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TOLERANCE ACCUMULATION

AND

ANALYSIS

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ADDITION OF TOLERANCES

A and B two linear dimensions to be added a1, a2 tolerance on A b1, b2 tolerance on B A+B = C The tolerance on C to be analysed.
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C is max. when A and B are max. C is min. when A and B are min. Cmax Cmin Cmax Cmin = = = = A max + B max A min + B min. ( C + c2 )= (A + a2) + (B + b2) ( C - c1 )= (A a1) + (B b1) ------- ( 1 ) ------- ( 2 )

c1, c2 tolerance on C Subtracting C min ( 2 ) from C max ( 1 ) c2 + c1 = (a1+a2) + (b1 + b2) If ( a1 + ( c1 + a2 ) = T a ( b1 + b2 ) = T b c2 ) = T c


c

The Tolerance on the total length will be T

= Ta + Tb
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SUBTRACTION OF TOLERANCES

A and B two linear dimensions to be subtracted a1, a2 tolerance on A b1, b2 tolerance on B A-B = C The tolerance on C to be analysed.
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C is max. when A is max. and B is min. C is min. when A is min. and B is max. C max = A max B min C min = A min B max; A max B min A min B max = = = = A + a2 B b1 A a1 B + b2

C max = ( C + c 2 ) = ( A + a2) ( B b1 ) ----------- ( 3 ) C min = ( C c1 ) = ( A a1) ( B + b2 ) ---------- ( 4 ) Subtracting C min ( 4 ) from C max ( 3 ) (c 2 + c 1 ) = ( a2 + a1 ) + ( b2 + b1) If ( a2 + a1 ) = Ta ( b2 + b1 ) = Tb ( c2 + c1 ) = Tc
c

The Tolerance on the remaining length T

= Ta + Tb
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The tolerances are getting added both in addition and subtraction.

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EXAMPLES

TO CALCULATE UNKNOWN DIMENSIONS

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The value of X and tolerances x1, x2 are un-known. Case-1 x 2 a2 z2 x 1 a1 z1 X A = Z

x2 a2 x2 - a1 z2 x1 a1 x1 - a2 z1 X A = (X A) = Z
Therefore x2 a1 = z2 x2 = a1 + z2 x1 a2 = z1 x1 = a2 +z1 Therefore
x2 x1
X = (A+ Z)
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a1 + z2 a2 +z1

The value of X and tolerances x1, x2 are un-known.


Example:
x2 + 0.1 + 0.2 x1 - 0.1 - 0.2 X 5 = 10 x2 ( 0.1 ) = + 0.2 x2 + 0.1 = + 0.2 x2 = + 0.2 0.1 = + 0.1 x1 ( + 0.1 ) = 0.2 x1 0.1 = 0.2 x1 = 0.1
x2 x1 + 0.1 - 0.1 + 0.2 - 0.2

X
+0.1 -0.1

5
+ 0.1 - 0.1

= 10
+ 0.2 - 0.2

15

= 10
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The value of X and tolerances x1, x2 are un-known.


Case-2 a2 x2 a1 x1 A X z2 z1 = Z

a2 x1 z2 a1 x2 z1 (A - X) = Z The tolerances of the equation can be equated. a2 - x1 = z2 x1 = a2 - z2 a1 - x2 = z1 x2 = a1 - z1 Therefore

x2 x1
X = (A- Z )

a1 - z1 a2 - z2
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Example: + 0.1 x2 + 0.2 - 0.1 x1 - 0.2 15 - X = 10


-0.1 x2 ( 15 - X ) = Z The tolerances of the equation can be equated. +0.1 - x1 = +0.2 x1 = +0.1 - 0.2 = -0.1 -0.1 - x2 = -0.2 x2 = -0.1 +0.2 = +0.1 Therefore
+0.1 x1

+0.2 -0.2

+ 0.1 x2 + 0.2 - 0.1 x1 - 0.2 15 - X = 10 + 0.1 +0.1 + 0.2 - 0.1 -0.1 - 0.2 15 - 5 = 10
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+ 0.05 - 0.03

Dimension A = 100 . 0
- 0.13 - 0.20 Dimension B = 60.0 Calculate the nominal size and the variation for the dimension C.

