. Kimberly A. McCord, Emily H. Watts, and Brain W. Wojcik, "A Survey of Music Educators' Involvement in the Individual Education Program Process and Their Knowledge of Assistive Technology" (unpublished manuscript, Illinois Slate University. Normal, 2005). 5. Ann Tiedemann Halvorsen and Thomas Neary, Building inclusive Schools: Tools and Strategies for Success (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001). 6. Ibid. 7. Priscilla Norton and Debra Sprague, Technology for Teaching (Boston: Allyn and Bacon), 133. 8. Halvorsen and Neary, Building Inclusive Schools, 58-62.

9. Chuck Hitchcock, Anne Meyer, David Rose, and Richard Jackson, "Providing New Access to the General Curriculum: Universal Design for Learning," Teaching Exceptional Children 35, no. 2 (2002): 8-17.
Resources

Web Resources ABLEDATA (www.abledata.com) provides information on assistive technology and rehabilitation equipment. The Association of Assistive Technology Act Programs (ATAP, www.ataporg.org) is a national organization comprising state Assistive Technology Act Programs funded under the Assistive Technology Act (AT Act). Contact information for state programs is listed. The Center for Applied Special Technology (www.cast.org) offers information about Universal Design for Learning and a free Web-based service that will check your Web pages for accessibility. Closing the Gap Inc. (www.closingthegap.com) focuses on computer technology for people with special needs. The Council for Exceptional Children (www.cec.sped.org) is a professional organization for special educators. The Web site offers information on IDEA, fact sheets on a variety of topics, and links to other helpful Web sites. Dancing Dots (www.dancingdots.com) offers a variety of products for the visually impaired, including Braille music courses and assistive technology. Illinois State University's Special Education Assistive Technology Center (www.seatilstu.org) offers information about assistive technology devices and music education and music therapy resources. Learning Disabled Online (www.ldonline.org) is a Web site on learning disabilities for parents and educators. The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (www.nichcy.org) has information on disabilities with fact sheets and other resources for teachers and parents. The National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals offers information on the role of the paraprofessional (www .nrcpara.org/resources/stateoftheart/parateacher2b.php). Soundbeam (www.soundbeam.co.uk/) offers products that convert physical movements into sound. The Postsecondary Education Consortium at the University of Tennessee's Center on Deafness has a chart comparing IDEA Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (http://sunsite.utk.edu/cod/pec/products). The U.S. Department of Education Web site covers the rules and regulations of IDEA 2004 (www.ed.gov/policy/speced/guid/idea/idea2004.html). VSA Arts (www.vsarts.org) promotes access to the arts for people with disabilities. Watchfire WebExact (http://bobby.watchfire.com/bobby) is a free service that allows you to test Web pages and find and repair barriers to accessibility. Webaim (www.webaim.org/info/asdvideo/) offers a multimedia presentation on Web accessibility.
Print and Media Resources Atterbury, Betty W. Mainstreaming Exceptional Learners in Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. Council for Exceptional Children. Universal Design for Learning: A Guide for Teachers and Education Professionals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2005. Miles, Tim R., and John Westcombe, eds. Music and Dyslexia: Opening New Doors. London: Whurr, 2002. Perry, Terry M. Music Lessons for Children with Special Needs. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1995. Robbins, Carol, and Colin Robbins. Music for the Hearing Impaired. London: Magnamusic-Baton, 1980. Rose, David H., and Anne Meyer. Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2002. Tomlinson, Carol Anne. The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1999. MENC Resources

The following books and articles from MENC offer additional information on working with special learners. You can order books and available back issues of MENC periodicals by calling in many library periodical databases. 800-828-0229. Articles are also available

Butler, Maureen. "How Students with Hearing Impairments Can Learn and Flourish in Your Music Classroom." Teaching Music 12, no. 1 (2004): 30-34. De I'Etoile, Shannon K. "Teaching Music to Special Learners: Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders." Music Educators journal 91, no. 5 (2005): 37-43. Hammel, Alice M. "Inclusion Strategies That Work." Music Educators Journal 90, no. 5 (2004): 33 -37. MENC. Spotlight on Making Music with Special Learners. Reston, VA: MENC, 2004. (MENC members, $18.00; nonmembers, $24.00) Mixon, Kevin. "Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program." Teaching Music 13, no. 3 (2005): 30-34. Patterson, Allyson. "Music Teachers and Music Therapists: Helping Students Together." Music Educators journal 89, no. 4 (2003): 35-38. Pontiff, Elizabeth. "Teaching Special Learners: Ideas from Veteran Teachers in the Music Classroom." Teaching Music 12, no. 3 (2004): 52-58. Scheberg, Gail. TIPS: Teaching Music to Special Learners. Reston, VA: MENC, 1988. (MENC members, $7.50; nonmembers, $10.00) Siligo, Wayne Roy. "Enriching the Ensemble Experience for Students with Visual Impairments." Music Educator s journal 91, no. 5 (2005): 31-36. Special Learners column, General Music Today, most issues. Available at www.menc.org/journals. Vance, Kate O'Brien. "Adapting Music Instruction for Students with Dyslexia." Music Educators Journal 90. no. 5 (2004): 27-31.
