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Fans and Air Handling Units

Will Rea and Paul Pilutti February 16th, 2011

HTS Lunch and Learns


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Contents
Fans
Fan Curves
Fan Laws Fan Types

Examples
AHUs Haakon vs. McQuay

Indoor vs. Outdoor


Unique Designs Fans in AHUs

FANS

Motivation
We use fans to move air
All occupied building require some fresh air
Use air to control temperature and humidity Remove smells

Exhaust harmful particles

Fan Curves

Do Not Select Line

System Resistance Curve

BHP Line

RPM Curve

Drawn for a one pressure, changes with altitude, temperature

Fan Types
Right fan for each application!

Centrifugal
Forward Curved Backwards Incline (Airfoil)

Radial
Tubular Axial

Prop
Tubeaxial Vaneaxial

Plenum

Fan Types

Static Pressure

Tubular Centrif

Airfoil

Plenum Forward Curve

Prop Fan CFM

Fan Types Centrifugal Forward Curve


Pressure: 0.5 5

Airflow: 1000 CFM 300,000 CFM +


Same Slope issue Overloading

Fan Types Centrifugal AirFoil


Pressure: 0.5 14+

Airflow: 1000 CFM 300,000 CFM +


Variety of Blades, BI(flat), STAF, DTAF Non-overloading

Fan Types Centrifugal Tubular


Pressure: 0.5 10

Airflow: 1000 CFM 100,000 CFM +


Tube SW, mixed flow,

Fan Types Inline Propeller


Pressure: 0 1

Airflow: 100 CFM 100,000 CFM +


Exhaust from space to space, No duct work

Fan Types Inline Plenum


Pressure: 1 12+

Airflow: 1000 CFM 250,000 CFM +


Pressurization fan

Fan Types Inline Axial Fan


Pressure: 0 6+

Airflow: 200 CFM 90,000 CFM +


Pressurization fan

Fan Wall - Application


20+ direct drive plenum fans in an array How are they isolated? How do you service them? What is the efficiency Inlet damper on each fan? They do improve the second octave band sound

Fan Testing
AMCA method

Test from Blocked off SP -Wide open CFM

Direct vs. Belt Drive


Direct Drive
No drive losses
Recommend 1000 CFM and lower Single fan speed

More difficult to service


Exception: High CFM, Medium Static, Belts can affect space Belt Drive

1000 CFM and over


Can be sheaved (gear change) for any fan speed Motor service/replacement easier

Fan Laws
All Constant Geometry Systems

Changing RPM Law


RPM change Constant CFM/RPM Law

Changing Air Density


Constant SP Law Changing Air Density

Constant Mass Flow


Changing Air Density

Example 1 - Changing RPM Law


Problem

AHU already installed on site


Client says they want more cooling Do not want to pay more money

How much more possible


Current FC Fan

10000 CFM
1.56 TSP 6.4 BHP

641 RPM
10 HP Motor Installed

Example 1 - Changing RPM Law

Example 1 - Changing RPM Law


Original

10000 CFM
1.56 TSP 641 RPM

6.4 BHP with 10 HP Motor


Predicted Maximum

11601 CFM
2.10 TSP 744 RPM

10 BHP with 10 HP Motor (example only dont do this)


Fan works, do coils, filters, dampers?

