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International Journal of Civil Engineering OF and CIVIL Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ENGINEERING AND

D (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)
ISSN 0976 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 29-35 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJCIET
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AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EFFECT OF GGBS AND GLASS FIBRE IN HIGH PERFOMANCE CONCRETE
Dr. P.Muthupriya Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore -641042, India.

ABSTRACT The present paper focuses on investigating characteristics of M75 concrete with partial replacement of cement with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) and glass fibre. High Performance Concrete (HPC) is a concrete meeting special combinations of performance and uniformity requirements that cannot be always achieved routinely by using conventional constituents and normal mixing. This leads to examine the admixtures to improve the performance of the concrete. Considering cost of construction also drawn the attention of investigators to explore new replacements of ingredients of concrete. Ten mixes were studied with GGBS & Glass Fibre using a water binder ratio of 0.26 and super plasticizer CONPLAST SP-430. The cubes and cylinders were tested for both compressive and tensile strengths GGBS can enhance the durability aspects of HPC compared to control mix. Among the mixes the mix with replacement level as 7.5% GGBS and 0.3% glass fibre is better with respect to strength and durability. Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. It is found that by the partial replacement of cement with GGBS and glass fibre helped in improving the strength of the concrete substantially compared to normal mix concrete. Keywords: High Performance Concrete (HPC), Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag(GGBS), Glass Fibre. 1. INTRODUCTION Concrete has been the major instrument for providing stable and reliable infrastructure since the days of the Greek and roman civilization. Concrete is a mixture of cement, water, and aggregates, with or without admixtures. Only for special applications the concrete grade can be increased to 60 Mpa and above. These special applications of high performance concrete (HPC) cannot be achieved by Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). It is achieved not only by reducing water cement ratio but also by replacement of cement with some mineral admixture like Silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Metakaolin and Fly ash etc with chemical admixtures.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME In HPC, materials and admixtures are carefully selected and proportioned to form high early strengths, high ultimate strengths and high durability beyond conventional concrete. The admixtures like fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), are added both for strength and durability and enhance its marketability as an environmentally friendly product. The proportions in which fundamental components are mixed, and the admixtures that are used, constitute the main difference between conventional concrete and HPC. A high-range water-reducing admixture may provide a required low water/cement ratio, as low as 0.30. Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) is a non-metallic product, consisting of silicates and alumino silicates of calcium and other bases, developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace. From structural point of view, GGBS replacement enhances lower heat of hydration, higher durability and higher resistance to sulphate and chloride attack when compared with normal ordinary concrete. On the other hand, it also contributes to environmental protection because it minimizes the use of cement during the production of concrete. Adding GGBS to concrete will result in a small increase in elastic modulus for a given compressive strength, although the differences are not large enough to be of significance in design. This paper presents the study of compressive strength and split tensile strength of M30 conventional concrete by replacing the 0%, 5%,7.5% and 10% replacement of GGBS and 0.1% ,0.2% and 0.3% glass fibre replacement. Tests were conducted on concrete cubes and cylinders to study compressive and split tensile strengths. The results are compared with the normal mix. 2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 2.1 Materials used Ordinary Portland cement, 43 Grade conforming to IS:8112-1989[4].The specific gravity of cement was 3.15. Fine aggregate Locally available river sand conforming to Grading zone II of IS: 383 1970[5].Its specific gravity was 2.6. Coarse aggregate Locally available crushed blue granite stones conforming to graded aggregate of nominal size 12.5 mm as per IS: 383 1970 Ground Granulated Blast Slag(GGBS) Ground granulated blast furnace slag obtained from Agni Steel, Salem . Ground granulated blast-furnace slag is the granular material formed when molten iron blast furnace slag is rapidly chilled (quenched) by immersion in water. It is a granular product with very limited crystal formation, is highly cementitious in nature and, ground to cement fineness, and hydrates like port land cement.Properties of ggbs is as shown below Calcium Oxide(CaO) Silicon Dioxide(SiO2) Iron Oxide(FeO) Manganese Oxide(MnO) Magnesium Oxide(MgO) Aluminium Oxide(Al2O3) Phosphorous Pent Oxide(P2O5) Sulphur(S) Metallic Fe
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40-52 10-19 10-40 (70-80% FeO2,20-30%Fe2O3) 5-8 5-10 1-3 0.5-1 <0.1 0.5-10