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Nominal size C = Nominal size A Nominal size B C = 100 60 = 40 c2 a2 b2 c1 a1 b1 C = A B c2 c1 40 + 0.05 0.03 = 100 0.13 0.20 60

c2 = + 0.05 ( 0.20 ) = + 0.25 c1 = 0.03 ( 0.13 ) = + 0.1 c2 c1 C = +0.25 + 0.1 40

Verification:

Tc = Ta +Tb Ta + Tb = + 0.05 ( 0.03 ) + ( 0.13 ) ( 0.2 ) = 0.15 Tc = 0.15 0.15 = 0.15


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Calculate the dimension x and tolerance on x with M-M and L-L as references
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Considering MM as reference a2 x2 b2 a1 x1 b1 A - X = B + 0.0 - 0.1 30 x2 x1 0.1 8 = 22

+0.0 - x1 -0.1 - x2 0.1 ( 30 8 ) = 22 0.0 x1 x1 0.1 - x2 x2 = + 0.1 = 0.1 = 0.1 = 0.0


+ 0. 0 - 0.1

x2 x1
The value of X = 8

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Considering LL as reference a2 b2 a1 b1 A B

x2 x1 = X

+ 0.0 x2 - 0.1 0.1 x1 30 22 = 8 x2 x1 = + 0.0 ( 0.1) = + 0.1 = 0.1 ( +0.1) = 0.2

x2 x1 X

+ 0.1

- 0.2

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MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION BY A CONSTANT NUMBER

Any dimension with tolerances, if multiplied by a positive constant number, the tolerance of the result also increases proportionately.
When divided by a constant number, the tolerance of the result, similarly decreases proportionately

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MULTIPLICATION BY A CONSTANT NUMBER


a2 a1 When A is multiplied by a constant K , it becomes a2 a2 * K a1 (A ) * K = (A* K ) Example :

a1 * K

+ 0.1 + 0.3 4 * (3)

(+0.1) 3 (+0.3) 3 = (4 * 3)
+0.3 +0.9 = 12
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DIVISION BY A CONSTANT NUMBER


a2 a1 When A is divided by a constant K , it becomes a2 a2 K a1 a1 K ( A ) K = (A K)

Example : +0.3 0.3/3 +0.9 0.9/3 ( 12 ) 3 = ( 12 / 3 ) +0.1 +0.3 = 4


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EXAMPLE 1

Find out the variation of dimension x with reference to LL


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x2 x1

+0.0 -0.2

+0.1 -0.0

+0.0 -0.2

+0.0 -0.1

X x2 x1

= 50 5 38 5 = 2 = + 0.0 ( 0.0 ) ( 0.2 ) ( 0.1 ) = + 0.3 = 0.2 ( + 0.1 ) 0.0 - 0.0 = 0.3

x2 x1

x2 x1
X = 2

+0.3 -0.3
= 2

0.3

Verification:

Ta + Tb + Tc + Td = T x Ta + Tb + Tc + Td = 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.1 = 0.6 T x = 0.3+0.3 = 0.6 0.6 = 0.6

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Example 2 : -0.040 +0.040 150 -0.073 +0.013 -0.009 + 95 +0.012 +0.000 +0.001 -0.019 -0.006 -0.017 = 290 x2 x1

- 20

- 15

+ 65

+ 15

x2=(0.040)-(- 0.073)+(0.013)-(0.001)+(0.000)+(-0.006) = + 0.119


x1=(0.000)-(-0.040)+(-0.009)-(0.012)+(-0.019)+(-0.017) = 0.017 x2 x1 X Verification: Ta+ Tb+ Tc + Td + Te + Tf = Tx Ta+ Tb+ Tc + Td + Te + Tf = 0.040+ [(0.040)(0.073)] + [0.013(0.009)] + [(+0.0120(+0.001)] + (0.019)+ [(0.006)( 0.017)] = 0.136 T x = [0.119(0.017)] = 0.136 = 290 + 0.119 - 0.017

0.136 = 0.136
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Example 3 :