~~~~~~~~ By Kimberly McCord and Emily H. Watts Kimberly McCord is an associate professor and the coordinator of undergraduate music education at Illinois State University in Normal. She can be reached at kamcor@ilstu.edu. Emily H. Watts is an associate professor of special education at Illinois State University in Normal. She can be reached at ewatts@ilstu.edu. Copyright of Music Educators Journal is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. Title: Education through Collaboration: Learning the Arts while Celebrating Culture. An Elementary School--University Partnership Provides Valuable Multicultural Music Education Experience for Elementary Future Educators By: Damm, Robert J., Music Educators Journal, 00274321, 20061101, Vol. 93, Issue 2 Database: ERIC n elementary school university, partnership provides valuable multicultural music education experiences for elementary future educators. The university curriculum for an elementary education degree traditionally includes a "basics of music" and a "basics of art" course. These two courses represent a nod to the importance of the arts in the elementary school, and they may be the only formal contact with music and arts pedagogy that prospective teachers receive. One way to make these courses especially dynamic and show teachers how they can use music and arts in their own classrooms is through a partnership between university and local elementary school teachers. Music and art faculty at my university forged a partnership with the music and art teachers at one of our local elementary schools. The partnership resulted from the university music and art teachers agreeing to team-teach a class called Creative Arts (music, visual arts, dance, and drama) for the Elementary and Middle Levels. The intent

was to expand an established tradition of collaboration with the local elementary school teachers and students primarily associated with local observances of Native American Day and Black History Day. This team of two university teachers and two elementary teachers then selected a topic around which to organize an eight-week unit of study: Native American music, art, and culture. Lessons featured hands-on experiences with making music and creating art, used a multicultural approach, and integrated music and an with other subjects. A detailed description of our Native American project follows to help you adapt this program for your community. Our university faculty has developed a similar program to study African music, art, and culture, but you could also build a program around Asian, Hispanic, or other cultures. The key to success is sharing the work and using local experts and culture bearers. Share the Work Native American Day had been an annual tradition at the elementary school. The Creative Arts teachers and elementary education majors who were enrolled in the course expanded the event into an eight-week program. Once a week for four weeks, the university music teacher taught a song and dance to different classes of elementary music students. The elementary music teacher continued to rehearse her students for the remaining four to seven weeks of the unit leading up to the celebration. The university music teacher also helped one elementary class make gourd rattles. The university art teacher taught the students how to paint some traditional Native American designs on their gourds. The university art teacher also made two visits to the elementary school to teach mask making. Likewise, the university students learned the songs and dance, made and painted gourd rattles, and created masks. The unit culminated with all university and elementary students sharing their songs, dances, and visual arts in an assembly at the elementary school (see the program in figure 1). Research the Culture The university participants consisted of thirty music and art methods students. The 160 elementary participants were from six general music classes and two art classes. University and elementary teachers guided the unit of study in exactly the same way for their respective students. University and elementary students began by conducting research about representative tribes and their traditional foods, clothing, shelter, tools, utensils, stories, art, and music. They used a research organizer (figure 2) to keep track of the information they gathered. The study of Native American cultures was divided into geographical regions among students within each class. Students (university and elementary) learned about and applied their knowledge of United States geography to their research of Native American life. For instance, by noting that much of the eastern United States was once forested, students could infer that native peoples living in that area made houses of wood. The day before the final celebration, each university student presented a thirty-minute lesson on his or her assigned region to a classroom of elementary children. Dividing the content into sections and having students work in teams allowed them to concentrate their research on a limited area and then share information to learn about the larger picture. An added benefit of this research component is the opportunity for building lifelong learning skills, such as