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2. Introduction Teaching is an art & a science. Teacher require two things Knowledge & Process of teaching.

. In actual classroom, teacher required to manage the class with experience & decisions in form of Maxims. For successful & effective teaching , teacher must know & use maxims of teaching. 3. Benefits of Maxims of teaching Simplify the process of teaching Joyful teaching & learning environment Purposeful teaching To create creativity among students To analysis & synthesis by students To develop scientific attitude Learning by doing To develop critical thinking 4. Simple to Complex 5. Known to Unknown

6. Seen to Unseen 7. Particular to General 8. Concrete to Abstract 9. Whole to Part 10. Analysis to Synthesis 11. Indefinite to Definite 12. Empirical to Rational 13. Psychological to Logical 14. Follow the nature 15. Training senses 16. Encouragement to study

Maxims of Teaching Maxims of teaching deserves more careful consideration of the teacher to enable him to make the teaching and learning goforward. Practical application of these maxims is a must for effective and efficient teaching and are indicative of teacher'sability. Utility of the maxims of teaching may be understood as

follows:"Maxims of teaching have been discovered, not invented. They are simply statements of the way in which teaching andlearning go forward. They ensure effective and efficient teaching."Meaning. Distribution of the knowledge and the teacher's ability, both are separate. A teacher is said to be a failure if heis unable to distribute the knowledge to the pupils' even though he has abilities, merits and mastery of the subject. Thereality is that the teaching is an art and to acquire efficiency in this art, the teacher needs two things1. The complete knowledge of the subject-matter.2. The scientific knowledge of the teaching style for disseminating the knowledge to the pupils.Psychology tells us that the various laws of learning derived from many experiments from time to time along with theessential elements of the learning. The educationists have presented their experiences and decisions in the form of maximsconsidering these laws and elements as basis of teaching.These experiences and decisions presented in the form of maxims have been named as maxims of teaching. By followingthese teaching maxims,

teachers get amazing results in their teaching task, i.e., the pupils acquire success veryconveniently.The educationists who have contributed in developing these teaching maxims are Herbart, Spencer and Comenius. Inshort, for a successful teaching, the use of teaching maxims is essential.The principles of teaching cannot be used without following these maxims. Hence, for making teaching effective, everyteacher must use maxims of teaching.Usually, a new teacher or studentteacher faces many difficulties while performing teaching functions. Therefore, they89must acquire the knowledge of these maxims of teaching during their training period. This will make clear to them whenthe teaching should be started and in what sequence it should be done and how it should be done?Since these maxims of teaching convey us the starting point of the contents the direction in which we should move inorder to achieve objectives. Some main teaching maxims are as follows:Some Essential Maxims of Teaching1. From Known to Unknown. The meaning of 'from known to

unknown' is that the basis of the pupil's new knowledgeshould be his previous knowledge. It is a psychological fact that it becomes very difficult to acquire the new knowledge if it is presented before the pupil at once. But he takes interest in learning new knowledge if it is linked with the pupil'sprevious knowledge.Hence, it is the duty of every teacher that before teaching anybody, he should activate his previous knowledge and present new knowledge on the basis of that activated previous knowledge of the pupil. It means to say that those small and simple informations with which the pupil is already familiar, should be made basis for imparting unfamiliar informations. Every teacher, especially pupil-teacher, should move forward after establishing relationship between that known and theunknown. In other words, whatever the pupils know, the new knowledge of the unknown should be given on that basis.For example, if a pupil is already familiar with the soil of the surrounding plains, facilities of water and the production of that area then it would be easy to provide him knowledge about