+ 0.030 +0.021 +0.030 +0.046 + 0.011 +0.008 +0.011 240 +75 20 60 =

x2 x1

X = (240 + 75 20 60) = 235 x2 = + 0.046 + 0.030 ( + 0.008 ) ( + 0.011 ) = + 0.057 x1 = + 0.000 + 0.011 ( + 0.021 ) ( + 0.030 ) = 0.040 x2 x1 235 Verification: Ta + Tb + T c + Td = Tx. Ta + Tb+ T c+ Td = 0.046 + ( 0.030 0.011 ) + ( 0.021 0.008 ) + ( 0.030 0.011 ) = 0.097 = +0.057 -0.040 235

Tx

= 0.097

0.097 = 0.097
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Example 4 :

+0.012 +0.009 +0.013 +0.008 -0.007 -0.004 +0.063 -0.009 -0.003 65 -20 +450 -120 +12 =

x2
x1 387

x2 = + 0.012 ( 0.004 ) + 0.063(0.009) + 0.008 = + 0.096 x1 = 0.007 ( + 0.009 ) + ( + 0.000 ) ( + 0.013) + (0.003) = 0.032 x2 +0.0 96 x1 -0.032 387 = 387

Verification:

Ta+Tb+T-c+Td+Te = T-x Ta+Tb+T-c+Td+Te =0.012(0.007)+ 0.009 (0.004)+0.063+0.013 (0.009)+0.008(0.003) = 0.128 T-x = 0.096 (0.032) = 0.128 0.128 = 0.128
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Calculate the value of x to have the axial clearance between bearing and the shaft, as 1.25 0.25 mm
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Considering LL as reference The value of X must lie as the difference between the sum of the dimension of B, C, D, and E to A.

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EQUATION : x2 x1 X x2 x1 = +0.0 +0.00 +0.25 +0.00 +0.25 -0.05 -0.10 -0.25 -0.05 -0.25 5 + 140 + 1.25 + 5 - 100 x2 x1 = ( 51.25 )

x2 x1 X = ( 151.25 100 )

x2 = + 0.0 + 0.00 + 0.25 + 0.00 ( 0.25 ) = + 0.5 x1 = 0.05 0.1 0.25 0.05 ( + 0.25 ) = 0.7 x2 +0.5 x1 -0.7 (51.25) = 51.25

Verification:
Tb+Tc+Td+Te+Ta = Tx Tb+Tc+Td+Te+Ta = +0.05 + 0.1 + 0.25 +0.25+0.05 +0.25 + 0.25 =1.2 Tx = 1.2 1.2 =1.2
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A hole 16H6 has to be drilled and reamed The dimension is 79 0.1 from one side of the component. Calculate the tolerance for the dimension 12 from one end in a box jig plate to obtain the resultant dimension 79 0.1
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+0.00 x2 0.1 0.05 - 0.05 x1 79 = 111 20 12 Max. limit : + 0.1 = + 0.05 ( 0.05 ) x1 x1 = 0 Min. limit : 0.1 = - 0.05 ( + 0 ) x2 x2 = 0.05 + 0.05 +0.00 + 0.00 - 0.05 The tolerance for the dimension 12 is 12 or 12.05

Verification:

Td = Ta + Tb + Tc + 0.0 + 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.05 - 0.00 79 = 111 - 20 12 Td = 0.2 Ta + Tb + Tc = (0.05)-(-0.05)+0.0-(-0.05)+(0.05)-(-0.0) = 0.2 0.2 = 0.2
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A hole of 16H7 is to be made with reference to another predrilled and reamed hole 10H7 which lies on a perpendicular plane The dimension of the hole 10H7 with reference to one side of the box jig is given as 245 0.05 Calculate the tolerance for the dimension 97 to position the drill jig bush to drill and ream dia 16H7 hole.
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Dimension should be 148 148 0.1

0.1

= 245
x x 2 1

x2 0.05 97 x1

+ 97 = 45 0.05 +0.1 ( x1 ) = + 0.05 x1 = + 0.05 0.1 ( x2 ) = 0.05 x2 = 0.05

The tolerances for the dimension 97 is 0.05


Verification: 245 0.05 - 97 0.05 = 148 Ta +Tb = 0.1+ 0.1 = 0.2 Tc = 0.2 0.2 = 0.2
0.1