doing research, writing reports, and giving oral presentations. Use High-Quality Resources The music teachers used Bryan Burton's Moving within the Circle as a resource for the music portion of our project. This book includes thirteen songs with dances, five flute songs, six lesson plans for guided listening, and a chapter devoted to making instruments. Lessons encouraged active learning through guided listening, singing, playing instruments, and dancing. The most authentic performance of traditional music is singing in the original Native American language or vocables. Vocables (e.g., "hey ya hi yo") are syllables that match the characteristic sounds of a tribal language but do not have a direct translation. Students expressed surprise that, after singing Native American songs in class, "the songs got stuck in our heads we wanted 10 sing them all day, and we even found ourselves singing the songs out of class."[ 2] All team members agreed on the importance of presenting songs in a context consistent with their specific style of origin. For example, it was important to play the game that corresponds to a game song and learn the dance that goes with a social dance song. Team members carefully dispelled stereotypes about Native American music. This meant avoiding the typical drumbeat used in many Hollywood films to represent "nearby Indians" and presenting authentic music with correct information about its cultural context. Because each tribe is represented by its own unique music and art, team

members used authentic instruments to provide information about specific tribes and their music. Burton's book contains contact information for cultural centers, artisans, and shops that supply authentic instruments or materials. Team members taught that Native American dances reaffirm tribal identity, values, and traditions through connections with life cycles, agriculture, family, seasons, and animals. Students learned four dances to songs in Burton's book. Additionally, representatives of the local Choctaw community provided guidance in learning their Raccoon Dance. Although the university students were initially shy about learning dances, by the end of the unit they had gained an appreciation for dance as a powerful form of self-expression. One student commented that "although dancing is something that is usually out of my comfort zone, I really enjoyed it dancing was actually my favorite part of the unit." Respect Cultural Traditions The visual art portion of the unit included making musical instruments and masks. Creating musical instruments involves applying knowledge from the fields of art, music, and science (acoustics). Authentic instruments (drums, rattles, and flutes) offer a true aural representation of the traditional music. The material from which an instrument is made, its design, and its decoration all provide important information about the culture in which it was created. Students made gourd rattles following the directions in Burton's book. The university music teacher provided authentic Taos drums (consisting of hollow cottonwood logs covered with rawhide skins made by the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico) and a large powwow drum. Students studied Native American mask forms in reference books and on the Internet. Well-known examples of Native American masks include the cedar dance masks of the Northwest Coast Indians, Hopi kachina dance masks, Inuit wooden dance masks, Navajo and Apache leather dance masks, Yaqui wooden pascola (ceremonial host) masks, Cherokee gourd masks, and Iroquois wood and cornhusk false face masks used for religious ritual. Students learned that Native American masks are used in many activities, including dances, entertainment, culture dramas, craft sales, and religious ceremonies; and furthermore, that not all mask styles are appropriate for students to use as inspiration. For example, the official policy of the Grand Council of the Haudenosaunee, Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy regarding false face masks is that

all wooden and corn husk masks of the Haudenosaunee are sacred. The image of the mask is sacred and is only to be used for its intended purpose. Masks should not be made unless they are to be used by members of the medicine society, according to established tradition. Reproductions, castings, photographs, or illustrations of medicine masks should not be used in exhibition as the image of the medicine masks should not be used in these fashions. To subject the image of the medicine masks to ridicule or misrepresentation is a violation of the sacred functions of the masks.[3]
Students learned the tribe of origin, traditional use, and symbolic significance of various masks; this information then served as a blueprint for the ones they created. They painted two-dimensional paper masks and three-dimensional