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME Super Plasticizer A commercially available sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde based super plasticizer (CONPLAST SP 430) was used as chemical admixture to enhance the workability of the concrete. Glass fiber (GF) CEM FILL Anti crack glass fibres of aspect ratio 875:1 is used. 2.2Mix Proportion and Mix details In this investigations ACI Mix Design is adopted for Proportioning of Concrete Mix M75. By Weight Basis (ACI 211.4R-93)This code presents a generally applicable method for selecting mixture proportion for high strength concrete and optimizing this mixture proportion on basis of trial batches. Adopted Mix Proportion 1: 1.03: 1.973: 0.26

2.3Test Specimens and Test procedure The concrete cubes of 150mm size, cylinders of size 150mm diameter and 300mm length were used as test specimens to determine the compressive strength of concrete and split tensile strength of concrete for the both cases i.e. normal concrete and modified concrete. The ingredients of concrete were thoroughly mixed till uniform consistency was achieved. The cubes and cylinders were properly compacted.All the mixes were prepared by mixing the concrete in laboratory mixer along with water and super plasticizer 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Compressive Strength Test Results The compressive strength of concrete was determined at the age of 28 days. The specimens were cast and tested as per IS: 516-1959. Table 1. Compressive Strength Results Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M0 % of GGBS 5 7.5 10 5 7.5 10 5 7.5 10 % of GF 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 28 Days MPa 73.19 73.25 73.89 74.1 74.6 74.86 76.8 76.96 76.82 76.28

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME

compressive strength (N/mm)

78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 5 7.5 GGBS (%) 10

28 days compressive strength


0.1% of glass fibre 0.2% of glass fibre 0.3% of glass fibre 77.2 77 76.8 76.6 76.4 76.2 76 75.8 M0 M8

28 days compressive strength

Fig 1 .Compressive Strength of various mixes

Fig 2 .Comparison of compressive Strength of control mix and optimum mix Split Tensile Strength Test Results

The splitting tensile strength of concrete cylinder was determined based on 516-1959. The load shall be applied nominal rate within the range 1.2 N/ (mm2/min) to 2.4 N/ (mm2/min). Load is applied until the specimen fails, along the vertical diameter.

Table 2. Split Tensile Strength Results Mix % of GGBS M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M0 5 7.5 10 5 7.5 10 5 7.5 10 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 % of GF 28 Days MPa
6.16 6.23 6.26 6.3 6.34 6.36

6.4 6.52 6.46 6.5

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME
6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6 5.9 5 7.5 GGBS (%) 10

Split Tensile Strength(N/mm)

28 days split tensile strength


6.625 0.1% of glass fibre 0.2% of glass fibre 0.3% of glass fibre 6.62 6.615 6.61 6.605 6.6 6.595 6.59 M0 M8 28 days split tensile strength

Fig 3 .Split Tensile Strength of various mixes

Fig 4 .Comparison of Split Tensile Strength of control mix and optimum mix

Flexural Strength Test Results The flexural strength of concrete prism was determined based on IS: 516 1959. Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load is applied to the upper most surface as cast in the mould along two lines spaced 13.3cm a part

Table 3. Flexural Strength Results Mix M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M0 % of GGBS 5 7.5 10 5 7.5 10 5 7.5 10 % of GF 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 28 Days MPa 6.19 6.25 6.3 6.32 6.41 6.44 6.46 6.62 6.59 6.60

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME

Flexural Strength (N/mm)

6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6 5.9 5 7.5 GGBS (%) 10 0.1% of glass fibre 0.2% of glass fibre 0.3% of glass fibre 6.525 6.52 6.515 6.51 6.505 6.5 6.495 6.49