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The component shown in Fig. is dimensioned by two methods. Analyses the more practical one. In case 1 the dimensions, 50 0.1; 100 0.2 , and the overall dimensions 180 0.05 are toleranced In case 2 , dimensions 100 0.2 are toleranced .
, 130 0.05and

30 0.05

In case 1 considering LL as the reference


X2

x1 X = 180 0.05 50 0.1 100 0.2 x2 = + 0.05 - ( - 0.1 ) - ( - 0.2 ) = + 0.35 x1 = - 0.05 - ( + 0.1 ) - ( + 0.2 ) = - 0.35
x 2 x 1

X = 30 0.35 In case 2 considering AA as reference


x2 Xx1

x 2 x 1
X2 Xx1

= 130 0.05 - 100 0. 2 = + 0.05 - ( - 0.2 ) = + 0.25 = - 0.05 - ( + 0.2 ) = - 0.25


=

30

0. 25

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The dimension C from the functional reference LL . It is impracticable to measure the depth ( 20 ) of the hole having diameter D1 from the functional reference LL Hence the best auxiliary reference selected in this case is MM , which is also reference for manufacturing. In view of this new reference the dimensions of A, B, C and their tolerances are evaluated as follows.
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+ 0.08 - 0.14

Nominal dimension of A = Nominal dimension B+ Nominal dimension C A = B+C A = 20 +10 = 30 Total Tolerance of C = Total tolerance of A-Total tolerance of B The equation will be A - B = C a2 b2 c2 a1 b1 c1 A - B = C 30
a2 a1

10

0.0 5

+0.08 20 - 0.14

a2 ( 0.05 ) = + 0.08 a2 = 0.08 - 0.05 = + 0.03 a1 ( + 0.05 ) = 0.14 a1 = 0.09 a2 +0.03 a1 -0.09 A = 30
+0.03

The depth of hole is = 30 -0.09.


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TOLERANCING DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS Methods of dimensioning between centers of holes

Series or chain dimensioning

Parallel dimensioning of each hole with respect to the datum.

Series and Parallel A combination of the above two methods


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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF TWO HOLES

Case1:

Sizes of the holes and shafts are identical.

d is the diameter of the shafts D is the diameter of holes in two plates A set up for the worst case of interchangeability
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1-1 = Axis of holes in the plate1 2-2 = Axis of the holes in the plate 2 CC = Axis of the shafts mating the holes. M = The distance between the centers of holes m = The tolerance on M on the respective holes ( D-d ) = Clearance between hole and shaft = L Considering a datum line of no clearance from the figure The following chain of dimension can be placed keeping in view the signs An equation for the expression of tolerance is as 0 = D/2 - ( M+ m ) + D/2- d+ D/2 + ( M-m ) + D/2 -d 0 = 2D - 2m - 2d 2m = 2 ( D-d ) 2m = 2L m = L

As this is a critical value, m can be less than L but not more, as 100% interchangeability is to be achieved. Therefore m = L
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CONCLUSION

If 100% interchangeability is to be achieved in the above case, the tolerance on dimension between the two holes cannot be more than twice the diametrical clearance between the holes and shafts. It could be less or equal to the clearance.

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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF TWO HOLES

Case II: The size of the holes and shafts vary

D1 be the diameter of the holes in plates 1 and 2, for the mating shaft d1. D2 be the diameter of the holes in plates 1 and 2 for the mating shaft d2 . A worst case set-up for 100% interchangeability is shown.
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1-1 = Axis of holes in the plate 1 2-2 = Axis of holes in the plate 2 c1 -c1 = Axis of the shaft of diameter d1 c2 -c-2 = Axis of the shaft of diameter d2 M = The distance between the centers of holes m = The tolerance on M. ( D1- d1 ) , ( D2 - d2 ). = The clearance between the holes and Shafts. Starting from a point of no clearance, a set of chain dimensions can be placed as follows, keeping in view the directional sign and equating it to zero.
0 = D2/2 - ( M+ m )+ D1/2 - d1 + D1/2 + ( M - m ) + D2/2 - d2 0 = - 2m + ( D1 + D2 ) - ( d1 + d2 ) 2m = ( D1 - d1 ) + ( D2 - d2 ) 2m = ( L1 + L2 ). Since ( D1 - d1 ) = L1 and ( D2 - d2) = L2 m = ( L1 + L2 ) 2
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CONCLUSION

The critical tolerance m on the centers of two holes in the above case should be equal to half the sum of clearances in both holes and could be less for 100% interchangeability between the two plates.