papier-mach masks. Students shared information about their masks through a show-and-tell presentation in class, and a few were selected for the final assembly. Storytelling makes an excellent contribution to a program by capturing the imagination of the students and conveying history, wisdom, and truth from a unique cultural perspective. When the university students shared information in class, most opened their presentations by reading a story from a specific Native American tribe. The story offered a window into the daily life, customs, and beliefs of the culture in which it originated. Stories often included information about foods, clothing, shelter, tools, utensils, art, and music that supplemented students' Findings in reference materials. Many stories have universal appeal and leach valuable lessons about life. It can be especially exciting to have a culture bearer participate in the celebration by telling a story from his or her own tribe. Storytelling creates a sense of community and adds to the power of the celebration. The guest can also interpret the story and comment on its meaning. Parents or students often have had relevant firsthand experiences (e.g., attending a powwow or tribal fair) that can enrich class discussions. Local culture bearers are expert resources who provide accurate cultural information. Celebrate Learning After concluding eight weeks of lessons, university and elementary students gathered in the elementary school gymnasium for the cultural celebration. University students practiced songs and dances for an hour together with the selected elementary classes. The combined groups presented two one-hour celebrations for assemblies of elementary students, teachers, and parents. The program began with a procession of elementary students who carried their masks through the gym and then hung them from a wooden stand that served as a backdrop for the celebration. Selected elementary students introduced each song with a spoken narration about its tribe of origin and its cultural significance. The narrators provided important information to all in attendance and received valuable public speaking experience. All partnership students (university and selected elementary classes) sang and danced the Friendship Dance, Canoe Dance, Raccoon Dance, Bear Dance, and Round Dance. Four selected students recited one stanza each of the poem "For the Flute Players,"[ 4] which expresses the importance of flutes in Native American cultures. The university music teacher played the flute, accompanied by elementary and university students with rattles. A dance troupe from a nearby community wearing traditional regalia demonstrated several Plains-style powwow dances. The cultural celebration was valuable for many reasons. First, it provided closure and shared knowledge with a wider audience. Second, it demonstrated the power of the fine arts to unite people through creativity, cooperation, and sellexpression. Music and art provided a bridge to understanding aspects of the Native American worldview and some of the realities of Native American life. The university students gained a deeper understanding of the relationship of music, art, and culture. Through this understanding, they developed a greater respect for diversity and an appreciation for the value of a multicultural approach to leaching. For future teachers who have been urged to promote multicultural environments in their classrooms, the eight-week partnership culminating in a cultural celebration provides a model experience that they can subsequently adapt to their teaching. Third, the celebration dispelled cultural and musical stereotypes. One university student said, "I will be the first to admit that my perception of Native Americans consisted of tepees and the 'oo, oo, oo!' sound made by repeatedly placing your hand over your mouth. The most important thing that I learned from our class on Native Americans is that the stereotypical image we see in the media is not true." Rethink Your Prejudices Another university students comment reflected a bit of surprise that the usual associations between Native Americans and Thanksgiving were not made: "I assumed that since it was close to Thanksgiving, our music and art class would pick up a Native American theme to tie into the story we all know about the Pilgrims and the Indians. I could not have been more incorrect." Presenting Native American music and culture solely in association with Thanksgiving perpetuates stereotypes. The university students were quick to notice that the elementary children had an appropriate respect for the activities and the cultures from which they were drawn. A university student observed that "the children knew that it was important to keep the music, dancing, and singing as authentic as possible." Another university student explained, "if a teacher chooses to do a unit on Native Americans (or any group of people for that matter), she must respect the culture at all times." Finally, university students benefited from practical experience with elementary children. University students saw that the activities they practiced in the methods class actually work. Following the program, one university student wrote,

Seeing the children participate in singing and dancing to the songs we had learned helped me realize how important it is to give children the opportunity to experience Native American culture. I saw firsthand how important it is to let children participate in activities that motivate them to learn and get them excited about learning. It helped me to remember why I am majoring in education.
