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AIM: To study forward and reverse bias characteristics of P-N junction diode. APPARATUS: Diode, DC power supply, 1K resistor, bread board, connecting wires THEORY: A P-N junction diode is a two electrode device that is formed by placing a layer of P-type semi conductor material against a layer of N-type semi conductor material in order to form a junction. The p side is known as the anode or the positive terminal while the n side is known as the cathode or the negative terminal.

FORWARDBIASING: A p-n junction is said to be forward biased, if the positive terminal of the external battery B is connected to p-side and the negative terminal to the n-side of the p-n junction. Here the forward bias opposes the potential barrier VB and so the depletion layer becomes thin. The majority charge carriers in the P type and N types are repelled by their respective terminals due to battery B and hence cross the junction. On crossing the junction, recombination process takes place. For every electron hole combination, a covalent bond near the +ve terminal of the battery B is broken and this liberates an electron which enters the +ve terminal of B through connecting wires. This in turn creates more holes in P-region. At the other end, the electrons from -ve terminal of B enter n-region to replace electron lost due to recombination process. Thus a large current will flow to migration of majority carriers across the p-n junction which is called forward current.

REVERSE BIASING: A p-n junction is said to be reverse biased if the positive terminal of the battery B is connected to N-side and the negative terminal to p-side of the p-n junction. The majority carriers are pulled away from the junction and the depletion region becomes thick. The resistance becomes high when reverse biased and so there is no conduction across the junction due to majority carriers. The minority carriers however cross the junction and they constitute a current that flows in the opposite direction. This is the reverse current.


OBSERVATION TABLE: (FORWARD BIAS CIRCUIT) Supply voltage(Vs)(V) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 SIMULATION IN MULTISIM: FORWARD BIAS CIRCUIT: Diode voltage(Vd)(V) 0.52 0.55 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.67 Diode current(Id)(mA) 1.48 3.45 5.42 7.4 9.38 11.93 13.36 15.35 17.35 19.34 21.33




CONCLUSION: We have studied the characteristics of p-n junction diode and have practically verified its performance.

AIM: To study input and output characteristics of NPN Transistor. APPARATUS: NPN transistor, bread board, DC power supply, connecting wires, 1k and 2.2k transistor THEORY: A bipolar (junction) transistor (BJT) is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications. Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves both electrons and holes. There are two types of BJT: (a) NPN and (b) PNP

The common emitter configuration of npn transistor is shown in the figure.

There are two characteristics of NPN transistor: Input characteristics: The input characteristics depicts the relationship between base current IB and emitter to base voltage for different values of collector to emitter voltage VCE.

Output characteristics: The characteristics depict the relation between collector current(IC) and collector to emitter voltage(VCE) for different values of base current. These characteristics is of npn transistor. These characteristics have three regions ie active region, saturation and cut off region.

Forward-active (or simply, active): The baseemitter junction is forward biased and the base collector junction is reverse biased. Most bipolar transistors are designed to afford the greatest common-emitter current gain, F, in forward-active mode. If this is the case, the collector

emitter current is approximately proportional to the base current, but many times larger, for small base current variations. Reverse-active (or inverse-active or inverted): By reversing the biasing conditions of the forward-active region, a bipolar transistor goes into reverse-active mode. In this mode, the emitter and collector regions switch roles. Because most BJTs are designed to maximize current gain in forward-active mode, the F in inverted mode is several (23 for the ordinary germanium transistor) times smaller. This transistor mode is seldom used, usually being considered only for failsafe conditions and some types of bipolar logic. The reverse bias breakdown voltage to the base may be an order of magnitude lower in this region. Saturation: With both junctions forward-biased, a BJT is in saturation mode and facilitates high current conduction from the emitter to the collector (or the other direction in the case of NPN, with negatively charged carriers flowing from emitter to collector). This mode corresponds to a logical "on", or a closed switch. Cutoff: In cutoff, biasing conditions opposite of saturation (both junctions reverse biased) are present. There is very little current, which corresponds to a logical "off", or an open switch.


Sr no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

V(BE) 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2.0

I(B) 0.0 0.001 0.041 0.073 0.186 0.238 0.366 0.455 0.495 0.585 0.673 0.789 0.865 1.179

OBSERVATION TABLE: (OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS) Vb = 10V , Rb = 2.2k , Ib = 10/2.2k = 4.5mA Sr no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Vcc(V) 0.3 0.7 1.2 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.6 Vr(V) 0.32 0.6 1.24 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.6 Vce(V) --0.0 0.5 1.6 2.9 4.2 5.9 Ic(mA) 0.32 0.6 1.24 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.6





CONCLUSION: We have verified input and output characteristics if transistor and have studied various operating regions of the transistor.