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The logic of common sense

Author: Bettelli Oscar

CeSIA Bologna University

Although each person uses their own logic of reasoning there is a logic of its own common sense that is used by all: the logic of everyday life. To cook a fried egg there is no need to resort to mathematics, the relationships that manipulate are not managed in a rigorous manner. This shared knowledge is the one that most people consider for good even if what everyone thinks is not necessarily correspond to the truth. The truth is not a democratic concept. keywords: logic, observer, reality, ontology The concept of common sense does not have a clear meaning and this has led to give feedback very different. Understood as a synonym for "common sense" (ie as innate disposition "practice" in behave reasonably in the ordinary circumstances of life) it is usually not appreciated positively. If you assign a cognitive meaning (meaning it as a store of knowledge, opinions, beliefs and principles widely shared even by those who do not have particular skills) can be evaluated in opposite ways. In fact you can see it as an attitude naive, uncritical and often fallacious (which are opposed and precise knowledge critically examined the specialized knowledge and particularly scientific). This attitude devaluing was hired by the early Greek philosophers, and then by many philosophers of modernity. However, since ancient times was also an opposite trend: the fact that certain beliefs and principles appear to be shared by the vast majority of men is seen as a guarantee of their validity, that different philosophies have tried to justify. The modern age has "Themed" the problem of common sense: since the eighteenth century have appeared so systematic defense of common sense, that were repeated again even within the contemporary philosophy, clarifying its nature on the one hand and, on the other hand, the insuppressibility of its function in as a prerequisite to any discussion of philosophical and science itself. The essays collected in the book "values and the limits of common sense" of E.Agazzi provide an overview fairly complete this set of problems by analyzing the first major attempts to characterize the common sense and the events of his account in the history of thought philosophical. Are then studied the relationships that common sense has with the philosophy of a systematic point of view, ie with the main branches in which philosophy itself is divided. Follows a part dedicated to the study of the relationship between common sense and science, both from a point of Generally speaking, both with respect to certain specialized disciplines. As a conclusion, we consider the role that belief and certainty (which are the characteristics highlights of common sense) hold in any human knowledge. In a historic moment as ours, in which there is an urgency to be able to rely on a few basic "common" for address the problems that hound "globally" humanity, this complex reflection on the value common sense (which does not exclude the awareness also of its limitations with respect to knowledge disciplinary) is rich in meaning and relevance. 1

If the universe is a giant computer then for each event should be a precise cause. What seems however, is a randomness of events although some events may be provided with a certain probability. This means that the observer has the knowledge of the causes of the event. According to Popper, there are three worlds, M1 the physical world M2 psychic world, M3 the interaction between the two. In his book "the open logic of the mind" Ignazio Licata says that the observer is a generator worlds (M1 M2 M3). An ontological definition of reality may be based on communication (in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God)

Each observer creates the world M1 and the world M2 when the two observers agree on existence of an event that event will receive a confirmation ontological real existence. Events can in fact be divided into subjective inter-subjective and objective. In design there are the M1 physical world (real) and M2 (psychic world) or representation mental one for each observer. So (according to Popper) there exists a world (M1) physical M2 (psychic) M3 the interaction between the two. Now there are physical events (M1) and psychic events (M2). As for the physical events the experiment forces the two observers to agree. As far as the psychic events is to agree that confers ontological value. But what does it mean to agree on the existence of an event? At the level of the psychic world (M2), there are at least four truth values: true false unknown contradictory. 2