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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF THREE HOLES

Series Dimensioning

D - is the diameter of holes in the plates 1 and 2 d - the diameter of mating shafts The holes displaced according to the tolerance for the worst case, is shown.
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1-1 = Axis of the holes in plate 1 2-2 = Axis of the holes in plate 2 c-c = Axis of the shafts M = Dimension between holes m = The tolerance of the dimensions. 0 = D/2 + ( M- m ) + ( M m ) + D/2 d + D/2 - ( M+ m )- ( M + m ) +D/2 - d 0 = 2D - 2d - 4m 4 m = 2 ( D d ) = 2 L. Since ( D - d ) = L m = L/2 Similarly For 4 holes dimensioned in series m=L/3 For 5 holes dimensioned in series m=L/4 If n holes are in series m= L/n-1 For n holes dimensioned in series tolerance between the holes should be equal to or less than L/n-1 for 100% interchangeability.
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Series or Chain dimensions between centers

For n holes dimensioned in series tolerance between the holes


should be equal to or less than L/n-1 for 100% interchangeability.
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CONCLUSION
As the number of holes increases in case of series dimensioning, the tolerance, between the holes decreases. Hence the cost of production increases and it is difficult to make. If same tolerances are given to the large dimensions as that of small dimensions, it will be in many instances impracticable.

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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF THREE HOLES Parallel Dimensioning

D - is the diameter of holes in the plates 1 and 2 d - is the diameter of the shafts Fig . shows the holes displaced according to the tolerances for the worst case.
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1-1 = Axis of holes in plate 1 2-2 = Axis of holes in plate 2 c-c = Axis of the shafts M1 = The distance of the second hole from the first M2 = The distance of the third hole from the first m = The tolerance of M1 dimension m = The tolerance of M2 dimension Considering a datum line of no clearance from the figure the following chain of dimensions can be laid down taking care of the signs of the dimensions, the expression for the tolerances is, as follows. -d+D/2+(M1-m)+D/2-d+D/2-(M1+m)+(M2+m)-D/2+d-D/2-(M2-m)-D/2+d= 0 2 m 2 m = 0 m = m

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Parallel Dimensioning

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CONCLUSION

As the number of holes increases the tolerance remains the same L The tolerance between the first hole and second hole is equal to tolerance between the first hole and third hole. We also conclude that, if the tolerance is equal, it has no bearing on the number of holes .

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FOUR-HOLE GROUP WITH COORDINATE TOLERANCES

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Comparison between series & parallel Dimensioning:


If the number of holes exceeds 3, parallel dimensioning is only recommended. By series dimensioning, tolerance decreases which is difficult to achieve and expensive.

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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS OF HOLES IN PLATES I AND II FROM THEIR COMMON EDGE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY: Case1: Fastener having clearance in both the plates

Two plates are to be assembled by a fastener of diad, passing through the holes of dia D. The locations of holes are with reference to the common edge 0. The distance of the holes from the common edge is M m , where m is the tolerance.
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Center of the hole in plate 1 is ( M + m ) Center of the hole in plate 2 is ( M m ) In the plan view a line joining the common edge and the centers makes an angle of 45 degrees and the figure shows the respective distance from the common edge. Applying the principles as before, 0 = (D/2)-2 (M+m) +2(M-m) + (D/2)-d 0 = (D-d) - 2 2m, Therefore 2*2m = (D d) (Dd)=L 2m = ( D d ) 2 = 0.7 * L
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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS OF HOLES IN PLATES I AND II FROM THEIR COMMON EDGE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY: Case II: Fastener having clearance in plate 1 and press fit in plate 2.

For the position as shown 0 = (D/2)-2(M+m)+2(M-m)-(d/2) (D-d)/2 = 2*2m ; ( D d ) = L 0.35 L = 2m.