For university students who had not had a lot of experience with children in the school environment, the partnership provided a positive opportunity to work with children through the arts. When asked to reflect upon and evaluate the collaboration, the university students offered (he following comments: "I felt honored to have the chance to be able to work with the children and share our experiences and newfound knowledge." "We had an impact on the elementary students, and I know they enjoyed it just as much as we did. I really liked that they were a part of the celebration too, and it was not just us performing a routine for them." "Through this experience, I have realized that I do have a love for music and for children." "The Native American celebration was the culmination of everything we had talked about in class. It made all the projects and activities and practicing we did in class meaningful and worthwhile." The teacher education partnership model represents a contrast to the face-painting, grocery-sack vests, and construction paper headdresses that continue to perpetuate stereotypes about Native American cultures. This model for learning arts through cultural celebration demonstrates how prospective elementary teachers can be taught to integrate the authentic music and art of any culture into the elementary curriculum. Figure 1. Sample Program 1. Introduction/welcome by local culture bearer 2. "I Walk in Beauty" (Navajo song) with Friendship Dance 3. Traditional story told by local culture bearer 4. "Canoe Dance Song" (Haliwa-Saponi) with Canoe Dance 5. Show-and-tell of selected three-dimensional masks 6. "Bear Dance Song" (Haliwa-Saponi) with Bear Dance 7. Poetry reading: "For the Flute Players" 8. "Call to Sunrise" (Zuni) for flute and rattles 9. Dance demonstration by local troupe 10. "Raccoon Dance Song" (Choctaw) with Raccoon Dance (taught by local Choctaw culture bearers) 11. "One-Eyed Ford" (intertribal song) with Round Dance Notes

1. Bryan Burton, Moving within the Circle: Contemporary Native American Music and Dance (Danbury, CT: World Music Press, 1993). 2. University student comment, Written reflections from university students are included throughout this article. 3. Chief Leon Shenandoah. Grand Council of the Haudenosaunee, "Haudenosaunee Confederacy Announces Policy on False Face Masks." Akwesasne Notes, no. 1 (Spring 1995), http://hometown.aol.com/miketben/miktben2.htm. 4. Edwin Schupman, "For the Flute Players" in Share the Music, Grade 4. (New York: Macmillan / McGraw-Hill, 1995). 131.
PHOTO (BLACK & WHITE): In the model program, elementary students worked with university education majors to learn about Native American music, art, and culture. PHOTO (BLACK & WHITE): Figure 2. Research Organizer for Study of Native Americans

~~~~~~~~ By Robert J. Damm Robert J. Damm is an associate professor of music education at Mississippi State University in Starkville. He can be contacted at rdamm@colled.msstate.edu. Copyright of Music Educators Journal is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. Title: Communication Buildup By: Criswell, Chad, Teaching Music, 10697446, 20120201, Vol. 19, Issue 5 Database: ERIC The rise of social media has affected all our lives. How can music educators ride the wave of change? There was a time, not so long ago, when having a website for your music program was considered cutting-edge But today, over 40 years after the birth of the Internet, we live in an age of instant information Text messaging and sites like Twitter, Facebook, and others have changed the way we communicate At the same time, our increased use of smartphones and other mobile devices means that people are beginning to expect more from an organization than a simple, static HTML web page Perhaps scariest of all is the implication that we should now always be on call 24 hours a day and seven days a week But the truth is that social networking can enhance your life without taking it over New online services and Internet technologies have changed more than just the interaction between teacher, student, and parent They have also begun to change the way we communicate teacher to teacher, a good example of this is the growth in popularity of online forums and music-oriented professional learning networks For tech-savvy teachers, getting the answer to a difficult classroom question or finding great ideas to add to your next unit is now only a few mouse clicks away The most complicated part in all this is knowing how to navigate the immense (and constantly growing) landscape of tools and services so you can communicate more easily without getting bogged down by even more busy work. For that reason, we interviewed several noted music educators from across the country to find out what works online and what doesn't. Websites and Email: The Bedrock Today the most frequently used channels of teacher-student communication (apart from in-person contact, of course) are through a school's website and email address. Kristin Turcovski, a band and orchestra teacher in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, uses her website as the primary means of communication between herself and her students. She finds that simply having all the information she needs available in electronic form saves a lot of time and frustration over many of the more repetitive tasks that go along with running her ensembles. "It's helpful to be able to get reminders out in a way that students and parents can quickly and conveniently access them," Turcovski says. "Deadlines are met more efficiently and more forms are returned with the use of our website and email lists." She also uses the website as a promotional tool: "It's nice to put 'brags' and photos of the achievements of the group on our site, as well as to send encouraging notes after competition trips, when I don't necessarily get to speak to all of the students on different buses." Allison Friedman, general music and choral teacher at South Salem Elementary School in Port Washington, New York, uses her website for many of the same reasons, and more besides. "My school website offers a lot of information for both parents and students," she says. "Aside from sharing audio/video clips of what goes on in the classroom, I include all the important dates for the year, my basic curriculum (goals, etc.) for each grade level, my full schedule, bio, chorus practice tracks, and most recently a special beginner instrumental practice site." If you're interested in creating a website for your music program, see the "Recommended Website Creation Services" sidebar on the opposite page. The New Social Services Human beings naturally prefer to communicate with each other in the format that's most convenient to use. For teachers before the World Wide Web, that format was the telephone call or a printed note sent home in a student's backpack. Although we still use the phone and paper notes, this basic method of communication is now being