28 days flexural strength

28 days flexural strength

M0

M8

Fig 5 .Flexural Strength of various mixes

Fig 6 .Comparison of Flexural Strength of control mix and optimum mix

The optimum percentage levels of 7.5% GGBS and 0.3% Glass fibre replacement to the weight of the cement is taken with the HPC M75 mix ratio of 1:1.03:1.973:0.26 which gave the better results. In order to increase the workability, Superplasticizer is used. The Compressive strength of 76.96 N/mm2 is achieved in the HPC mix due to the presence of GGBS which exhibits more filler effect. Figure no. 1, 3, and 5 represents the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of various mixes with different replacement level of GGBS and glass fibre at the age of 28 days. The compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete is increase as the percentage of ggbs increases with 0.3% of glass fibre when compared to control mix. Presence of GGBS results in denser micro structure of the concrete matrix which enhances the durability properties. GGBS has a higher proportion of the strength-enhancing calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) than concrete made with Portland cement only. As there was an appreciable increase in the workability of concrete with increasing percent replacement of cement with GGBS, therefore wlc ratio can be reduced keeping the slump constant, which will result in an increase in compressive strength. The Split tensile strength of 6.52 N/mm2 and Flexural strength of 6.62 N/mm2 is achieved by the usage of Superplasticizer and properties of Glass fibre in the HPC mix. 5. CONCLUSION Based on the present and experimental investigation studies the following conclusions can be drawn 1. It is observed that the GGBS based HPC can have higher strengths 2. From the above experimental results it is proved that, GGBS can be used as alternative material for the cement. Based on the results the compressive and split tensile strengths are increased as the percentage of ggbs increased. 3. Higher strength development is due to filler effect of GGBS and properties of glass fibers 4. GGBS can be used as one of the alternative material for the cement. 5. From the experimental results 7. 5% of cement can be replaced with GGBS. 6. The addition of super plasticizer also tends to reduce strength of concrete remarkably due to the chemical action between the super plasticizer and GGBS.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), IAEME 6. REFERENCES [1] ACI 211.4R-93 Guide for selecting proportions for High Strength concrete with Portland cement and Flyash. [2] Bakir, P.G. (2003). Seismic Resistance and Mechanical Behaviour of Exterior Beam-Column Joints with Crossed Inclined Bars, Structural Engineering & Mechanics, Vol.16, No. 4, pp. 493517. [3] BIS 1959 IS 516-1959 (reaffirmed 1997), Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi . [4] BIS 1970 IS 383-1970 (reaffirmed 1997), Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Source for Concrete, New Delhi. [5] BIS 1989 IS 8112-1989 (reaffirmed 1999), Specification for 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement, New Delhi. [6] Gambhir.M.L, (2005) Concrete Technology Tata McGraw Hill Pub.Co.Ltd.New Delhi. [7] MurugesannA.and Dr.G.S.Thirugnanam[2009] Ductile Behavior of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete beam-column joints subjected to Cyclic loading, National Conference on Advances and Innovations in civil Engineering. [8] Misra. V. N., 1984, Indian Concrete Journal, August, vol. 58(8), pp 219 223. [9] SP 34: 1987, Indian Standard Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing, (Bureau of Indian Standards), New Delhi, India. [10] Vejmalkova et al.,,"High Performance Concrete Containing Lower Slag Content: A Complex View Of Mechanical and Durability Properties", Materials and Design, Vol .23,(2009),pp. 2237-2245. [11] Vinod P, Lalumangal and Jeenu G, Durability Studies on High Strength High Performance Concrete, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 16 - 25, ISSN Print: 0976 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 6316. [12] P.J.Patel, Mukesh A. Patel and Dr. H.S. Patel, Effect of Coarse Aggregate Characteristics on Strength Properties of High Performance Concrete using Mineral and Chemical Admixtures, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 89 - 95, ISSN Print: 0976 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 6316. [13] M.Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Dr.I.V. Ramana Reddy and N.Krishna Murthy, Experimental Evaluation of the Durability Properties of High Performance Concrete using Admixtures, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 96 - 104, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.

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