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TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS A topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using

contour lines and shows both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a combination of two line segments that connect but do not intersect; these represent elevation on a topographic map. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys and were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements. Topographic maps have multiple uses: Geographic planning, large-scale architecture, earth sciences and many other geographic disciplines, mining and other earth-based endeavours and recreational uses such as hiking etc. Survey of India, is Indias national survey and mapping organisation under the department of Science and Technology and was set up in 1767. The Survey of India, headquartered at Dehra Dun and has 18 civil engineering divisions and 23 Geo-spatial Data Centres spread across India. Survey of India publishes maps of two types (a)Defence Series Maps (DSMs)- These will be the topographical maps (on Everest/WGS-84 Datum and Polyconic/UTM Projection) on various scales (with heights, contours and full content without dilution of accuracy). security requirements. (b) Open Series Maps (OSMs) OSMs will be brought out exclusively by SOI, primarily for supporting development activities in the country. OSMs shall bear different map sheet numbers and will be in UTM Projection on WGS-84 datum. the restricted and unrestricted categories. The unrestricted category maps can be obtained at very reasonable prices from its several Geo-spatial data centres whereas the restricted category maps require due approval from These will mainly cater for defence and national

government authorities. Only an Indian citizen may purchase topographic maps and these cannot be exported from India for any reason. SoI map numbering system An International Series (within 4 N to 40 N Latitude and 44 E to 124 E Longitude) at the scale of 1: 1,000,000 is being considered as base map. The base map is divided into sections of 4 latitude x 4 longitude and designated from 1 (at the extreme north-west) to 136, covering only land areas and leaving any 4 square if it falls completely in the sea.

For Indian Topographic maps, each section is further divided into 16 sections (4 rows by 4 columns), each of 1 latitude x 1 longitude (1:250,000), starting from a letter A (North-West corner) and ending on P, column-wise. These degree sheets are designated by a number and an alphabet such as 53 C . Each sheet is divided into four parts (2 rows by 2 columns),, each of 30' latitude x 30' longitude (1:100,000) designating them by cardinal directions NW, NE, SW, and SE. Such sheets are identified as 53 M/SE Degree sheets have also been divided into 16 sheets (4 rows by 4 columns), each 15' latitude x 15' longitude (1:50,000) and numbered from 1 (at the north-west corner of the particular degree sheet) to 16 columnwise and are identified as 53 B/3. Each 1:50,000 scale sheet contains four (2 rows by 2 columns) 1:25,000 sheet ( 7' 1/2 latitude x 7' 1/2 longitude ) which are numbered NW, NE, SW, and SE. Such sheets are identified as 53 O/14/NE

GEOLOGIC MAP A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to

show geological features. Rock units or geologic strata are shown by colour or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. Bedding planes and structural features such as faults, folds, foliations, and lineaments are shown with strike and dip or trend and plunge symbols which give these features' three-dimensional orientations. The geology of an area has a profound effect on many things, from the likelihood of landslides, to the availability of groundwater in wells, from the amount of shaking suffered in an earthquake, to the presence of desirable minerals, from the way the landscape is shaped to the kinds of plants that grow best there Geological Survey of India (GSI), established in 1851 is a government organization in India which is an attached office to the Ministry of Mines of Union Government of India for conducting geological surveys and studies. Geologic maps are uniquely suited to solving problems involving Earth resources, hazards, and environments. Geologic maps represent the distribution of different types of rock and surficial deposits, as well as locations of geologic structures such as faults and folds

Environmental-Geologic Map Environmental Geologic maps relates to various environmental problems, geologic characteristics and natural disasters across the country. Environmental problems include man-made as well as natural like climate change issues. Natural hazards include natural as well as geo-hazards like earthquakes, landslides, floods, water logging, river bank erosion, etc. To identify the hazards and related environmental impacts mostly related to geological processes especially in urban and industrial areas of the country is the key priority. Besides, it also deciphers different geological and geotechnical causes for hazards like tilting, collapse, subsidence or collapse of infrastructures of fast growing cities which directly or indirectly damages the environment. It helps: 1. To prepare Environmental geological and natural hazards maps of different cities, proposed growth centres and areas of special interest and identify vulnerable areas to different types of natural disasters. 2. To survey the areas affected by different types of natural hazards like flood, landslide, riverbank erosion, etc and identify the geological and geotechnical causes. 3. To prepare earthquake and tsunami vulnerability map of different parts of the region. 4. To survey and identify the causes of damages and collapse of infrastructures like buildings, bridges, roads, embankments, etc due to geotechnical problems. 5. To provide proper support, suggestion and advice to the people and the government in geotechnical aspect for construction of infrastructures.