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Name __________________________________ Chapter 10 - Energy Metabolism: Photosynthesis Review Questions 1. What is the meaning of the word entropy?

Section _____


Does the entropy of a plant increase or decrease while it is alive? After it is dead? 2. Name several examples of photoautotrophs and several of heterotophs. How do photoautotrophs obtain energy? Can a plant be heterotrophic while a seedling and photoautotrophic when older?

3. ATP is an important chemical involved in many of plant and animals metabolic reactions. Yet any plant has only a small amount of it. Can you explain this? When ATP enters a reaction and forces it to proceed, what is ATP converted into? What happens to that molecule?

4. Name the three methods of phosphorylation.

5. What is a reduction reaction? Why does a reduction reaction always occur simultaneously with an oxidation reaction?

6. In organic molecules, we calculate the oxidation state of carbon by assuming that each oxygen has an oxidation state of ___________. Each hydrogen has an oxidation state of _______________. Calculate the oxidation state of carbon in each of the following: CO2, CH2O, and malic acid. 7. Two of the following are oxidizing agents and two are reducing agents. Which are which: NAD+ , NADP+, NADH, and NADPH?

8. In photosynthesis, what is the ultimate source of electrons? What are the benefits of this molecule in terms of its toxicity and the cost of the plant to obtain it?

9. Describe the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll. Why does it match the action spectrum of photosynthesis?

10. Chlorophyll does not use high energy quanta. Why not? What would happen to the chlorophyll if it did? It also does not use long wavelength radiation either. Why not?

11. The most common accessory pigments in land plants are chlorophyll __ and the __________. Algae that live in deep water have other accessory pigments because only _________________________________ light penetrates deeply into water. 12. Name the electron carriers that transport electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I. Which one contain metal atoms, and which do not?

13. When photosystem I produces NADPH, its reaction center P700 chlorophyll a loses electrons. What would happen if photosystem II did not supply new electrons to P700?

14. When electrons are removed from water, protons are liberated. Does this occur in the stroma or inside the thylakoid membrane? Can protons move directly across the membrane? Describe the cheiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis in chloroplasts.

15. Is ADP converted to ATP directly by the reaction center chlorophylls? Do the enzymes that synthesize ATP obtain the necessary energy by interacting directly with the reaction center chlorophylls?

16. What chemical is the acceptor of carbon dioxide in the C3 cycle? What enzyme catalyzes the reaction, and what is the product?

17. RuBP carboxylase is by no means an ideal enzyme. Describe some of the problems with its active site and its substrate specifity. If we compare the amino acid sequences of this cal. What is the significance of this uniformity?

18. Which chemicals are useful for energy storage on a short term basis? Which are for intermediate term and which are for long term?

19. What is the quality of light? How does it differ for plants in deserts, grassland, and the canopy of a forest versus for plants in the understory? How does it differ for algae that grow near the surface of a lake or ocean versus those that inhabit deep water far below the surface?

20. How is the quantity of light affected by a plants location relative to the equator or the poles? On one side of a valley or the other?

21. Imagine a leaf in bright light but an atmosphere with no carbon dioxide. Would RuBP carboxylase be functioning? Would the NADP be in the reduced or oxidized form?

22. Name some of the brightest environments. Describe some protective adaptations the plants may use to shade themselves.

23. An important factor for plants is the amount water lost for each molecule of carbon dioxide absorbed. How could the plant be harmed if it loses a lot of water for each carbon dioxide molecule, that is, if the ratio is high? Would this be more important for a plant in a rainy habitat or one in a desert?

24. In a C4 plant, where is PEP carboxylase located? Where is RuBP carboxylase located?

25. In a CAM plant, are stomata open during the day or the night? How does this affect the amount of water the palant loses when the stomata is open?

26. As a CAM plant makes and stores acid during the night, how does this affect the plants acidity (its Ph)? Think about the acidity of your own blood. Do you think its allowed to vary by any large amount?

27. In habitats where water conservation is not especially necessary is CAM metabolism more or less advantageous than C3 or C4 metabolism. Why?

28. What is global warming? What is the main gas that causes it? What would happen if the Earths atmosphere had a lower concentration of CO2 than it has now? What would happen if it had more?

29. What is the Kyoto Protcol? How many countries have signed it? Name one country that has not signed it. What are the two substances burned in the United States (and all other countries) that produce CO2? Which two countries have large populations and may soon surpass the United states in production of greenhouse gases?