My definition part of the metaphor that two eyes are better than one. One eye sees images in two dimensions two eyes see a three-dimensional world closer to reality. So two minds see more dimensions (perhaps there are 10 string theory). As well as the scientific method tends to the truth without ever reaching full In my definition takes a step forward compared to the single observer until you reach the limit (7000000000 observers). The possible knowledge of reality (which in essence is unknowable) In fact it is what they did physicists from galileo. The human cognitive system, as it is constituted, has a limited representation of the world. (Solipsism) Each observer is a point of view on reality (everyone hears own). Two observers have a broader vision that is greater than the sum of its parts. It should be a channel of communication and as you know the language is ambiguous. In any case, if I make a phone call I can communicate a message with some confidence. Each observer interprets the message according to their representation in particular includes the message most similar according to a correspondence of attributes. In any case, it has a tendency asymptotic to the truth. The noumenon as a concept underlying the metaphysics of Plato and is taken up by Kant. The noumenon can only be reached by reasoning. (M2) The noumenon also appears in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (which is also called thing in itself, German Ding an sich). In Kant the noumenon is a concept from the problematic characters that refers to a reality unknowable and indescribable that, in some way, is "at the bottom" of the phenomena we observe, in the background, beyond the appearance (that is, of how things appear to us). The terms 'noumenon' and 'thing in itself' in Kant are not perfectly consistent, the noumenon is however, a representation or idea of reason, and as such it resides in the human mind, it is the way in which thought seeks to represent that which is beyond his capacity to know. The thing itself instead is what the noumenon to which it refers: the 'reality' as external to the mind of the subject, that with which by definition can not enter into any if not through thinking because this is placed beyond all possible experience. Descartes defines 'be formal' contrasting it to '' be objective 'that resides in the mind. In the moment in which the subject relates to the thing itself, you can have a double result: if the thing itself is represented as phenomenon within the a priori conditions of sensibility and intellect, can give rise to cognitive synthesis (matter + form) which only affects the appearance of the thing and not the thing itself, if the what is sought 'itself' and therefore outside of the conditions in which it can be known in its appear, you generate the ideas of reason (noumenon) on which it is based metaphysics. The perfect circle exists only in the mind of man (M2). The infinite exists only in the mind of man. (God) From this distinction between 'real thing' (thought out) (M1) and 'conceived as a real thing' (inside the thought) (M2) comes to Kant's critique of metaphysics as alleged 'science of the thing itself'. The Kant's position towards the traditional metaphysics (depth especially in the dialectic transcendental) can be summarized as follows: metaphysics is right when he puts the thing in itself as something that goes beyond the experience, it is not right when he tries any guesses on this reality, the risk of slipping in the religious sphere; wrong when he confuses the noumenon (their ideas the unknowable thing) with the thing itself, the illusion of knowing what is by definition out of the knowledge. The thought may never come out of himself to check the consistency their representations with the things represented (in the words of Plato, between ideas and things sensitive). Any appeal to the 3

'reality' as independent of thought takes place inevitably inside the thought itself. This is the paradox highlighted by subjectivism Cartesian theme that crosses all modern philosophy, from Descartes to Kant. Kant explains that the reason can not access the noumenon if not as a "limit concept", the which we can only say that it is the foundation of everything that we experience, which is why the which it is impossible to establish any rational metaphysics (understood as the science of what is beyond appearances sensitive). The explanation of the relations between the phenomenal and the noumenal reality is a of the thorniest issues of the philosophy of Kant. In his Critique of Pure Reason, Kant explains the structure of the understanding we have of reality starting from the a priori categories (not mean innate, but beyond the experience even if activated by the experience) of the mind. Intentionality as a characteristic of psychic phenomena (Brentano) Intentionality social (collective consciousness) (Searle) Collective intentionality does not match the sum of the individual intentionality. Teleonomy, (act for a purpose) 2) Morphogenesis autonomous 3) Invariance reproductive The term teleonomy, you define the fact that all living organisms have a project stored in their facilities, and realized in their performance, without external intervention. This could mean that star in reality every particle of creation, Quark and Electrons, They have a memory located in Their Harmonics or higher dimensions, giving each of them their own uniqueness and specificity. (10 size) (Akashic field, consciousness universal, universal information field, God) The term autonomous morphogenesis, we define "freedom" almost total, to any external condition, which ensures the formation and growth of all forms of life, such mechanism is the basis of teleonomy, and guarantees the preservation and propagation of living species. The term reproductive invariance, we define the fact that all living beings have the Congenital possibility to store, reproduce and transmit all memory of their evolution to their posterity. However, even if all living beings are endowed with the above three properties, they are all subjected to natural selection, which subjects them to "free competition" of life itself. For virtual reality refers to a reality generated by a computer but can also be understood as the reality TV or the Internet (M2) or image world or the world of ideas. The events in the universe are what happens (reality) and there are physical events and psychic events. The observer is the eyewitness to the event then there is the news of the event that concerns the language of the communication channel between the two observers (direct knowledge and knowledge indirect). The observer is an agent with intentionality. The knowledge consists of a set of information stored processed Related and organized by a conscious mind. There is knowledge, ignorance and knowledge potential. The observer can not attain knowledge through deduction by reasoning using a own logic. For example the anthropic principle can be considered according to a certain logic an error. 4