the cultivation of that state on the basis of that previousknowledge while teaching geography.2. From Seen to Unseen. The meaning of this maxims is that the pupils should be made aware of those things which areat perceptional before them first and then those things should be presented which don't exist before them. Its only reasonsis that psychologically, the pupils ranging from 6 to 14 years functions at perceptional level only.From this point of view, first of all the knowledge of present should be imparted to the pupil and then regarding past andfuture. In short, the teacher should use the seen or perceptual90things in order to impart the knowledge regarding unseen or nonperceptuals along with concerned example. Thisfacilitates the necessary knowledge concerning non-perceptual things (unseen).3. From Simple to Complex. A key to successful teaching is creating interest in the pupils for new knowledge anddeveloping self-confidence in them. From this point of view, if the teaching is to be made successful, it is essential to usea maxim called 'From Simple of Complex'.This

maxim means the teaching of simple to the pupil first and then the complex contents should be taught afterwards. If this is not followed, the pupils will lose their confidence. This will reduce their interest in the subject, they will lose theirheart and they will not concentrate their mind in the studies.Therefore, we should divide the subjectmatter in such a way that the simple aspects should come first and these shouldbe followed by the complex one in an order. Now the question arises that which aspect is simple and which one iscomplex. It should be remembered that the things simpler in teacher's view may be complicated for pupils.For example, drawing a straight line may be simple for a teacher but it may be difficult for a pupil. It is also possible thatthe things which a teacher considers difficult for the pupils may be easier for those pupils. For example, drawing ananimal's picture may be viewed by the teacher as a difficult task for a pupil but it is actually very easy for that pupil.In this light, the teacher should decide what is easy and what is difficult keeping in view the interest,

attitude, ability,potentiality and needs of the pupils. In short, as the pupil's mental development occurs, the lessons should be madecomplicated gradually. This will keep the interest of the pupil and the teacher will achieve success in the Teaching work.4. From Particular to General. This maxim means that the specific examples should be presented before the pupils firstand then the general laws or principles should be derived from those specific examples.According to this maxim, the teacher should present some specific examples before the pupil. Then the same exampleshould be evaluated and after understanding the fact, pupils should be motivated to derive general principles.For example, if a teacher wants to explain his pupils that when the solids are immersed in a liquid, they lose their weight.He should perform two experiments before his pupils. First, the solids should be weighed in air. After this, the samesolids should be weighed in a liquid. When the pupils conclude this, from their own observation and testing, that thesolids lose their weights while immersed in a liquid, they will derive this

general principle themselves without anydifficulty.In this way, in any subject, especially while teaching science, mathematics and grammar, various laws can be derived withthe help of pupils.According to this maxim, pupils get sufficient opportunities to derive themselves general principles through observationand testing. This encourages them and they start taking interest in doing tasks.91When the pupils learn themselves by doing, they need not to cram the knowledge, however, it becomes a permanent andclear part of their thinking. The above description of the maxim tells its utility. Therefore, in the inductive method of teaching, this maxim is used.
MAXIMS OF TEACHING In order to achieve the aims & objectives of the teaching of a particular subject certain maxims are laid down. The teaching of the subject is then planned & carried out keeping these maxims as the guiding

principles: teaching & this is the natural process of mind. It is also psychologically successful methods for imparting the knowledge of sea & ocean. A geography teacher can show a pond or a tank to his students. Similarly a model of mountain can be used to explain various things about a mountain. from known to unknown. It demands that the teacher should make efforts to establish some association with the previous knowledge of the students while imparting them any knew knowledge. For ex: while teaching about forests & their qualities the geography teacher can establish association with gardens that the students have seen. Due to this the regional geography is quite important.

Though it is desirable to proceed from concrete to abstract but it is difficult in teaching of geography. Geographical factors, that are abstract in nature, cannot be displayed in concrete form. Now ever teacher should try his best to act according to this maxims the teacher sketches & diagrams & try to establish the abstract facts in the minds of students. It is always better to cite some specific examples before proceeding to general principles of a phenomenon. It helps the students to follow things easily & properly. The geography teacher should proceed from the geography of region and then go over to the geography of the general principles of the whole world. Scientific method: -Involves a very systematic & scientific approach in solution of the problems.

-systematic to solve problems Steps: ing the problem

gathered data. in generalization.

Understanding maps map reading & map filling