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CHEMISTRY PROJECT WORK

ANAND SINGH-

XII-A

CONTENTS
Acknowledgement

Certificate Material required Procedure Introduction Experiment and observation Result Symptoms of mineral deficiency in plant Source for essential elements for plants

ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT
At the outset I would like to express my regard and appreciation to Mrs. Ritika who inspired me and provided

me an opportunity to work this project .Also I am thankful to those who helped me in completing this project.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Anand Singh roll no. and student of class XII GURU HARKRISHAN PUBLIC SCHOOL, has successfully Completed this project under my guidance and to my satisfaction.

(Teacher Signature)

INTRODUCTION
Chemical analysis shows that carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen constitute the bulk of plant body . In addition to this a large number of other element are also found. The roots of green plants absorb a very large number of element from the soil . This number may vary from 30-40 , but a few of them are essential for plant life . The criteria for essentiality of elements is as follows: The elements must be absolutely necessary for supporting normal growth and reproduction. The requirement of elements must be specifies and not relacable by another element. The element must be directly involved in the nutrition of plant.

Magnesium, for example, is a constituent of chlorophyll Molecule and helps in photosynthesis. It cannot be replaced by any other element for the same function. It is also required as a cofactor by enzymes involved in cellular

respiration and other metabolic pathways is a constituent of cytochromes. The essential elements are divided into categories based on quantity in which they are required by plants: MACRO ELEMENTS: They must generally be present in plants tissues concentrated of at least 1 mg per gram of dry Element Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, Potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. MICRO ELEMENTS: They are needed in very small amount. manganese, copper,molybdenum,zinc, boron and chlorine have been established as micro elements. Cobalt, Silicon Scandium and nickel may be essential for certain plant.

AIM
To identify the element composition of a few Vegetables Of solonaceae family like: Potato, Brinjal, Capsicum etc.

MATERIAL REQUIRED
POTATA BRINJAL CAPSICUM BEAKERS CRUCIBLIES BURNER FORCEPS OVEN WIRE GUAGE

PROCEDURE
VEGETABLES ARE CONVERTED INTO ASH.VEGETABLES OF SOLANCE FAMILY (LIKE POTATO, BRINJAL CAPSCICUM) ARE DRIED IN DIRECT SUNLIGHT FOR FEW DAYS TO REMOVE THEIR MOISTURE. THENVEGETABLES ARE DRIED IN OVEN AT HIGH TEMPERATURE.VEGITABLES HAVE TO BE CONVERTED INTO POWDERED FROM SO THEIR MOISTURE IS REMOVED AS MUCH ASPOSSIBLE. AFTER HEATING IN OVENVEGITABLES HEATED ON DIVERT FLAMEAND THEIR WHITE ASH IS OBTAINED. THIS WHITE ASH IS THEN USED FORQUALITATIVE ANALYSIS BY WHICHCOMPONENTS OF VEGETAB LE ARE FOUND OUT.

EXPERIMENT AND OBSERVATION

S.N. NCE
1.

EXPERIMENT

OBSERVATION

INFERE
PO Confirmed

2.

Take some ash Canary yellow ppt. in a test. conc. HNO boil,cool and Amnonium molybdate. Take some ash in Buff coloured ppt. a test tube add dil. HCL. Now add NH4 Cl. In excess and pass HS gas through The soil Add dil. HCL in sol. White brown ppt. (2) ppt. Boil off HS gas and add Na OH Add BpO in the ppt. pink colour Now add conc.HNO Leave for 10 min.

Mn indicated

Mn indicate Mn indicate

3.

Take some ash in a Dirty green ppt. Test tube add dil. HCL and NH OH and NH CL in excess. Dissolve the above Blue ppt. Fe confirmed Ppt. in dil.HCL and Add K Fe CN 4.

Fe confirmed

Take some ash test white ppt. SO4 confirmed Tube Insoluble in con. Hcl Make O.S and add Conc. HCL And then BaCL

5.

6.

7.

Take some ash in white coloured May be Zn Test tube add dil. Ppt. obtained HCL. Now add NH OH and NHCL in excess pass HS gas. Through the O.S. Dissolve ppt. in HCL boil OFF HS gas and divide in to two part. a) Add K (Fe (CN) 6) white ppt. Zn confirmed b) add NaOH white ppt. Zn confirmed sol. In excess NaOH Take some ash colorless gas Cl confirmed In a test tube and with pungent Conc. HSO smell Add solid potassium orange gas Cl confirmed Dichromate and conc. H S O in salt Pass evolve gas through Na OH turns Cl indicate NaOH yellow Now add lead acetate yellow ppt. Cl confirmed And acetic acid in the ppt. Take some ash in a Black ppt. Cu confirmed Test tube and add HCl. Now pass H S Gas through O.S. a) add dil.HNO3 in Blue ppt. Cu confirmed the above sol. b) Add NH OH in confirmed Excess Blue ppt. Cu

Add CH COOH In the above ppt. Add K Fe CN 8.

Chocolate brown ppt.

Cu confirmed

Take some ash white ppt. Ina test tube add Dil. HCL,NH OH and NHCL in excess. Now add CH COOH To make it transparent White ppt. of CaCO

Ca indicated

Ca indicated

RESULTS
This is samples of vegetables contains: PO, mn , Fe,SOZn, CI, cu and Ca

SYMPTOMS OF MINERAL DEFICENCY IN PLANTS


When a plants lacks the required quantities of one or more Essential elements, it shows poor growth and deficiency symptoms. They are called HUNGER SIGNS by botanists. In a cultivated field or orchard. These symptoms can be used to detect the type of minerals deficiency and to take appropriated measures. Certain Plants which rapidly develop characteristics deficiency symptoms For particular elements can be used as indicator for testing soils. The most common and striking types of minerals deficiency symptoms includes:

SOURCES FOR ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS FOR PLANTS


All the element incorporated into plants are ultimately derived From the atmosphere, water and soil. Carbon enters a plants as Atmospheric carbon dioxide, while hydrogen is mainly obtained From water, oxygen can come from air or from water in the form of organic salts. Atmospheric nitrogen, which occurs in abundance, is inert and most of the plants are unable to use it. There are also certain highly specialized organism called Nitrogen fixer. These organism occurring in soil, convert nitrogen gas (N) to anionic forms such as nitrate (No3) or (No2) or a reduced cationic forms such as ammonium (NH4). These compound enters into plants as nutrients through the roots and are assimilated as organic nitrogen. All over organic element are absorbed from soil which are ultimately derived from the parent rocks weathering. Hence these elements are called mineral elements. No mineral elements include carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen is unique as it is derived from both mineral and non mineral resources.