In particular, we use a continuously unconscious processing filtered from consciousness. The experimental method of Galileo distinguishing primary from secondary qualities is based on observation on the measurement on data recording on the assumption of explanation, and finally on experimental verification. The statistical correlation allows us to identify regularities in the data (physical law) but there is also a quantum correlation which is independent of space and time (entanglement). Because of decoherence the quantum correlation is transformed into statistical correlation. By writing you bring events from the psychic world (M2) to the physical world (M1). The ambition of 'IA is to bring events from the physical world (M1) to the psychic world (M2). There is a direct knowledge of the events (the 5 senses) and a knowledge based indirect communication and reasoning. Starting as inspired by the book "The Elegant Universe" we can imagine a living universe. Is that you will wonder what life in particular human life. Man is composed of three elements the body the soul and spirit or breath of life. The man has a conscience and a cognitive apparatus that allowed him to elaborate information in a stunning manner. Even animals process information but the jump qualitative and quantitative human than an animal is amazing. The difference between a dog and a man resides in the writing: the encoding information from the world psychic (M2) to the physical world (M1). Man lives in a world of its own representation, representation is not intended as a copy but processing on the move (M2). The man experiences the events that happen judging them according to knowledge: events that have a certain probability of happening. The concept of absolute simultaneity was demolished by Einstein in his theory of relativity. To have a synchronicity must have a coincidence of significant events. Everything is information: information-> Energy -> matter The information is preserved and transformed. The man has a conscience, consciousness is an enigma difficult to understand. The consciousness characterizes the ego and the ego can be divided into proto self, consciousness nuclear or primary, Extended consciousness (language), meditation, unconscious, spirit (dynamic information). Life is subject to the dynamics of evolution. The evolution to symbiogenesis occurs when two cells cooperate to form a single organism: they exchange information. Life presents also processes such as morphogenesis and meiosis that present a bewildering complexity. Meiosis in particular is an incredible precision. There are three barriers to consciousness to tap into the reality of perception universal cosmic (universal information field) and have the time, the ego, free will. These three barriers we place in a body and in a local space giving us the impression of being present as individuals in a shared reality and to be free in our choices. In fact every individual sees the world from their point of view is unique and unrepeatable, enter the own representation of the world (M2) interacting with other individuals in the same condition. According to Freud, all our motives (our purposes) are subject to the pleasure principle and the reality principle. The pleasure principle is easy to understand the reality principle which leads even to the death drive is to take note of a reality that can also be painful. What is pure information do not know yet, we know the information encoded and in particular we use the information stored, we need a physical support for 5

the information accessible. In particular, there may be a universal information field (Akashic field) containing all the events of the cosmos (cosmic memory). The memory contains the references of the physical locations where the events took place. Everything is in motion even the physical locations where the events take place. It is therefore necessary to place the events in a context (physical location). In remember the time there is not but there is the physical place (photography) The Akash is a concept present in Indian philosophy for millennia. In Indian philosophy, everything is maya (illusion apparently) and if we reflect in the mirror we see our image but our self is our essence. We define a word Onfene (Manzotti) as a contingent moment of becoming, being relationship. A onfene is part of reality and every moment we live a onfene. When two observers communicate they relate and transform each other. Interpersonal relationships are complex relationships and problems in which not only intervenes verbal language but a number of languages, including that of the body. In particular, there is an unconscious communication that can be seen for example by the jokes. Each person gives off vibration in tune with their vital aura. The interaction between the observers produces an effect of decoherence that influence the quantum correlation (entanglement) between the experiences shared to a statistical interpretation of interactions. To decode the reality are not sufficient the 5 senses, for example, the electromagnetic field is visible only in a narrow range of frequencies, but the electromagnetic field exists. Life has invented the eye to see the electromagnetic field. Ignorance = lack of information (the law does not allow ignorance) The man lives in a sea of ignorance: I do not know (Socrates) The principle of entropy growth is a principle not a law applied to the entire universe is not longer valid (the universe is self organizing). I do not know what to think about it in a moment thought process over time influenced by internal stimuli and external stimuli external stimuli: 5 senses internal stimuli: memory, consciousness, unconscious, attention, physiological needs meaningful coincidences between inside and outside: synchronicity synchronization of electrochemical impulses of the brain (computer clock) The thinking is a sequence of mental events (M2) generated by the unconscious and controlled from consciousness. The language consists of an association of ideas (M2) generated by the unconscious, filtered by consciousness and coded words. The writing consists of words recorded on a physical medium (M1) permanent. A book (M1) is one thing, life is another. (M1 M2 M3) Even a book is part of life. To study the cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence is necessary to study physics, chemistry, biology, physiology, computer science and psychology. There is a term "autopoiesis" coined by Maturana to indicate the typical process of organisms living, which means self-organization. This concept can also be used in everyday life everyday. Rene Tom with his theory of catastrophes has cataloged the type of collapse that can have a system complex: the collapse of society, collapse of the individual (death); The man fails to address problems in which the data are significant and in the area of 6