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TOLERANCES OF DIMENSIONS IN TWO PLATES FROM COMMON SURFACE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY Case I : Fastener having clearance in both plates

D Dia. of hole in Plates 1 & 2 ( M + m ) and ( M m ) - distance of holes d dia. of fastener

Applying the principle 0 = ( D/2 ) ( M + m ) + ( M - m ) + ( D/2 ) d Dd = 2m D d = L, L = 2m 0.5 L = m for complete interchangeability m 0.5 L
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TOLERANCES OF DIMENSIONS IN TWO PLATES FROM COMMON SURFACE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY Case II: Fastener having clearance in one plate and press fit in other plate

0=D/2-(M+m)+(Mm) (d/2) (Dd)/2=2m (Dd) = L L/2 =2m m = 0.25 L

For complete interchangeability m 0.25 L

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CALCULATION OF TOLERANCE FOR DISTANCE BETWEEN HOLES ON DRILL JIGS

Two holes are to be drilled and reamed at a distance W0 within the limits T0 , by using a jig plate with slip bushes as shown in Fig. W1 T1 be the distance between the liner bushes in jig plate.

L1, L2 = Clearance (around) between the slip bush and liner bush for the first and second holes respectively.
e1, e2 = eccentricity of inside diameter of slip bush with respect to its outside diameter for the two bushes respectively. 57 So that W0 = f (w1, L1, L2, e1, e2.).
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CONDITION 1: When the distance between liner bushes in the jig plate is at maximum distance (W1+T1) and slip bushes at far off position. O1, O2 are centers of the slip bushes which are eccentric with respect to their outside diameter of slip bushes by e1 and e2. OO1 = L1 + e1 OO2 = L2 + e2. This distance between holes on the component W 1 + T1 + OO1 + OO2 The sum of these distance should be less than the maximum distance given on the component. ( W1 + T1 + L1 + e1 + e2 ) W0 + T0.
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CONDITION 2: When the distance between liner bushes in jig plate is at minimum distance (W1-T1) and when slip bushes are also at minimum distance: O1, O2 are the centers of the slip bushes, which are eccentric with respect to outside by e1 and e2 respectively. OO1 = L1 + e1 OO2 = L2 + e2 The distance between the holes obtained on the component ( W1 + T1 ) = ( W1 - T1 ) - OO1 - OO2 = ( W1 - T1 ) - ( L1 + e1 ) - ( L2 + e2 ) = ( W1 - T1 - L1 - L2 - e1 - e2 ) The sum of these distances should be more than the minimum distance ( Wo - To ) given on the component ( W1 - T1 ) - L1 - L2 - e1 - e2 ( W o - To )

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EFFECT OF CLEARANCE BETWEEN THE DRILL AND THE SLIP BUSHES ON DISTANCE BETWEEN THE HOLES ON THE COMPONENT

Case I : The drill size is minimum , bushes and the drill are at far off position O1, O2 are the positions of the centres of the slip bush when the clearance between the drill and the slip bush are considered. With the effect of clearance between the drill and the slip bushes, the maximum extreme dimension obtained is as = W1 + T1 + L1 + L2 + e1 + e2 + OO1 + OO2 = W1 + T1 + L1 + L2 + e1 + e2 + ( d b + Tb ) - ( d - Td ) The sum of these distances should be less than or equal to Wo + To.
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CASE II: When drill size is minimum the bushes position is also at minimum distance , the drill is at minimum distance.
OO1 = OO2 = ( d b - Tb ) - ( d - Td ) 2 Actual distance between holes on component = W1 - T1 - L1 - L2 e1 - e2 - OO1 - OO2 = W1 - T1 - L1 - L2 - e1 - e2 - ( d b + Tb ) + ( d - Td ) This should be more than the minimum distance ( W0 - T0 ) given on component. W1 - T1 - L1 - L2 - e1 - e2 - ( d b + Tb ) - ( d - Td ) Final conditions are W1 + T1 + L1 + L2 + e1 + e2 + ( d b +Tb ) - ( d - Td ) ( W0 + T0 ) W1 - T1 - L1 - L2 - e1 e2 - ( d b + Tb ) + ( d - Td ) As per Indian standard the tolerance on drill is = h 9 > ( W0 - T0 ) > W0 - T0

The tolerance of the hole in slip bush is = F 7


The clearance between the liner bush and the slip bush is = F 7 / h 6 (If the liner bush is used for drilling also)
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