Example 1 - Changing RPM Law

Example 2 - Constant CFM/RPM


Problem

Fan rated for sea level


Building in Calgary 3438 Tubular Centrifigual Fan

Determine new conditions at 1322 RPM


Current 10000 CFM

0 ft altitude 29.92 Hg
1.56 TSP 4.1 BHP

Example 2 - Constant CFM/RPM

Example 2 - Constant CFM/RPM


Sea Level

29.92 Hg
10000 CFM 1.56 TSP

4.1 BHP
Calgary

26.18 Hg
10000 CFM 1.37 TSP

3.6 BHP
Any density/temperature change requires new fan curve

Example 2 - Constant CFM/RPM

Example 3 - Constant Mass Flow


Problem

Temperature done at Sea Level


Building in Denver 5280 Plenum Fan

Maintain constant mass flow for cooling


Current 0 ft altitude 29.92 Hg

10000 CFM
3.00 TSP 6.96 BHP

1511 RPM

Example 3 - Constant Mass Flow

Example 3 - Constant Mass Flow


Sea Level

29.92 Hg
10000 CFM 3.00 TSP

6.96 BHP
1511 RPM Denver

24.71 Hg
12106 CFM 3.63 TSP

10.20 BHP
1829 RPM

Example 3 - Constant Mass Flow

Example 4 - Air Balancing Report


Problem

Air balancer reports different than design


DWDI AF Fan Set for 1961 RPM design

Require design CFM


Design 10000 CFM Balancing Report 9350CFM

2.5 TSP
7.7 BHP 1961 RPM

2.3 TSP
7.8 BHP 1961 RPM

Example 4 - Air Balancing Report

Example 4 - Air Balancing Report


Balancing Report

1962 RPM
9350 CFM 3.00 TSP

7.8 BHP
New RPM Setpoint 2098 RPM

10000 CFM
3.43 TSP 9.54 BHP

Example 4 - Air Balancing Report

Air Handling Units

Motivation
Factory built unit
Combine fan, heat, cool, humidity, heat recovery into one unit
Were built in the field, now factory built High quality, limitless options

AHUs
Treat ventilation air Commonly come with SPP Economizer section Heat recovery Coils Humidifiers Burners Integral condensing units, steam generators

Haakon vs. McQuay


Haakon single product, fully custom Haakon Higher pressure rating McQuay three products, Semi-custom and packaged McQuay can be shorter McQuay is cheaper below 20000 CFM Difference in base rail

Haakon
Structure

Structural steel base, not formed 2/4 fibreglass insulation Almost unrestricted configuration Almost infinite material/component options Pool, Low Temp Dehumidification, chiller, condensers...
Indoor vs. Outdoor
Add extra fold in roof Hoods if required

Snow might come in, OA section drain pans

Haakon Unique Designs


Heat Recovery, Low Temp Dehumidification, SPP

Haakon Unique Designs


Heat Recovery, Gas Furnace, Integral Refrigeration, SPP

Haakon Unique Designs


Angled discharge, structural cut out

Haakon Unique Designs


Heat Recovery, Integral Humidification, SPP, Pipe chase inside

Haakon Unique Designs


Inline Fans, Dampers, UV, Lights, Can work on while unit is operating

McQuay
Rooftop Product

Semi-custom, wide variety of options Heatwheels, Packaged DX, Gas heat Fixed aspect ratio, 5 box sizes Most compact in mid-large size units Vision/Skyline Near Custom Lots of components, variable aspect ratio, open sizes Can ship in sections 2 Injected Foam insulation Skyline has additional seams/paint for outdoor use

Fans in AHUs
Why do you use FC, AF, Plenum, Centrif, Normal AHU (3-5, >10000CFM) DWDI AF most efficient Below use FC Any blow through, use an evase Plenum if outlet conditions are poor Worse on curve, better in reality Better acoustics for plenum Or AF with evase and silencers

ASHRAE 90.1/189.1
Efficiency Laws for Fans

Mandate a maximum BHP/CFM, or maximum nameplate HP


Exceptions for 1HP or less EF, and pressurized spaces Similar to chiller, higher design BHP allowed for VAV

Gives credit for components (filters, RF, Heat Recovery)


189.1 (High Performance Buildings) - 10% stricter

Air Flow Monitoring Station


Factory built into AHU or ductwork Provides digital readout and/or BAS signal Important in VAV/demand ventilation Some styles penetrate into airstream affect performance Haakon uses small openings on inlet bell Does not intrude into the airstream

Openings on inlet

VAV Systems
Fan may be selected differently Using a VFD the RPM of the fan is slowed CFM and TSP reduced along system curve System typical changes to introduce additional static

Next Time March 16th


Humidification

Isothermal vs. Adiabatic Dispersion Types Steam Generators Economizer vs. Design Day