uncertainty in particular uses a heuristic problem solving. Difference between man and computer in chess (heuristic). In contrast to the exhaustive elaboration heuristics can find a solution in NP problems. Heuristic processing for similarity Heuristic processing only on a subset of data (intuition) Heuristic processing for attempts The response times of the central nervous system are very fast through the development massively parallel own brain. In the use of spoken language is found that the response time (as opposed to the computer) are very fast, the brain acts as a quantum simulator. There are notions that once acquired are part of the common use. Children know that the ball does not go away if it falls behind the wall and know that you do not eat the memory of an apple. Relations learned through experience, and do not forget tell us a lot of information on how to turn the world. Told The reality is different from the experience (first-hand). The subconscious remembers all the events of our lives. There are mental events and physical events: physical forces psychic forces tied to the observer or the observers to symbiogenesis or exchange of information (will).

Energy - spacetime Causality - synchronicity (pauli-jung) (complementarity) Paradigm for the psychic world (M2) synchronicity (acausal) (secondary qualities) 7

Paradigm for the physical world (M1) causality (continuity) (primary qualities) M1 postulates - for cause-and-effect reasoning - deduction M2: postulates - fuzzy reasoning (MQ) - deduction (quantum simulator) Sometimes it happens that you know that an event (probability) has to happen but do not know when (time) (A supernova explosion) Unpredictability intrinsic Single Event. Randomness of events - time duration of the events (onfene) - probability of the event Classification of events, event structure (script), repetition of events Causes of events (knowable, unknowable) (case, fate, nature, life, intentionality, God) Objective reasons (M1) intersubjective (M3) subjective (M2). Possible Causes (conjecture) (knowledge) how to calculate the probability of occurrence of an event (read boundary conditions) (If you pass a red light is very likely that you'll do fine) It is more difficult to design or implement (make it harder) (intellectual work manual labor) Project for the evolution (fate if life nature intentionality God) The practical implementation may be different from the original design (M1 M2 M3) (evolution) Free Will: among the possible choices (M1 M2 M3) everyone can choose what they like Clairvoyance: predict events that happen to you Science: predict future events (knowledge) reasoning for cause-effect (karma) the synchronicity can not be foreseen (acausal-timeless) (events) Immanent and transcendent (M1 M2) the word is a type of language. (Message) The music is a type of language. (Melody, rhythm) (synchronization) A bit string is a type of language. (Information theory) (meaning) In politics 1 +1 does two axioms of the formal system are not always valid (exceptions) The common reasoning does not follow the rules of Aristotelian logic. Not all statements are true or false but can also be vague or contradictory. Much appreciated is the logical consistency of the argument: given certain assumptions it follows that. The solipsism can be taken with great consistency (one observer). Something happens when are two observers (see each other in the third person). Two observers who agree on an event they give a confirmation of ontological validity. synchronicities are meaningful coincidences of events (M2) schizophrenia: abnormal meaning to a correct perception. coincidences = connecting bridge between the inner (M2) and the outside world (M1) Godel's theorem = missing bridge between axioms and true statement We must guard against the claims universal: all crows are blacks (axioms) (God exists) A man knows directly only the events that actually happened ( fate nature life intentionality God) knows all the other events in an indirect way (language) A few words can mean very complex events (I'm change home). Philosophically you can identify the ontology what is the phenomenology which is the phenomenon product and ethics that needs to be. The ontology deals with the problem of being. The Akashic field is a field of in-formation universal (cosmic) (box of memories) The akashic field contains all events both physical and psychological. (M1 M2 M3) (God) God has a will. (Intentionality) (the purpose of your life) The brain is like a radio that tunes to the Akashic field playing the music of their spirit (consciousness) (Christian conscience) (onfene) (information) 8