augmented with social networking tools. Parents and students are becoming increasingly comfortable with the almost ubiquitous use of portable devices together with services like text messaging, Twitter, and Face-book. How many times have you sent a text message because it's easier than making a phone call or sending an email? If our goal is to communicate with our constituents effectively, and if our constituents are using social media on a regular basis, then it stands to reason that we should also be on those social networks. It should be recognized, however, that using social networks has both benefits and drawbacks. First, the benefits. When we print out a typed note and send it home, we often fill it with extra information because our brains have a subconscious need to fill the empty space with text -- and when parents read such a long letter, their tendency is usually to skim it. More important, some notes never make it out of the backpack. In contrast, sending information in short bursts via text message, Facebook post, or Twitter is a more direct form of communication. When people see a concise message, they are more likely to make use of and remember it. On the other hand, two of the biggest potential drawbacks to social networking are practical: * Not every school allows it. Always check with your principal and/or your technology director to see if the use of social or other web-based services is permitted and find out any rules that might be in place to govern their use. Most schools are beginning to embrace these new forms of communication, but some districts continue to ban them entirely. * Even if social outlets are allowed, not everyone uses the same ones. While some parents and students might favor Twitter, others will favor Facebook or some other social site. At the same time, fewer students use email on a regular basis; instead, they are relying more on text messaging for most day-to-day contact. In other words, a good communications plan will need to include multiple channels in order to reach as many people as possible, but you'll still probably wind up having to send home a printed note from time to time. Communicating with your students and their families has never been easier -- and yet it has also never been more complicated. In the end, each teacher will need to determine what works best for his or her own school community and balance that with what makes the most sense to use. Communicating With Multimedia No discussion of communication methods and trends would be complete without mentioning the growing importance of video and photo sharing as both educational and promotional tools for music programs. Sites such as YouTube, Vimeo, SchoolTube, TeacherTube, Shutterfly, Picasa, and others offer free and easy ways for teachers to communicate visually with students and parents by sharing performance videos, trip photos, and educational videos for use as a part of the curriculum. For example, Allison Friedman uses Vimeo to post videos of her groups' rehearsals and performances, along with a blogging service called Tumblr that allows students to post reactions and constructive criticisms. "I also find that using these services is great for my own self-reflection on the direction of the program," she says. Each posting of copyrighted music presents issues of both federal statute and local policy. Check with your school district's legal advisor. See also "Got Permission to Upload that Video?" in the NAfME Copyright Center (nafme.org/ resources/view/copyright-center). Teacher to Teacher Just as Twitter and Facebook have changed the way we communicate with each other on a personal level, other services are changing the face of professional communications between teachers. The continuing surge in popularity of online forums and professional learning networks has made it incredibly easy for educators to ask questions of peers and share their own knowledge with others. Forums are the oldest of these types of communication systems, and sites such as NAfME's (nafme.org/forums/) continue to be prominent places for posting questions and getting answers on just about any topic related to music education. The NAfME website has separate forums dedicated to many major music education areas -- band, choir, orchestra, jazz, general music, future teachers, and higher education -- and features well over 10,000 individual posts filled with information. The sharing of information on music education topics never stops on Twitter, which is a two-way format, allowing people to send (or "tweet") and receive information instantly. Consider signing up to "follow" the many different prominent tweeting music educators by visiting http-.// mustech.net/go/ metweeters and adding their names to your follow list, then join in on the discussion. At any given time, a number of music educators will be on Twitter, and you can home in on important information by doing a search for hash tags like #musiced. If you are online in the evenings, you can even get involved in the #MusEdChat (held every Monday night at 8 p.m. ET), which focuses on different topics each week.

~~~~~~~~ By CHAD CRISWELL Copyright of Teaching Music is the property of MENC -- The National Association for Music Education and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.