Write = carry the information from the psychic world (M2) to the physical world. (M1) (coding) IA = bring the machines from the physical world (M1) to the psychic world. (M2) Ambition of the IA: Building a thinking machine What is thought? (A dynamic process) (thought mechanical = computer) The brain is a biological machine that thinks. (Intentionality) The evidence shows that what happens to the brain has a hit on what happens to the mind. The physical world (M1) influence the psychic world (M2) and vice versa (M3). (I superego es) Each observer experiments with her own sequence of events. (Onfene) An event can be shared by two observers (ontological proof of existence) If two people live under the same roof share more things than otherwise. If several people share the same working environment then there are more shared events. (M1) The shared reality is something more than the sum of individual points of view. (Collective consciousness) How can two observers to agree? (Share experience) Two eyes see the depth of field (the third dimension) Picture (photo) two-dimensional: the reality is three-dimensional see with your eyes see with your mind (10 dimensions) An observer moves in its own space-time. Each observer has its own space-time (world M1, M2, M3) Two observers can share for a time their worlds (M1) Two observers can agree on a future event (M2 -> M1) An observer puts in order future events (decide what to do, the lineup of priority) An observer observes events with a measuring instrument (Everett many-worlds) A man observing the events with eyes (onfene, meaningful coincidences) A man experiences the events of his life. A man knows the events of others if you share them: spatio-temporal coincidences (synchronicity) Language (events notified) (notions news) Two men share similar experiences in their own representation. There are events likely and unlikely events (significant) An observer may want to make an observation (intent) An observer may cause an event (intentionality) Given certain assumptions is very likely to experience certain events There are events relevant and irrelevant events (relevance) Operator expansion (storage) and reduction (relevance) Life: flow of information, energy, matter (refuse) Volition, intentionality (cause an event) (God) The reality told is different from that experienced Imagination: joke (provide an event) Dualism, Materialism, Theory of double Appearance (M1, M2, M3) (complementarity) Descartes' Error (Damasio): relationship organism (observer) object (event) Love = care, respect, responsibility, knowledge A process is a sequence of events changing the order of events (if they are independent) the process does not change ( melody = sequence of notes not switchable) 9

A man known only up to what men (including himself) thought or experienced, this leads to epistemologically anthropic principle. each observer has some knowledge (knowledge potential) a man who speaks is a message generator (mental events) a word may generate a throttle effect in the listener (complex system) the flow of thoughts is coordinated by the consciousness (logical filter) onfene of the concept of mental event and an observer are unified at the level of constant plank the relationship between an event and the space time is achieved at the level of the constant plank Planck's constant is the minimum quantum of action. Relationship between neural network and logical reasoning: if A is active then B is active Activation patterns in communication between neurons. The brain is an electrochemical information massively parallel processor that produces a sequential nature of thought (language). When we speak we can only say one word at a time. When we utter a word haunches of the content. Humanity is the evolution becomes conscious of itself. We are aware of each moment contingent of becoming (onfene). With the mind we can extend the time by placing the events in our space-time. At every moment we make decisions about our actions. (Mental events M2 -> M1) Unconsciously we process our world down to the smallest detail. With conscious attention elaborate events relevant to our thinking. The forge of the unconscious thoughts is filtered from consciousness and our intentionality. The flow of thought can be distracted by external events but occasional immediately takes up the theme logical reasoning. The Earth is a living planet. 2000 years ago, the earth had, for the knowledge of the time, infinite resources nowadays is known to have finite resources. The universe is finite but unlimited Human stupidity is infinite God is infinite The numbers are infinite The information may have different connotations: information vital information about curiosity right information misinformation precise information confusing information analytical information summary information. to have the right information you have to look in the right place (access key). Two people talking exchange information and simultaneously a process takes place of both, and you change the shared reality: you define a reality that transcends the reality in which individual speakers live. After the interview something has changed in the representation of both. This information gives shape to things. Television is an appliance speaker (news). (M2) Television is a physical object (M1) but the TV news belong to the world psychic (M2) and may affect the psyche (consciousness) of the listeners. The dynamics of cultural plagiarism are very complex. Even if the individual can be considered "good" as a whole is collectively may give way to aberrant practices. (War). 10

It is through language that defines the collective consciousness that goes beyond the contribution of individual the consciences of individuals involved in the company depending on their role. The awareness of each influence the collective consciousness. In the social life of the conflicts are inevitable, the point is the ability to resolve them in non-violent ways. For the Pope, peace is a 'utopia to which the Christian must believe firmly and for which you must engage fully. To achieve peace man faces numerous conflicts, which can be classified as conflicts of power, interest or values; conflicts that are not born that from being a man of every individual. So there is a mathematical resolution of conflicts, and you can not even talk about resolution itself, but we make the effort of overcoming conflicts, looking for a balance between the sensitive points of tension. Whether you are a specialist in the art of discovery in all creatures, without exception, the side who owns good: there is no person who is only malice. 're Specialist in the art of discover all ideologies, without exception, the soul of the truth it contains: intelligence is unable to adhere to error total.